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范文一:科技英语文章 投稿:邓竂竃

探索发现:科学家发现奇特系外

An exoplanet, called WASP-12b which is about 1,200 light years from Earth and 1.4 times the mass of Jupiter has been considered suitable for life existence, although a little hot. And its sibling planets could even be made of diamonds, according to new research findings.

最新研究结果显示,一颗名为WASP-12b、距离地球1200光年、质量为木星1.4倍的系外行星适合生命存在,尽管热了一点。而与其同属一个星系的情况更甚:它们有可能由钻石构成。

A team led by researcher Nikku Madhusudhan of Princeton University and scientist Joe Harrington of the University of Central Florida monitor WASP-12b during one of its orbits, particularly in the instants before it passed behind its home star. In those brief moments, the light from the star would flow through the planet's atmosphere, allowing astronomers to study the wavelengths produced and infer the atmosphere's chemical composition.

由美国普林斯顿大学的研究员尼库 马杜苏丹和佛罗里达中部大学的科学家乔 哈林顿领导的一个研究小组检测WASP-12b的一次绕轨运行情况,特别是在它从其母恒星后面经过的那一刻。在这一刹那,恒星发出的光会穿透行星的大气,天文学家得以研究产生的波长,并推断行星大气的化学成分。

They found some exoplanets, WASP-12b included, have carbon-rich

chemistry: Some have atmospheres with a carbon-to-oxygen ratio of about 0.5. As for WASP-12b, however, there was more than twice the concentration of carbon as usual and almost 100 times more methane than expected.

他们发现,一些包括WASP-12b在内的系外行星具有碳浓度高的化学特性,即它们大气中的碳氧比率约为0.5。不过,WASP-12b的碳浓度要比通常情况高出一倍多,而且甲烷的浓度几乎是预计的100倍。

That has big implications for extraterrestrial biology, since life is based on carbon, and methane - which is made up of carbon and hydrogen - is a

byproduct of metabolism. The planet's carbon-heavy atmosphere could retain heat and light, providing energy for life to get started and thrive. That life would have to survive on comparatively little oxygen and water, and would have to be very tolerant of methane.

这对于地外生命学来说意义重大。因为生命建立在碳的基础上,而由碳和氢构成的甲烷是新陈代谢的副产品。大气中高浓度的碳可以留住光和热,为生命的出现和茁壮成长提供能量。这些生命要再氧气和水相对较少的环境下生存,而且要能够忍受甲烷。

As for some of the planets formed along with WASP-12b, they could easily be smaller, with rocky formations made not of silica, like Earth's, but of graphite or - given enough time and enough pressure - precious diamonds.

而和WASP-12b一起形成的另外一些行星很可能体积更小,岩层不像地球那样由硅石构成,而是由石墨或者——如果有充足的时间和压力——钻石这样的珍贵材料构成。

姓名:李荣

学号:1003280127

文章出处:http://www.kekenet.com/read/201012/120651_2.shtml

范文二:科技英语文章 投稿:孟懰懱

科技英语文章

Arctic Melt

Earth's North and South Poles are famous for being cold and icy. Last year, however, the amount of ice in the Arctic Ocean fell to a record low1.

Normally, ice builds in Arctic waters around the North Pole each winter and shrinks during the summer. But for many years, the amount of ice left by the end of summer has been declining.

Since 1979, each decade has seen an 11.4 percent drop in end-of-summer ice cover2. Between 1981 and 2000, ice in the Arctic lost 22 percent of its thickness -- becoming 1.13 meters thinner.

Last summer, Arctic sea ice reached its skimpiest levels yet. By the end of summer 2007, the ice had shrunk to cover just 4.2 million square kilometers. That's 38 percent less area than the average cover at that time of year. Andit's a very large 23 percent below the previous record low, which was set just 2 years ago. This continuing trend has scientists concerned There may be several reasons for the ice melt, says Jinlun Zhang, an oceanographer at the University of Washington3 in Seattle. Unusually strong winds blew through the Arctic last summer. The winds pushed much of the ice out of the central Arctic, leaving a large area of thin ice and open water4.

Scientists also suspect that fewer clouds cover the Arctic now than in the past. Clearer skies allow more sunlight to reach the ocean. The extra heat warms both the water and the atmosphere. In parts of the Arctic Ocean last year, surface temperatures were 3.5℃Celsius warmer than average and 1.5℃ warmer than the previous record high5.

With both air and water getting warmer, the ice is melting from both above and below. In some parts of the Beaufort Sea6, north of Alaska and western Canada, ice that measured

3.3m thick at the beginning of the summer measured just 50 centimeters by season's end. The new measurements suggest that melting is far more severe than scientists have seen by just looking at ice cover from above, says Donald K. Perovich, a geophysicist at the U. S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory in Hanover, N.H.7

Some scientists fear that the Arctic is stuck in a warming trend from which it may never recover.

练习:

1. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word

A) Construct. B) Extend. C) Create. D) Expand.

2. What is the ice cover in the Arctic by the end of 2007 summer?

A) 4.2 million square kilometers. B) 11.4 million square kilometers. C) 1.13 million square kilometers. D) 38 million square kilometers.

3. What are the reasons for the ice melt according to the scientists?

A) Strong winds and clear skies. B) Long summer and short winter.

C) Open water and thin ice. D) Light clouds and light winds.

4. Why is the ice melting from both above and below?

A) Because extra heat warms the air.

B) Because extra heat warms the water.

C) Because the temperature above the water is higher.

D) Both A and B.

5. What can be a possible title for the passage?

A) What are scientists looking for in the Arctic Ocean?

B) What are scientists doing in the Arctic Ocean?

C) Why are scientists worrying about the Arctic Ocean?

D) Why are scientists interested in the Arctic Ocean?

Experts Call for Local and Regional Control of Sites for Radioactive Waste

The withdrawal of Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a potential nuclear waste repository1 has reopened the debate over how and where to dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. In an article in the July 10 issue of Science, University of Michigan2 geologist Rodney Ewing and Princeton University3 nuclear physicist Frank von Hippel argue that, although federal agencies should set standards and issue licenses for the approval of nuclear facilities, local communities and states should have the final approval on the siting of these facilities. The authors propose the development of multiple sites that would service the regions where nuclear reactors are located.

Ewing and yon Hippel also analyze the reasons why Yucca Mountain, selected by Congress4 in 1987 as the only site to be investigated for long-term nuclear waste disposal, finally was shelved5 after more than three decades of often controversial debate. The reasons include the site's geological problems, management problems, important changes in the Environmental Protection Agency's standard, unreliable funding and the failure to involve local communities in the decision-making process.

Going forward, efforts should be directed at locating storage facilities in the nation's northeastern, southeastern, midwestern and western regions, and states within a given region should be responsible for developing solutions that suit their particular circumstances. Transportation of nuclear waste over long distances, which was a concern with the Yucca Mountain site, would be less of a problem because temporary storage or geological disposal sites could be located closer to reactors.

词汇:

radioactive adj.放射性的 shelve v.搁置 repository n.储藏地,储藏室 controversial adj.有争议的

geologist n.地质学家 reactor n.反应堆,反应器 geological adj.地质的

注释:

1. The withdrawal of Nevada's Yucca Mountain as a potential nuclear waste repository: Nevada's Yucca Mountain:美国境内的内华达州尤卡山。nuclear waste repository:核废物处理库。美国能源部部长朱棣文 2009 年 3 月 5 日表示,拟在内华 达州尤卡山建设的核废物最终处理库将不再是美国储存高放废物的一个选项。

2. University of Michigan:美国密歇根大学,建于 1817 年。

3. Princeton University:美国普林斯顿大学,建于 1746 年。

4. Congress: 美国国会,美国最高立法机关,由参议院(Senate)和众议院(House of Representatives)组成。

5. „was shelved:......被束之高阁。

6. spent nuclear fuel:也叫做 used nuclear fuel,一般译为“乏核燃料”。

7. high-level nuclear waste:高(强度)放(射性)核废物。

8. geological repositories in a variety of rock types:各种不同岩层中的地质处置 库。geological repositories 指的是地表以下 300~1500 米的稳定的地质体中建造的 用于最终处置高放废物和乏核燃料的工程设施。处置库是一个多重屏障系统,工程屏障 由废物体、废物罐、外包装和缓冲回填材料组成,而天然屏障则是能有效阻滞放射性核 素迁移的地质体,包括花岗岩、粘土岩、凝灰岩和岩盐等。许多专家认为地质处置是安 全的,技术上是可行的,对环境是无害的。 练习:

1. Which of the following words can best substitute the word

A Retirement. B Canceling. C Replaced. D Disposal.

2. According to Rodney Ewing and Frand von Hippel, where to locate nuclear facilities

A should be approved by the federal government.

B should be approved by local people and states. C should be approved by Congress.

D is not an important issue.

3. What is NOT true about the 1987 decision by Congress concerning siting of nuclear waste disposal?

A Yucca Mountain was selected as the only site for a nuclear waste repository.

B The selection of Yucca Mountain for nuclear waste disposal caused much controversy.

C The decision by Congress was put aside due to a number of problems. D The decision by Congress was accepted by local communities.

4. What does the author of the essay in the fourth paragraph want to say?

A Efforts should be made to solve the problems of transportation of nuclear waste over long distance.

B Efforts should be made to develop as many nuclear disposal sites in the US as possible.

C Efforts should be made to develop nuclear disposal sites to suit the circumstances of the region.

D Efforts should be made to build up temporary nuclear disposal sites as possible.

5. What is meant by

A Waste disposal sites are located close to reactors and in places suitable for the regional circumstances.

B Geological repositories are located in a variety of rock types.

C Spent nuclear fuel and high –level nuclear waste is moved to developing countries.

D Waste disposal sites are located far away from reactors.

范文三:一篇关于it的英语科技文章 投稿:蔡芙芚

一篇关于it的英语科技文章

Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is "the study, design, development,

implementation, support or management of computer-based information

systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware." IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information.

Today, the term information has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term has become very recognizable. IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases. A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management,

networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems. Information technology is starting to spread farther than the conventional personal computer and network technology, and more into integrations of other

technologies such as the use of cell phones, televisions, automobiles, and more, which is increasing the demand for such jobs.

When computer and communications technologies are combined, the result is information technology, or "info-tech". Information technology is a general term that describes any technology that helps to produce, manipulate, store, communicate, and/or disseminate information

范文四:读英语科技文章的技能和技巧 投稿:曹洙洚

讀英語科技文章的技能和技巧

當代科學技術發展迅速,每天有大量的英語科技文章、新聞及其他科技資料發表在各類報刊和網絡上,要想把這些英語科技文獻資料都及時翻譯成中文是不可能的。如果想要及時掌握最新的科技信息,把握住現代科技發展的脈搏,最好的解決辦法是自己直接閱讀英語文獻資料,獲得第一手信息。只要有較好英語的基礎,再掌握英語閱讀的技巧,做到這一點並非很難。

閱讀技能是學習任何語言的基本技能之一。語言技能有四種,即聽、說、讀和寫,其中說和寫的技能屬於主動性技能,比較難掌握,而聽和讀的技能屬於被動性技能,比較容易掌握。閱讀技能相對來講是最容易掌握的技能。為什麼閱讀技能會比較容易掌握,因為人們在閱讀時,可以自己控制閱讀速度,可以查閱字典,壓力較少,因此比較容易達到人們的閱讀目的。本文將以一些閱讀實例,來討論英語閱讀技能和技巧,及其掌握學習的方法。

英語語言教學和研究人員對英語閱讀技能和技巧的分類有所不同,但基本上可分為四種。第一種是精讀(intensive reading skill);第二種是泛讀(extensive reading skill);第三種是略讀(skimming reading skill);第四種是掠讀(scanning reading skill);每種閱讀技能和技巧都有其特點和要求,下面分別對這四種閱讀技能和技巧做一些介紹。

精讀技能

精讀(Intensive Reading)在四種閱讀技能和技巧中要求最高,對所閱讀的文章,要做到逐字細讀,不但要了解文章的主題思想和內容,了解文章的文法結構,而且要掌握每個字詞的意義和用法,必要時還需要把文章翻譯成中文。精讀閱讀技能是學習和研究英語的人或從事翻譯人員必需要掌握的技能,但對只需要查閱英語科技文獻和信息的科技工作者,在多數情況下不需要使用精讀技能。運用精讀技能,不是看文章的長短,而在於是否需要對所閱讀的英語資料文章做深度了解和研究。

下面以一則英語新聞為例,來簡要說明通過精讀,要到達什麼樣的標準?

英語原文:(此文摘自2000年3月25日美國加利福尼亞州矽谷地區一份非常具有權威性的,以科技消息為主的報紙《聖荷西水星報(San Jose Mercury News)》商業版C1科技新聞部分)

IBM Developing chips for TV set-top boxes Computer giant IBM said Friday it is developing chips for televison set-top boxes that will transform TV sets into interactive, two-way information appliances. By Computing PowerPC processors and television set-top box components into a single "system-on-a-chip," the Armonk, N.Y., company aims toimprove system performance and lower prices. "The PowerPc is an ideal chip because it has a good radio of power consumption, performance and low cost,”said Tom Haffhil, an analyst for MicroDesign Resource.

分析:本文是一則新聞,報導美國IBM公司研發新產品的消息,其標題是IBM Developing chips for TV set-top boxes,意為“IBM公司研發電視機頂盒晶片”

這篇短文共有81個字,三個句子,二個複合句,其中有一個是直接引語,還有一簡單句。

第一句:" Computer giant IBM saidFriday it is developing chipsfor televison set-top boxes that will transform TV sets into interactive, two-way information appliances. "這是一個複合句,主句含賓語從句“said:

"Friday it is...... information appliance.",賓語從句中含有定語從句“that will transform TV sets into interactive, two-way information appliances"修飾詞組“televsion set-top boxes"。

第二句:“By Computing PowerPC processors and television set-top box components into asingle "system-on-a-chip," the Armonk, N.Y., company aims to improve system performance and lower prices." 這是一個簡單句,主語是"the Armonk, N.Y., company",謂語動詞是"aims",“to improve......"是不定式短語,作為目的狀語,說明"aims"目的是什麼。"By Computing PowerPC....."是介詞By引導的短語,也是狀語,表示“aims"的手段。

第三句:"The PowerPc is an ideal chip because it has a good radio of power consumption, performance and low cost,” said Tom Haffhil, an analyst for MicroDesign Resource."這是一個有直接引語的複合句,引號內為直接引語,它是一個複合句,其中"The PowerPc is an ideal chip"是主句,"because it has......"是原因狀語,修飾主句。Tom Haffhil是主句的主語,an analyst for MicroDesign Resource是同位語,修飾主語Tom Haffhil的身份,said是主句謂語動詞。

只有在了解了句子結構後,才能準確理解文章內容。除此之外,還要對文章的詞匯含義,時態等做分析。到此,只是按精讀的要求,做了很少的一部分分析,還有許多細節要討論。由於文章篇幅限制,就不再做更進一步的分析了。精讀技能不是一朝夕就能學會的,它需要有比較全面的英語知識,需要通過大量的閱讀訓練才能掌握好。

另外三種閱讀技能和技巧,對需要及時了解大量英語科技信息的人們,更為實用,使用頻率高,也比較容易掌握。熟練掌握了這三種英語閱讀技能和技巧,對提高精讀技能水平很有幫助。

泛讀技能

泛讀(Extensive Reading)顧名思義可以知道它是要廣泛的閱讀,通過閱讀大量英語文章,來提高英語語感和擴大知識面。泛讀沒有什麼特別要求,關鍵在於一個量。如果能堅持

經常閱讀一定數量的英語文章,每周閱讀二至三篇文章即可。英語文章長度可長可短,因人而異。科技人員工作忙,時間少,開始做泛讀練習時,可以從500字開始,以後逐漸增加長度,一般控制在2000至3000字左右為宜。如果能堅持下去,一年以後,英語水平一定會有很大提高,到那時自己可以感覺出來這種變化。

有一點要注意的是,選擇泛讀文章題材要盡量多樣化,這樣才能保証知識和詞匯涵蓋面。如果時間有限,當然也可以只選擇與自己專業相關題材的文章。盡量選擇一些自己感興趣的文章,是一個能保証泛讀訓練持久的好辦法。

在做泛讀練習時,要求雖然不像精讀那樣嚴格,但是必須要從頭到尾把文章讀完,對文章的關鍵詞語和句子要有所理解。為了達到這樣的要求,最好根據文章的內容或特點,事先提出一些問題,在閱讀之後,回答這些問題,以鞏固閱讀效果。下面一些問題可以作為泛讀練習提問的內容參考。

1. What is main theme of the article? 文章的主題思想是什麼?

2. How many paragraphs does this article have? 此文有幾個段落?

3. What is the topic sentence

of each paragraph? 每段的主題句是什麼?

4. Pick up the sentences you are most interested and analyze them. 挑選出你最感興趣的句子,並做分析。

5. List the important and useful words and phrases.記錄下重要的和有用的單詞和短語。

除了上面這些問題外,讀者也可以加上自己想要回答的問題。初級英語讀者可以先用中文提問題,隨著水平的提高,逐步直接用英語提問題。

略讀技巧

略讀(Skimming)是一種快速閱讀技巧,在查詢大量英語文獻時非常有用。略讀是快速閱讀文章,目的是了解文章主題思想。略讀時不需要逐字去讀,而是尋找文章內關鍵詞語,主題句,從而了解文章的主題思想。在這個基礎上,決定是否選取此資料,是否需要進一步精讀。現在以下面的短文為例,說明如何運用略讀技技巧,找出此文的主題思想。

In Praise of New York City (Excerpt)It might appear to any casual visitor who may have taken a few rides about town in a taxicab that all New Yorkers are filled with aloudmouthed ill will toward each other. The fact of the matter is, though, that however cold and cruel thingsseem on the surface, there has never been a society of people in all history with somuch compassions for its fellow man. It clothes, feeds, and houses 15 percent of its own because 1.26 million people in New York are unable to do it for themselves. Your couldn't call that cold or cruel.

Everyone must have seen pictures at least of the great numberof poor people who live in New York. And it seems strange, in view of this, that so many people

come here seeking their fortune or maybe someone else's. But if anything aboutthe city's population is moreis more impressive than the great number of poor people. There's no need to search forburied treasure in New York. The great American dream is out in the open for everyone to see and to reach for. No one seems to resent the very rich. It must be because eventhose people who can never realistically believe. They'll get rich themselves can still dream about it. Andthey respond to the hope of getting what they see others having. Their hope alone seems to be enough to sustainthem. The woman going into Tiffany's to buy another diamond pin can pass within ten feet of a man without money enough for lunch. They are oblivious to each other. He feels no envy; she no remorse.

There's a disregard for the past in New York that dismayseven a lot of New Yorkers. Itis true that no one pays muchattention to antiquity. The immigrants who came here camefor something new, and what New York used to be means nothing to them. Their heritage is somewhere else.

Old million-dollar buildings are constantly being torn down and replaced by new fifty-million-dollar ones. InLondon, Rome, Paris, much of the land has only been built on once in all their long history. In relatively new New York, some lots have already been built on four times.

Because strangers only see New Yorkers in transit, they leave with the impression that the city is one grealy mindless rush to nowhere. They complain that it's moving too fast, but they don't notice that it's getting there first. For better and for worse, New York has been where the rest of the country is going.

這篇短文約500字。用略讀技巧,應該在2-3分鐘內讀完全文。文中用彩色斜體字,是閱讀時應該注意句子或詞語。此文主題是介紹紐約市及人們對紐約市的正反兩個方面的看法(This article is about New York City and both positive and negative impressions on New York from the people.)。了解短文的主題,就等於有一條線索,幫助讀者更好的理解文章。略讀是在大量英語文獻中,查找和選擇所需要的資料時,非常有用的閱讀技巧。

掠讀技巧

掠讀(Scanning)也是一種快速閱讀技巧,與略讀不同的是,它用來查詢文章中的特定信息。人們在日常生活和工作時,都在自覺或不自覺地在使用掠讀技巧。例如,看飛機時刻表,查找特定的航班時間;查字典時,查閱所需要的詞匯;看文章時,查找特定的信息;看報紙廣告時,查找所需要的廣告信息等等。下面是一

組找工作的英文廣告,使用掠讀的辦法快速找出有幾個廣告是關於電腦程序員(Programmer)工作。

掠讀時,是找特定信息,所以只需要查看有programmer一詞的廣告,其他完全不需要看,下面的一組廣告應該在不到一分鐘就讀完,迅速找到所有programmer的廣告。

查找結果,一共有五則廣告,畫有紅圈的即是相關廣告。

略讀和掠讀技巧對閱讀的速度是有要求的,要越快越好。在訓練這兩種閱讀技能時,最好用表來記時,來督促自己,不斷提高閱讀速度。

在了解英語四種基本閱讀技能和技巧後,就是要通過練習,熟練掌握這些閱讀技能。掌握了這些閱讀技能後,等於有了得力助手,就可在浩如煙海的英語文獻海洋中,遂心暢游,迅速查到自己所需要的資料。

范文五:[英语]读科技文章的技巧 投稿:蔡遅遆

[英语]读科技文章的技巧

當代科學技術發展迅速,每天有大量的英語科技文章、新聞及其他科技資料發表在各類報刊和網絡上,要想把這些英語科技文獻資料都及時翻譯成中文是不可能的。如果想要及時掌握最新的科技信息,把握住現代科技發展的脈搏,最好的解決辦法是自己直接閱讀英語文獻資料,獲得第一手信息。只要有較好英語的基礎,再掌握英語閱讀的技巧,做到這一點並非很難。

閱讀技能是學習任何語言的基本技能之一。語言技能有四種,即聽、說、讀和寫,其中說和寫的技能屬於主動性技能,比較難掌握,而聽和讀的技能屬於被動性技能,比較容易掌握。閱讀技能相對來講是最容易掌握的技能。為什麼閱讀技能會比較容易掌握,因為人們在閱讀時,可以自己控制閱讀速度,可以查閱字典,壓力較少,因此比較容易達到人們的閱讀目的。本文將以一些閱讀實例,來討論英語閱讀技能和技巧,及其掌握學習的方法。

英語語言教學和研究人員對英語閱讀技能和技巧的分類有所不同,但基本上可分為四種。第一種是精讀(intensive reading skill);第二種是泛讀(extensive reading skill);第三種是略讀(skimming reading skill);第四種是掠讀(scanning reading skill);每種閱讀技能和技巧都有其特點和要求,下面分別對這四種閱讀技能和技巧做一些介紹。

精讀技能

精讀(Intensive Reading)在四種閱讀技能和技巧中要求最高,對所閱讀的文章,要做到逐字細讀,不但要了解文章的主題思想和內容,了解文章的文法結構,而且要掌握每個字詞的意義和用法,必要時還需要把文章翻譯成中文。精讀閱讀技能是學習和研究英語的人或從事翻譯人員必需要掌握的技能,但對只需要查閱英語科技文獻和信息的科技工作者,在多數情況下不需要使用精讀技能。運用精讀技能,不是看文章的長短,而在於是否需要對所閱讀的英語資料文章做深度了解和研究。

下面以一則英語新聞為例,來簡要說明通過精讀,要到達什麼樣的標準?

英語原文:(此文摘自2000年3月25日美國加利福尼亞州矽谷地區一份非常具有權威性的,以科技消息為主的報紙《聖荷西水星報(San Jose Mercury News)》商業版C1科技新聞部分)

IBM Developing chips for TV set-top boxes Computer giant IBM said Friday it is developing chips for televison set-top boxes that will transform TV sets into interactive, two-way information appliances. By Computing PowerPC processors and television set-top box components into a single "system-on-a-chip," the Armonk, N.Y., company aims toimprove system performance and lower prices. "The PowerPc is an ideal chip because it

has a good radio of power consumption, performance and low cost,”said Tom Haffhil, an analyst for MicroDesign Resource.

分析:本文是一則新聞,報導美國IBM公司研發新產品的消息,其標題是IBM Developing chips for TV set-top boxes,意為“IBM公司研發電視機頂盒晶片”

這篇短文共有81個字,三個句子,二個複合句,其中有一個是直接引語,還有一簡單句。

第一句:" Computer giant IBM saidFriday it is developing chipsfor televison set-top boxes that will transform TV sets into interactive, two-way information appliances. "這是一個複合句,主句含賓語從句“said: "Friday it is...... information appliance.",賓語從句中含有定語從句“that will transform TV sets into interactive, two-way information appliances"修飾詞組“televsion set-top boxes"。

第二句:“By Computing PowerPC processors and television set-top box components into asingle "system-on-a-chip," the Armonk, N.Y., company aims to improve system performance and lower prices." 這是一個簡單句,主語是"the Armonk, N.Y., company",謂語動詞是"aims",“to improve......"是不定式短語,作為目的狀語,說明"aims"目的是什麼。"By Computing PowerPC....."是介詞By引導的短語,也是狀語,表示“aims"的手段。

第三句:"The PowerPc is an ideal chip because it has a good radio of power consumption, performance and low cost,” said Tom Haffhil, an analyst for MicroDesign Resource."這是一個有直接引語的複合句,引號內為直接引語,它是一個複合句,其中"The PowerPc is an ideal chip"是主句,"because it has......"是原因狀語,修飾主句。Tom Haffhil是主句的主語,an analyst for MicroDesign Resource是同位語,修飾主語Tom Haffhil的身份,said是主句謂語動詞。

只有在了解了句子結構後,才能準確理解文章內容。除此之外,還要對文章的詞匯含義,時態等做分析。到此,只是按精讀的要求,做了很少的一部分分析,還有許多細節要討論。由於文章篇幅限制,就不再做更進一步的分析了。精讀技能不是一朝夕就能學會的,它需要有比較全面的英語知識,需要通過大量的閱讀訓練才能掌握好。

另外三種閱讀技能和技巧,對需要及時了解大量英語科技信息的人們,更為實用,使用頻率高,也比較容易掌握。熟練掌握了這三種英語閱讀技能和技巧,對提高精讀技能水平很有幫助。

泛讀技能

泛讀(Extensive Reading)顧名思義可以知道它是要廣泛的閱讀,通過閱讀大量英語文章,來提高英語語感和擴大知識面。泛讀沒有什麼特別要求,關鍵在於一個量。如果能堅持

經常閱讀一定數量的英語文章,每周閱讀二至三篇文章即可。英語文章長度可長可短,因人而異。科技人員工作忙,時間少,開始做泛讀練習時,可以從500字開始,以後逐漸增加長度,一般控制在2000至3000字左右為宜。如果能堅持下去,一年以後,英語水平一定會有很大提高,到那時自己可以感覺出來這種變化。

有一點要注意的是,選擇泛讀文章題材要盡量多樣化,這樣才能保証知識和詞匯涵蓋面。如果時間有限,當然也可以只選擇與自己專業相關題材的文章。盡量選擇一些自己感興趣的文章,是一個能保証泛讀訓練持久的好辦法。

在做泛讀練習時,要求雖然不像精讀那樣嚴格,但是必須要從頭到尾把文章讀完,對文章的關鍵詞語和句子要有所理解。為了達到這樣的要求,最好根據文章的內容或特點,事先提出一些問題,在閱讀之後,回答這些問題,以鞏固閱讀效果。下面一些問題可以作為泛讀練習提問的內容參考。

1. What is main theme of the article? 文章的主題思想是什麼?

2. How many paragraphs does this article have? 此文有幾個段落?

3. What is the topic sentence

of each paragraph? 每段的主題句是什麼?

4. Pick up the sentences you are most interested and analyze them. 挑選出你最感興趣的句子,並做分析。

5. List the important and useful words and phrases.記錄下重要的和有用的單詞和短語。

除了上面這些問題外,讀者也可以加上自己想要回答的問題。初級英語讀者可以先用中文提問題,隨著水平的提高,逐步直接用英語提問題。

略讀技巧

略讀(Skimming)是一種快速閱讀技巧,在查詢大量英語文獻時非常有用。略讀是快速閱讀文章,目的是了解文章主題思想。略讀時不需要逐字去讀,而是尋找文章內關鍵詞語,主題句,從而了解文章的主題思想。在這個基礎上,決定是否選

取此資料,是否需要進一步精讀。現在以下面的短文為例,說明如何運用略讀技技巧,找出

此文的主題思想。

In Praise of New York City (Excerpt)It might appear to any casual visitor who may have taken a few rides about town in a taxicab that all New Yorkers are filled with aloudmouthed ill will toward each other. The fact of the matter is, though, that however cold and cruel thingsseem on the surface, there has never been a society of people in all history with somuch compassions for its fellow man. It clothes, feeds, and houses 15 percent of its own because 1.26 million people in New York are unable to do it for themselves. Your couldn't call that cold or cruel.

Everyone must have seen pictures at least of the great numberof poor people who live in New York. And it seems strange, in view of this, that so many people

come here seeking their fortune or maybe someone else's. But if anything aboutthe city's population is moreis more impressive than the great number of poor people. There's no need to search forburied treasure in New York. The great American dream is out in the open for everyone to see and to reach for. No one seems to resent the very rich. It must be because eventhose people who can never realistically believe. They'll get rich themselves can still dream about it. Andthey respond to the hope of getting what they see others having. Their hope alone seems to be enough to sustainthem. The woman going into Tiffany's to buy another diamond pin can pass within ten feet of a man without money enough for lunch. They are oblivious to each other. He feels no envy; she no remorse.

There's a disregard for the past in New York that dismayseven a lot of New Yorkers. Itis true that no one pays muchattention to antiquity. The immigrants who came here camefor something new, and what New York used to be means nothing to them. Their heritage is somewhere else.

Old million-dollar buildings are constantly being torn down and replaced by new fifty-million-dollar ones. InLondon, Rome, Paris, much of the land has only been built on once in all their long history. In relatively new New York, some lots have already been built on four times.

Because strangers only see New Yorkers in transit, they leave with the impression that the city is one grealy mindless rush to nowhere. They complain that it's moving too fast, but they don't notice that it's getting there first. For better and for worse, New York has been where the rest of the country is going.

這篇短文約500字。用略讀技巧,應該在2-3分鐘內讀完全文。文中用彩色斜體字,是閱讀時應該注意句子或詞語。此文主題是介紹紐約市及人們對紐約市的正反兩個方面的看法

(This article is about New York City and both positive and negative impressions on New York from the people.)。了解短文的主題,就等於有一條線索,幫助讀者更好的理解文章。略讀是在大量英語文獻中,查找和選擇所需要的資料時,非常有用的閱讀技巧。

掠讀技巧

掠讀(Scanning)也是一種快速閱讀技巧,與略讀不同的是,它用來查詢文章中的特定信息。人們在日常生活和工作時,都在自覺或不自覺地在使用掠讀技巧。例如,看飛機時刻表,查找特定的航班時間;查字典時,查閱所需要的詞匯;看文章時,查找特定的信息;看報紙廣告時,查找所需要的廣告信息等等。下面是一

組找工作的英文廣告,使用掠讀的辦法快速找出有幾個廣告是關於電腦程序員(Programmer)工作。

掠讀時,是找特定信息,所以只需要查看有programmer一詞的廣告,其他完全不需要看,下面的一組廣告應該在不到一分鐘就讀完,迅速找到所有programmer的廣告。

查找結果,一共有五則廣告,畫有紅圈的即是相關廣告。

略讀和掠讀技巧對閱讀的速度是有要求的,要越快越好。在訓練這兩種閱讀技能時,最好用表來記時,來督促自己,不斷提高閱讀速度。

在了解英語四種基本閱讀技能和技巧後,就是要通過練習,熟練掌握這些閱讀技能。掌握了這些閱讀技能後,等於有了得力助手,就可在浩如煙海的英語文獻海洋中,遂心暢游,迅速查到自己所需要的資料。

范文六:英语文章:科学和技术的不同 投稿:丁众优

Science is knowing, technology is doing.

Science can broadly be defined as the study of "things" such as:

Chemistry, Biology, Physics, Genetics, Geology, Psychology, Sociology, and other fields of study that analyze interactions, behaviors, physical properties, effects, causes, etc. in order to rationalize or establish given properties, behaviors and interactions about such "things". The basis of Science is the conducting of experiments. Basically, a theory is made (stated), analysis and testing are performed with the use of various controls, and when a specific, measurable result occurs, and can be reproduced or proven time and time again, the theory then becomes Scientific law, or a truism of sorts.

Technology, refers generally to items of use, created from "Applied

Science". A good example of this is the production of Solar panels. Solar Panels are used in a variety of different technologies, but the simplest example is a Solar Powered Calculator. It was proposed long ago that the Sun emits 2 types of energy, heat energy and light energy. The Sun's heat energy is what warms the Earth's atmosphere so that life as we know it can exist, by warming the atmosphere to a tolerable temperature that the Human Body can function in. (Space is somewhere around -230 degrees Fahrenheit, and at those temperatures, plants could not grow, and the Human body would not be able to carry on normal functions such as breathing in that cold of temperature.) The sun's light energy is absorbed

by Solar Panels (and Solar Cells), and converts that energy to electricity so that the calculator can perform mathematical functions. To test this, put a piece of electrical tape over your calculator for 15 minutes, and then see if you can turn it on. If you can't then you know the light energy is being converted to electricity.

In brief: Science is the study of forces and interactions between different "things", both animate and inanimate. Technology can be referred to as things which we make, but were developed by applying Scientific law, knowing what such "things" are capable of doing.

范文七:科技英语文章翻译 投稿:潘蓲蓳

科技英语文章翻译

任何作品均有特定的文体,原文的文体不同,翻译方法也随之而异。试观察下列几个片断的原文及其译文。

“听说有个很好的工作要你去干。”

“挺好的工作。”

“打算干吗?”

“不。”

“为什么不干?”

“不想干。”

这是小说中的一段对说,属于口语文体。其特点是:用词自由,句法结构简单,短句与省略句多,自然朴素,生活气息浓厚。在译文中进一步体现汉语口语的特点,省去主语“你”、“我”;将英语的一个句子I don't think so。干脆译成一个字“不”,显得简洁有力。

She was of a helpless, fleshy build, with a frank, open countenance and an innocent, diffident manner. Her eyes were large and patient, and in them dwelt such a shadow of distress as only those who have looked

sympathetically into the countenances of the distraught and helpless poor know anything about.

那妇人生着一副绵软多肉的体格,一张坦率开诚的面容,一种天真羞怯的神气。一双大落落的柔顺眼睛,里边隐藏着无穷的心事,只有那些对于凄惶无告的穷苦人面目作过同情观察的人才看得出来。上面五十一个词的片断,就运用了十个形容词,占五分之一。and in then dwelt such a shadow of distress是非常优美生动的文学语言,译文保持了一风格。

Johns accomplished a spectacular debut for his NHL career tonight, the first score launching a four -point first period out burst,to lead the Johnson City High Hats to a 6:4 victory over the Montreal Teals and their eighth consecutive game without a loss.

在全国手球联赛中克拉克约翰斯今晚初试锋芒,引起轰动。上半场领先四分,首开记录。克拉克发挥中坚作用,约翰逊市高帽队终以6:4击败蒙特利尔市小鸭队,创造了连胜八场未负一场的战绩。

这是属于应用文的新闻文体,其特点是简明扼要,短小精悍,结构紧凑,笔锋犀利。上述这则电讯只有一个句子,却把一场球赛描绘得淋漓尽致,富于吸引力。

The range of a voltmeter may be extended by means of a series resistor called a multiplier as shown in Fig.2.The fullscale reading of the meter alone may be 15volts.With the multiplier 250volts may be required to move the pointer to full-scale, 135 volts across the multiplier and 15volts across the meter.

从上述的一段科技文章,不难看出其文体与修辞手段与前面列举的文艺小说,新闻报道等迥然不同。科技文体崇尚严谨周密,概念准确,逻辑性强,行文简练,重点突出,句式严整,少有变化,常用前置性陈述,即在句中将主要信息尽量前置,通过主语传递主要信息。

科技文章文体的特点是:清晰、准确、精练、严密。那末,科技文章的语言结构特色在翻译过程中如何处理,这是进行英汉科技翻译时需要探讨的问题。现分述如下:

一、大量使用名词化结构

《当代英语语法》(A Grammar of Contemporary)在论述科技英语时提出,大量使用名词化结构(Nominalization)是科技英语的特点之一。因为科技文体要求行文简洁、表达客观、内容确切、信息量大、强调存在的事实。而非某一行为。

Archimeds first discovered the principle of displacement of water by solid bodies.

阿基米德最先发展固体排水的原理。句中of displacement of water by solid bodies 系名词化结构,一方面简化了同位语从句,另一方强调displacement 这一事实。

The rotation of the earth on its own axis causes the change from day to night.

地球绕轴自转,引起昼夜的变化。名词化结构the rotation of the earth on its own axis 使复合句简化成简单句,而且使表达的概念更加确切严密。

If you use firebricks round the walls of the boiler, the heat loss. Can be considerably reduced.

炉壁采用耐火砖可大大降低热耗。

科技英语所表述的是客观规律,因之要尽量避免使用第一、二人称;此外,要使主要的信息置于句首。

Television is the transmission and reception of images of moving objects by radio waves.

电视通过无线电波发射和接受活动物体的图象。

名词化结构the transmission and reception of images of moving objects by radio waves 强调客观事实,而

二、广泛使用被动语句

根据英国利兹大学John Swales 的统计,科技英语中的谓语至少三分之一是被动态。这是因为科技文章侧重叙事推理,强调客观准确。第一、二人称使用过多,会造成主观臆断的印象。因此尽量使用第三人称叙述,采用被动语态,例如:

Attention must be paid to the working temperature of the machine.应当注意机器的工作温度。而很少说:You must pay attention to the working

temperature of the machine .你们必须注意机器的工作温度。此外,如前所述,科技文章将主要信息前置,放在主语部份。这也是广泛使用被动态的主要原因。试观察并比较下列两段短文的主语。

We can store electrical energy in two metal plates separated by an

insulating medium. We call such a device a capacitor, or a condenser, and its ability to store electrical energy capacitance .It is measured in farads.

电能可储存在由一绝缘介质隔开的两块金属极板内。这样的装置称之为电容器,其储存电能的能力称为电容。电容的测量单位是法拉。这一段短文中各句的主语分别为:

Electrical energy

Such a device

Its ability to store electrical energy

It (Capacitance )

它们都包含了较多的信息,并且处于句首的位置,非常醒目。四个主语完全不同,避免了单调重复,前后连贯,自然流畅。足见被动结构可收简洁客观之效。

三、非限定动词。

如前所述,科技文章要求行文简练,结构紧凑,为此,往往使用分词短语代替定语从句或状语从句;使用分词独立结构代替状语从句或并列分句;使用不定式短语代替各种从句;介词十动名词短语代替定语从句或状语从句。这样可缩短句子,又比较醒目。试比较下列各组句子。

A direct current is a current flowing always in the same direction.

直流电是一种总是沿同一方向流动的电流。

Radiating from the earth, heat causes air currents to rise.

热量由地球辐射出来时,使得气流上升。

A body can more uniformly and in a straight line,there being no cause to change that motion.

如果没有改变物体运动的原因,那么物体将作匀速直线运动。

Vibrating objects produce sound waves ,each vibration producing one sound wave.

振动着的物体产生声波,每一次振动产生一个声波。

In communications, the problem of electronics is how to convey

information from one place to another.

在通讯系统中,电子学要解决的问题是如何把信息从一个地方传递到另一个地方。

Materials to be used for structural purposes are chosen so as to behave elastically in the environmental conditions.

结构材料的选择应使其在外界条件中保持其弹性。

There are different ways of changing energy from one form into another. 将能量从一种形式转变成另一种形式有各种不同的方法。

In making the radio waves correspond to each sound in turn ,messages are carried from a broadcasting station to a receiving set.

使无线电波依次对每一个声音作出相应变化时,信息就由广播电台传递到接收机。

四、后置定语

大量使用后置定语也是科技文章的特点之一。常见的结构不以下五种:

1、介词短语

The forces due to friction are called frictional forces.

由于摩擦而产生的力称之为摩擦力。

A call for paper is now being issued .

征集论文的通知现正陆续发出。

2、形容词及形容词短语。

In this factory the only fuel available is coal.

该厂唯一可用的燃料是煤。

In radiation ,thermal energy is transformed into radiant energy ,similar in nature to light.

热能在辐射时,转换成性质与光相似的辐射能。

3、副词

The air outside pressed the side in .

外面的空气将桶壁压得凹进去了。

The force upward equals the force downward so that the balloon stays at the level.

向上的力与向下的力相等,所以气球就保持在这一高度。

4、单个分词,但仍保持校强的动词意义。

The results obtained must be cheeked .

获得的结果必须加以校核

The heat produced is equal to the electrical energy wasted.

产生的热量等于浪费了的电能。

5、定语从句

During construction, problems often arise which require design changes. 在施工过程中,常会出现需要改变设计的问题。

The molecules exert forces upon each other, which depend upon the distance between them.

分子相互间都存在着力的作用,该力的大小取决于它们之间的距离。

Very wonderful changes in matter take place before our eyes every day to which we pay little attention.

我们几乎没有注意的很奇异的物质变化每天都在眼前发生。

To make an atomic bomb we have to use uranium 235,in which all the atoms are available for fission.

制造原子弹,我们必须用铀235,因为轴的所有原子都会裂变。

五、常用句型

科技文章中经常使用若干特定的句型,从而形成科技文体区别于其他文体的标志。例如It---that---结构句型;被动态结构句型;结构句型,分词短语结构句型,省略句结构句型等。举例如下:

It is evident that a well lubricated bearing turns more easily than a dry one . 显然,润滑好的轴承,比不润滑的轴承容易转动。

It seems that these two branches of science are mutually dependent and interacting .

看来这两个科学分支是相互依存,相互作用的。

It has been proved that induced voltage causes a current to flow in opposition to the force producing it.

已经证明,感应电压使电流的方向与产生电流的磁场力方向相反。

It was not until the 19th century that heat was considered as a form of energy.

直到十九世纪人们才认识到热是能量的一种形式。

Computers may be classified as analog and digital.

计算机可分为模拟计算机和数字计算机两种。

The switching time of the new-type transistor is shortened three times . 新型晶体管的开关时间缩短了三分之二。(或---缩短为三分之一。) This steel alloy is believed to be the best available here .

人们认为这种合金钢是这里能提供的最好的合金钢。

Electromagnetic waves travel at the same speed as light .

电磁波传送的速度和光速相同。

Microcomputers are very small in size ,as is shown in Fig.5.

如图5所示,微型计算机体积很小。

In water sound travels nearly five times as fast as in air .

声音在水中的传播速度几乎是在空气中传播速度的五倍。

Compared with hydrogen, oxygen is nearly 16 times as heavy .

氧与氢比较,重量大约是它的十六倍。

The resistance being very high ,the current in the circuit was low.

由于电阻很大,电路中通过的电流就小。

Ice keeps the same temperature while melting .

冰在溶化时,其温度保持不变。

An object, once in motion ,will keep on moving because of its inertia. 物体一旦运动,就会因惯性而持续运动。

All substances ,whether gaseous ,liquid or solid ,are made of atoms . 一切物质,不论是气态、液态,还是固态,都由原子组成。

六、长句

为了表述一个复杂概念,使之逻辑严密,结构紧凑,科技文章中往往出现许多长句。有的长句多达七八个词,以下即是一例。

The efforts that have been made to explain optical phenomena by means of the hypothesis of a medium having the same physical character as an

elastic solid body led, in the first instance, to the understanding of a concrete example of a medium which can transmit transverse vibrations ,and at a later stage to the definite conclusion that there is no luminiferous medium having the physical character assumed in the hypothesis.

为了解释光学现象,人们曾试图假定有一种具有与弹性固体相同的物理性质的介质。这种子尝试的结果,最初曾使人们了解到一种能传输横向振动的具有上述假定所以认为的那种物理性质的发光介质。

七、复合词与缩略词

大量使用复合词与缩略词是科技文章的特点之一,复合词从过去的双词组合发展到多词组合;缩略词趋向于任意构词,例如某一篇论文的作者可以就仅在该文中使用的术语组成缩略词,这给翻译工作带来一定的困难。例如:

full-enclosed 全封闭的(双词合成形容词)

feed-back反馈(双词合成名词)

work-harden 加工硬化(双词合成词)

criss-cross交叉着(双词合成副词)

on-and-off-the-road路面越野两用的(多词合成形容词)

anti-armoured-fighting-vehicle-missile反装甲车导弹(多词合成名词) radiophotography无线电传真(无连字符复合词)

colorimeter色度计(无连字符复合词)

maths (mathematics)数学(裁减式缩略词)

lab (laboratory)实验室

ft (foot/feet)英尺

cpd (compound)化合物

FM(frequency modulation)调频(用首字母组成的缩略词)

P.S.I. (pounds per square inch)磅/英寸

SCR(silicon controlled rectifier )可控硅整流器

TELESAT(telecommunications satellite )通信卫星(混成法构成的缩略词) 根据上述的科技文章的物占,在翻译过程中就要注意各种不同的翻译技巧与方法。例如被动态的译法、长句的处理方法、的倍数的译法等等。

范文八:科普英语前4周文章 投稿:高癮癯

科普英语初中高年级版

1. Importance of Oxygen

人类与动物都需要氧气,深入了解后你会发现它们呼吸的方式却各有不同。这究竟是什么原因呢?

All animals need the oxygen’ in the air to live. Land animals inhale(breathe in)oxygen and exhale(breathe out)carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, humans cannot survive more than a few minutes. Like humans,animals like dogs and chickens inhale air into their lungs to get the oxygen they need.

Different animals breathe at different rates. A whale can stay underwater for two hours without breathing. A mouse, however,breathes more than 150 times a minute.

Insects breathe in oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide,just as humans do. But insects don’t have lungs or gills. Instead, they have small openings called spiracles that allow the oxygen from the air to enter and travel through the tracheal trunk, which divides into reaches each cell in the body. Carbon dioxide released from the cell follows the same way back to the spiracles and out of the insect’s body.

Earthworms breathe air in and carbon dioxide out,just like humans,but they don’t have lungs, gills,or spiracles. The earthworm breathes by taking air out of the moist soil directly through its skin. As air goes in through the skin,oxygen is taken is taken to the worm’s circulatory system,and its five hearts pump the blood with oxygen to the head and the rest of its body while the earthworm moves.

Air dissolves on the mucus of its skin, so it must stay moist in order to breathe. If an earthworm dries out,it suffocate and dies.

2. Plants—Source of Oxygen on Earth

植物能吸收大量的二氧化碳,同时又能产生大量的氧气,你知道这一切是怎样发生的吗?

Plants respireby takingin the oxygen from the air around them in order to live. They breathe all the time, day and night. Plants also do something thathumans cannot do, which is produce their own food .This process is called photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is a process that takes place during the day when plants absorb light from the sun through the chlorophyll of their leaves. Chlorophyll is the substance that gives plants green color.Photosynthesis is a very important process in plants .The ability to produce their own food also means that humans and animals benefit when they rat the nutritious leave of plants.

Through the stomata, plants take in carbon dioxide that is mixed in the air and water taken in by the roots. They convert the carbon dioxide into the organic compounds of sugars(food) and starches using water and energy from sunlight.

When night falls, the process of photosynthesis slows down because plants do not receive energy from the sun.But plants still continue to make sugar at night. As a result of this process,plants give off oxygen into the air.

Photosynthesis and respiration take place at the same time in plants.Photosynthesis allows the plant to produce its own food and respiration allows the plant to get the oxygen it needs from the air.

3. Miraculous Seeds

在大自然里,各种植物千姿百态,把这个世界装点得绚丽多彩。然而,它们延续自己生命的方式同样各放异彩。

Nature gives us many plants which have flowers and fruits and others that do not. The variety of plants in Earth is enormous, and although they are very different, all flowers have something in common. They all have the necessary parts to produce the seeds that will give life to the new plants.

Some plants that do not have seeds develop a type of cone in which seeds are deposited. These plants are called conifers and are easily identified. One kind of conifers is the pine tree with its cones.

One of the groups of plants that do not have fruits or seeds is ferns. Ferns have spores that you can see on the underside of their leaves. To reproduce, these spores burst open when mature and release a dark brown substance that comes in contact with warm and most soil. The combination results in the growth of new ferns.

Plants are also used as medicine to cure certain sicknesses. For example, chamomile flowers are used to make a tea that may help soothe a stomachache; and arnica plants are used to prevent wounds from swelling. Many plants can be used as they are or by using certain substances from them to make different types of medicine.

Word Box

1. cone n. 球果

2. conifer n. 针叶树

3. spore n. 孢子

4. chamomile n. 甘菊;黄春菊

5. arnica plants 金山车植物

6. swelling n. 肿胀

4. The Food Chain

各种生物和动物的吃与被吃的关系听起来是那么可怕,但正是这种相互依存的关系使大自然的生态得以平衡。你想弄清楚他们之间的关系吗?

Living things depend on one another. Every organism needs to obtain energy from food in order to live. For example, plants get energy from sun. Then some animals eat plants, and some of these animals are eaten by other animals for food. This is the way that food chains are formed. Each plant and animals is an important link in its food chain.

A food chain usually starts with plants and plants are called primary producers .Animals are the primary consumer and some of them eat plants. They are herbivores like grasshoppers, rabbits, cows, and birds. Other eat meat. They are carnivores like rats, cats, lions, sharks, foxes,snakes ,and hawks.

The last group of animals in the food chain is those that eat plants and animals. They are called omnivores, such as,bears,and some species of fish.

When living things die, they become food for the microorganisms that convert then into different substances. These substances are absorbed by the soil around then and become useful ingredients for plants. Ina food chain, these microorganisms are called decomposer.

Life at sea also depends on food chains that begin with millions of tiny plants and creatures. They are both plant and animal plankton. All life in the sea depends on plankton. Small fish and crustaceans eat this plankton in order to survive and grow. They are then eaten by bigger fish. At the end of the food chain, people eat the seafood.

5. Bananas

香蕉是十分好吃且很有营养的水果。香蕉原产亚洲东南部,以台湾、广东、海南最多。让我们看看香蕉是如何长成的吧!

Bananas don’t grow on trees. They grow on a thick stalk that looks just a little like a stalk of corn. The stalk is soft enough to be cut with a knife.

It takes about a year before bananas are ready to be picked. Some are as small as fingers. Others are as long and thick as men’s arms. Some bananas plants grow as tall as a house—even taller! Not all bananas are eaten as fruit. Some never get sweet, and they are cooked as a kind of vegetable.

People in most countries never see a banana until it reaches the store. But if you visited a country where it is hot and rains a lot all the year, you might see a banana plantation, a large farm where bananas grow.

The tasty fruit doesn’t come from a seed but from a root planted deep in the ground. First a stalk pushes up into the air. Then leaves appear. In the beginningthe banana plant grows very fast—sometimes as much as the length of your feet in one night. Soon, sweet-smelling flowers appear, and when their flowers drop off, bananas begin to grow.

As they get bigger, bananas start turning up. It looks as if they are growing upside down! Bananas are ready to eat when they turn soft and yellow. But they are picked long before this—when they are hard and bright green. This is because bananas have to travel many miles before they arrive at the store. On trucks and boats and trains bananas travel all over the world. There are special boats just for bananas and special trains that keep them just cool enough so that they will get ripe while travelling. If bananas are picked when they are ripe, they will spoil on the way.

6. Important Discovery of Dinosaurs

虽然谁都没有见过恐龙,但考古学家能通过化石带领我们走进恐龙世界。你是否也想走进这个世界呢?

Dinosaurs’ are creatures that existed millions of years ago. We know that there were about 300 different type of dinosaurs, but there may have been many more dinosaursthat humans have yet to discover. Once in a while, a new dinosaur is discover in a different part of the world.

Dinosaurs came in all sizes and shapes .There were dinosaurs small as birds, some as tall as building s and other were longer than a tennis court .Some dinosaurs had sharp claws or teeth for eating, hunting,and protecting themselves. Some were light and others, like the Stegosaurs,had huge, heavy plates or scales.

We know today that dinosaurs existed because fossil have been found. Fossils are the remains of animals or plants that lived a long time ago.Dinosaur bones, teeth, and eggs are all fossils.

Bones and teeth can tell us many things. From dinosaur bones and teeth,we can learn the animal’s size and weight .Long heavy bones tell us that the dinosaur was large and the bigger the teeth that were found,the bigger the animal. Meat eaters has long, sharp teeth for biting their

prey and tearing the meat. If a tooth broke, a new one grew in its place .Under each row of teeth were several more teeth.

Dinosaurs that were plant eaters oftenhad teeth shaped like peg for pulling off leaves and fruits from the trees.

Generally,dinosaurs with large brains were considered smarter than those dinosaurs with small brains. Big eye sockets were a sign of good sight and large nasal cavities usually meant that the dinosaur had an excellent sense of smell.

范文九:怎样有效地用英语写科研文章--byBinWang 投稿:傅汨汩

Talk at AYSA & LASG/IAP, May 11, 2001

怎样有效地用英语写科研文章

——Vern Booth的“用科学语言交流”读后感

王斌

美国夏威夷大学,气象系

1. 怎样开始

a. 准备工作

 随时记录下你的发现,包括所用的图表、推理过程、结论和总结。  预先写下提纲,包括:题目、摘要、引言、模式或者数据的介绍、分

析方法、结论、讨论和参考文献。草拟讨论的内容有助于理清思路。  准备图、表

b. 草拟

 尽早开始,在工作进展的同时,草拟文稿的过程中还会发现自己知识

上的漏洞

 从最简单的部分入手(比如方法部分)

 初稿可以使用自己惯用的词,过后再润色词汇和文采

 草拟结论,然后反复修改

 如果文章的轮廓已经成型、图表备齐、写好方法部分、计划好讨论部

分的内容、拟好结论,那么文章就完成了一半

2. 每一部分的撰写

a. 题目

 题目和摘要是文章中至关重要的两个部分

 题目的首字尽量采用关键字,精简掉多余词汇(类似Study of„

on„)。避免用“the”作为文章题目的首字。

 文章题目应简明扼要,突出主题,戒用泛泛之词

b. 摘要

 如有可能,分段落陈述

 摘要中精华部分包括:你做了哪些工作、以及主要的结果和结论  除了最后一段(结论)外,应采用过去时

 言简意赅,如果摘要太长,读者可能只读首尾两段

c. 引言

 阐明要研究的问题(现象),并围绕这个问题(现象)进一步提出具

体而中肯的科学问题。

 研究对象一定要清楚

 并非引用文献越多越好,如果曾经有文章引用过大量文献,不妨引证

那一篇

 把所引用的文章分类,从中归纳出工作中需要解决的问题.避免逐一陈

述式的

 引言的最后一段,可以概述本文最重要的结论(但文字不能照搬结论部

分)

d. 模式(数据)和方法

 如果模式(或数据)部分比较简短,可以将其合并到方法部分介绍 按照工作流程来叙述 方法要描述清楚,使读者能复制你的结果 描述要简明,但是不能漏掉关键的细节 如果采用了控制实验,要让读者信服其设计的合理性

e. 结果

 如果采用多个样本,结论必须有代表性.尽量对结果做统计显著性检验.  图表要清楚,使读者不参考文章,就可以一目了然.图例应附有对图的简

单解释和缩略词的全称.文章和其它图例应当避免对已有图例的文字重复.

 展示结果的先后次序要符合逻辑,层层引出你的论据和论点.

 如果要把结论和讨论合在一个部分,两者要分属不同的段落叙述. f. 讨论

 不能太长,以免使读者厌烦,但是一定要包含有逻辑的论证.

 如果在引言中已经介绍了他人的发现,这里就不要再重复,直接引用即

可.

 不要在讨论部分总结你的结果.

 对在引言中提出的问题,应当给予解答,也便于讨论的展开.

 宣讲你的文章有利于更深入地思考,同时也能得到听众的批评.向别人

解释你的观点是理清自己思路的最好方法.

 如果你用”first,...second(ly)...”来阐述观点,应避免用

 突出强调新发现的意义,并解释它怎样推进了现有的认识.

 不但对别人的工作,对自己的也要持批评的态度:假设会不会被驳倒?结

果会不会有其它的解释?

g. 结论

 结论用词要严谨. 如果有幸的话,你的结论可能为教科书采用.

 文章中有三个部分可以提到你工作的结论:讨论,摘要和引言. 注意每

一处不要简单重复.摘要中的陈述应当是最简洁的.

 不要把结论和推测混为一谈.

 如果你没有很简明的结论,可以这样写

discussed

 当你的讨论有助于但却不能形成一个结论的时候,要适可而止. h. 参考文献

 对照原文检查你列出的文献是否正确.特别是作者的姓名不要拼错.  一定要避免对原文的曲解.

3. 修改

 修改草稿不能太匆忙.作者常忽略对文章批评性修改的重要性.

 首先把文章结构调整得更合乎逻辑,然后再改进文章的风格,语法和用

词.

 一次只读几页手稿,并且要慢读.

 大声朗读你的文章,就象和别人做正式的科学交谈.文章朗读一遍,听者

就应当能明白你的意思.

 注意文风,避免重复.如果结论在文中重复提到,需重新组织语句,不要

机械重复.

 协作

1. 因为别人更容易看到我们的缺点,请同事谈谈他们对文章总的看法,并标出那些他们需要重复读才能看懂的句子.

2. 就算你资历很老,也要不耻下问,请你的下级提建设性的意见,而不是阿谀奉承之词.这对他们也是很好的锻练.

 投稿之前,应当问自己:

1. 我的新发现值不值得发表?

2. 推导出结论的方法是不是足够严谨?

3. 此工作是否提高了对有关现象的认识?

 遭遇退稿怎么办?

1. 冷静,不可冲动.

2. 记录编辑的退稿理由,并考虑采纳建议.

3. 重视审稿人的评论.

4. 重写文章,并请两个严谨的同事阅读.

4. 英语写作的技术问题

a. 原则和提示

 作者应当力求使读者以最轻松的方式接受信息.

 表述清楚.多用短句,但也不能全篇皆是短句.除个别句子外,每句话尽量只讲一件事.一句话通常只用1-2个动词,最多不要多于3个动词.

 新段落的开始通常表示主题的变化.每一段都应该有一个连贯首尾的主题.第一句阐明本段主题,最后一句回应主题.

 科学文章应当杜绝夸张.文章要通俗易懂,避免华丽的词藻.

 针对读者的层次,不要把文章写成科普文章,也不要把技术上的细节写得过于繁琐.

b. 用词风格

 使用名词性形容词需要小心,否则可能引起混淆.名词并不是不可以用作形容词, 但当两个或更多的名词用做形容词时,这个短语就变得很晦涩.  比较的对象必须可比.例如,

 正确使用分词.例如,

 删除赘述.例如,

i.

ii. Fig.2...

iii.

iv.

v.

vi.

 类似于

 代名词用来指代它前面离它最近的那个名词,但是读者看到代名词时可能不去追溯前面的名词. 再如,下面的句子中的It可以省掉:

-> Carbon dating is believed to give...

 不要用

 用一般过去时陈述你的新发现,而不要用混合的过去时.

 使用不同的时态有助于区分你和前人的结果. 请用现在时或者混合过去时陈述前人的工作.

 尽量把被动语态改成主动语态,使句子结构更简单.

d. 用词的选择——写作的一大难关

英文写作一个主要的困难就是选择合适的书面用语

 用词不慎,往往会弄巧成拙.例如

approximately -> about;

utilize, employ -> use;

sufficient -> enough;

possess -> have;

demonstrate, disclose, exhibit, reveal -> show.

当然,如果一个华丽的词可以更好地表达你的意思,也不必避而不用.  灵活的变化: 一句话中,用同义词来避免重复使用某个单词.这个同义词

的意思必须非常明确才可以用.

 同形异义词: 尽量避免同形异义词可能引起的混淆.一段话中同一个词不

可有两重意思.

e. 标题和副标题

 文章中尽量使用标题和副标题.它们可以增强文章的可读性,引导读者轻

松找到感兴趣的部分.

 在讨论部分使用副标题会对读者有很多帮助.

 标题要有画龙点睛作用.标题的文字不宜在其后的段落中机械重复.

5. 良好的态度

 诚实: 如果结果看起来有点不合常理,应反复检查,而不可篡改结果.新发

现常常是意外的收获.

 文献引用: 要给前人的工作应有的评价.

 自己以前的工作要有目的的筛选引用,不可照单全收, 不可把文献部分写

成个人发表文章的清单.

 不要在文章中添加感情色彩. 例如,避免采用

 急于投稿会导致研究不彻底.思考的迟缓并无妨碍,有害的是没有想清楚

问题就投稿.

 看到好的文章,请潜心研究,揣摩它,这样可以扩大你的词汇量.

Primary Reference

Vern Booth: Chapter I in Communicating in Science. Cambridge University Press, pp1-27.

范文十:2011级英语本科《英语报刊文章阅读》练习(1) 投稿:马姤姥

2011级英语本科班《英语报刊文章阅读》练习 Passage 1 Deadbeat Parents Can’t Run Away Now

---- Law bans moving to avoid payments

赖帐父母无法赖帐

Parents who deliberately slip across state lines or national borders to avoid paying child support can go to prison under a law signed yesterday by President Clinton.

“From now on, if you flee across state lines and refuse to pay child support, you may be charged with a federal offense ---- a felony(重罪)offense ---- and may land in jail for up to two years,” Mr. Clinton said at an Oval Office ceremony.

“One way or the other, people who don’t support their children will pay what they must.” he said.

The Deadbeat(赖帐的)Parents Punishment Act, which passed both chambers(议院) of Congress with strong bipartisan(两党的)support, augments(增加,补充)current law that punishes interstate evasion of child-support obligations.

Under the new law:

It’s a federal offense, punishable by six months in federal prison, to move out of state or out of the country to avoid paying child support if the debt is $ 5,000 or more or has been unpaid for a year.

Parents convicted of willfully failing to pay child support for two years or who owe $10,000 or more can be jailed for as long as two years.

“For parents who selfishly discard(丢弃)their responsibility, we have a simple message: If you break the law, you will be punished.” Said Sen. Mike Dewine, Ohio Republican, a lead sponsor of the law with Sen. Herb Kohl, Wisconsin Democrat.

Debbie Kline, spokeswoman for the Association for Children for Enforcement of Support ( ACES ) in Toledo Ohio, said the law recognizes the “needs of the 10 million children who are owed $14.7 billion” in interstate child support cases.

“It’s about time that parents who break the law by abandoning their children and forcing their family to live in poverty or on welfare are brought to justice.” She said.

Victor Smith, president of Dads Against Discrimination USA, a nonprofit father’s rights group in Portland, Ore., denounced(谴责)the law as “a crock --- a feel-good thing to impress female voters.”

The law will penalize(对……处罚)men for trying to find a job in another state, he said. “It also doesn’t do anything to women who move around and won’t let dad see the kids.” said Mr. Smith, who added that “father custody(照看,监护)would solve half the problems.”

Mr. Clinton praised lawmakers, government officials and child support adcovates(提倡者)for leading “ an unprecedented(史无前例的)campaign to make

1

deadbeat parents live up to their obligations.”

The president said these efforts have led to a record 1.3 million paternities established and located 1 million delinquent(失职的)parents through new interstate computer checking systems.

1. From the article, we know that Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act _____.

A. enjoys everyone’s support

B. is supported by both Democratic and Republic Parties

C. has met much obstruction in Congress

D. has achieved no effects

2. The longest prison term for deadbeat parents is _____.

A. two years B. five years C. one and a half years D. three years

3. From the article, we know that the lead sponsors of the Deadbeat Parents Punishment Act were _____.

A. Herb Kohl and Debbi Kline B. Mike Dewine and Victor Smith

C. Debbi Kline and Mike Dewine D. Mike Dewine and Herb Kohl

4. The new law was criticized by _____.

A. Mr. Clinton B. Debbie Kline C. Victor Smith D. Mike Dewine

5. What does the term “deadbeat parents” mean?

6. What kind of crime will child support avoidance be considered under the new law?

7. According to Debbie Kline, how serious is the problem of parents’ refusal to pay child support in America?

8. What does Victor Smith think of the new law? What does he suggest should be done to solve those kids’ problems?

9. Give your comment on the new law.

2

Passage 2 How Parents Can Help

----- It’s a difficult time for the whole family, but there

are ways to make these years easier. Your kids still

need you.

家长如何帮助自己子女

One day they’re crawling around in the sandbox; the next day they’re prowling (巡行,搜找)the Internet. Tweens like to think of themselves as all grown up ---- but they still need plenty of support and guidance from parents. Some tips:

BODY CHANGES. Girls may begin to develop breasts as early as 8, and some now get their periods at 10. To prepare for puberty(青春期), many boys’ and girls’ bodies also bulk up during the tween years. Experts warn against putting children on diets or making them feel self-conscious(难为情的,害羞的)about their weight. Instead, reassure kids that there’s a wide definition of “normal” at this age.

SEXUALITY. Few tweens are actually having sex, but they’re busy trying to understand it. Some will begin to struggle with sexual orientation(方位,方向). This is a window of opportunity for parental involvement and guidance --- once tweens become teens, they’re more likely to turn to peers or popular culture for sex ed. They’re also sometimes exposed to explicit material on the Internet, and this may confuse and upset them. One good source for parents: the book “Now What Do I Do?” available from the nonprofit group Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States.

SCHOOL. Classes get harder and homework increases as kids move to middle school and junior high. If they’re trying hard but still not doing well, parents should talk to teachers about potential learning disabilities that may require special instruction. Overall, parents should coach and support children in homework, but should never be trapped into actually doing it. For general catch-up, after-school tutors can help.

FRIENDS. For young children, family is the center of the universe. But friends and peer approval become increasingly important during tween years. Cliques(派系,小集团)emerge and fashion begins to define what’s “cool”. Still, parents continue to exert the biggest influence on children when it comes to morals and lifelong goals. Get to know your children’s friends and their parents. Ask your kids about peer pressure, rather than waiting for them to raise the issue themselves. And act as a role model, exhibiting the kind of behavior around friends and family that you hope to foster in your kids.

INDEPENDENCE. Tweens have one foot in childhood, the other in adolescence(青春期). But they’re eager to grow up. Experts say the rush is partly

3

due to popular media ---- especially teen magazines and television shows. Being raised by single parents or in families where both parents work can also accelerate(使加快,促进)their desire for independence. Parents should not expect to have absolute control over their tweens, but they should set limits. Regulate the number of hours kids watch TV, and monitor movies; say no to too much violence or graphic sexuality. Make sure you know what they’re doing online as well.

MIND AND MOOD. Peer pressure and new academic challenges can overwhelm(征服,压垮)tweens. Look for symptoms(征兆)of stress: headaches, stomachaches, sleeping or eating problems. Shifts in hormone(激素,荷尔蒙)levels as tweens advance toward puberty can also cause temporary mood swings. Don’t ignore or punish tweens when they become emotional; encourage them to air their feelings. Internalizing(藏在心底)sadness or anger is unhealthy. Some tweens can even be clinically depressed. Early signs:feelings of hopelessness, withdrawal and irritability(易怒,烦躁). Parents should intervene and seek professional counseling(咨询).

1. When children are in their tween years, _____.

A. they should be on diets

B. they should be given complete freedom

C. friends become the most important persons for them

D. parents should give them their support and guidance

2. The author thinks that parents should _____.

A. do homework for kids B . give kids more time for games

C. coach children in homework D. forbid kids to watch TV

3. According to the article, if children get emotional, parents should _____.

A. send them to hospital B. encourage them to tell about their feeling

C. criticize them D. ignore them

4. Which of the following statements is NOT true?

A. Children need support and guidance from parents.

B. Parents exert the biggest influence on children.

C. Parents have absolute control over children.

D. Parents are the dearest persons to children.

5. What kind of attitude should parents have toward their children’s weight?

6. How should parents treat their children’s friends?

7. What kind of control should parents exert over children’s TV watching?

8. What are the early signs of children’s stress and depression?

4

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