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范文一:对典籍翻译中误译的分析及探讨 投稿:廖賙賚

中图分类号:H059 文献标识码:A文章编号:41-1413(2011)12-0000-01

摘要: 理解词语的文化内涵是翻译的关键。若对该民族的历史文化和典故知识所蕴含的信息不了解,往往就会产生误译。本文从语言和文化层面对贾尔斯译《孙子兵法》进行了分析与探讨。�

关键词:文学翻译;英语翻译;孙子兵法;语言误译�

引言 �

翻译的首要任务,是透过语言符号,去捕捉、理解隐藏在字里行间的意义,再用另一种语言将它表现出来。《孙子兵法》是中国古代最伟大的一部军事著作,也是世界上现存最早最完整的军事理论著作。很多中外学者对其进行了各种语言的翻译。贾尔斯是最早将《孙子兵法》译为英语的汉学家之一,其版本也流传较广。单看英译本,读者不会有过多疑惑,但一旦与原文比较,就发现其存在诸多漏洞。本文从语言和文化层面对贾尔斯译《孙子兵法》的不足进行探讨。

1 语言层面的不足之处 �

翻译活动离不开就译者对原文意义的理解这一层面进行考察。尽管贾尔斯汉语功底深厚,但汉语毕竟不是其母语,误读在所难免,对此,笔者有如下分析:�

1.1词汇理解错误导致误译�

翻译的任务是重构原文的意义并使其在译文中得以再现,贾尔斯译中因词汇理解错误导致的误译如下:�

“故用兵之法,高陵勿向,背丘勿逆”(军争篇)

It is a military axiom not to advance uphill against the enemy, nor to oppose him when he comes downhill.

“背丘”意为“背依丘陵”,而非“下山”,译者理解错误词汇,应译为:“with back resting on the hill”。�

1.2 语法结构理解不当导致的误译�

奈达(2004: 241)认为:作为译者,“他首先应该对源语和目的语的语言结构有清晰的了解……他必须完全熟知句法结构的意义。” 他认为,“正是在句法结构这一特别领域译者往往表现出最大的薄弱,虽然他们对单个词汇和短语的意义掌握的很好,但是令人担心的是他们对构建意义的方式缺少基本的了解。” 汉民族的模糊思维使得汉语呈现出意合特征, 词语或语句间的连接主要凭借语义或语句间的逻辑关系来实现, 句子松散, 句法功能呈隐性。

�“是故散地则无站,轻地则无止,争地则无攻,交地则无绝,衢地则合交,重地则掠,泛地则行,围地则谋,死地则战。”(九地篇)

On dispersive ground, therefore, fight not. On facile ground, halt not. On contentious ground, attack not. On open ground, do not try to block the enemy’s way. ``````

“无绝”的翻译,主要问题在于贾尔斯没有遵循古汉语中的被动语法结构规则,“无绝”是被动结构――被人断绝、切断的意思,而非主动结构――断绝敌人的意思。可将“无绝”拟译为:“do not get cut off”.

2 文化层面的不足 �

奈达(2004:241-242)认为:“译者对词汇元素的意义必须有完整的理解……他对词汇的文化关联、历史背景和传统用法都要了然于胸。”�

“天者,阴阳、寒暑、时制也。

Heaven signifies night and day, cold and heat, time and seasons.

此译把“阴阳”译为“night and day”,没有全面反映“阴阳”的含义。所谓“阴阳”,意是:the two opposing principles in nature, the former feminine and negative, the latter masculine and positive. “阴阳”是我国古代哲学认为宇宙中通贯物质和人事的两大对立面,学说涉及的范围包括了自然科学和社会科学的各个方面。

其主要观点是:任何事物都有其正反两方面,并不断地进行对立统一的活动,打破旧有的平衡,寻求新的平衡。孙武这里所述的“阴阳”虽有昼夜之意,但意义却不仅仅于此。一日之内,上午为阳中之阳,下午为阳中之阴,因此,上午又为阳,下午又为阴;一夜之间,上半夜为阴中之阳,下半夜为阴中之阴,因此,上半夜亦为阳,下半夜亦为阴。所以,阴阳既可以指昼和夜,又可以指上午和下午,还可以指上半夜和下半夜。如此类推,怎是一个“day and night”所能概括的了?《孙子兵法》不仅是一部军事著作,还是一部哲学著作。阴阳这一哲学理论带有浓厚的东方文化色彩,西方语言无相应的词语对译。现流行的做法是“借用”,即译音“yinyang”或“yin and yang”,如我们借用西方词汇如“坦克”(译自“tank”),“克隆”(译自“clone”)一样。今天“yinyang”一词早为西方人所熟悉并接受。遂译文拟改译为:Heaven signifies yin and yang, cold and heat, time and seasons.

3 结束语 �

奈达对翻译的定义是:“从语义到文体在译语中用最近似的自然对等值再现原语的信息” (廖七一,2000:88),但这是一种理想化的状态,事实上,翻译中的误译是不可避免的,正如日本翻译家河盛好藏所言:"没有误译的译文是根本不存在的……翻译作品中肯定有误译存在,这如同空气中包含着氧气”。 本文从语言和文化层面对贾尔斯所译《孙子兵法》进行了分析,因笔者水平有限,谬误难免,恳请指正。 �

参考文献: �

[1] 廖七一. 当代西方翻译理论探索[M]. 南京 : 译林出版社, 2000: 88.�

[2] 王力.中国语法理论 [M].北京: 中华书局,1954: 310.

[3] 罗建平.《孙子兵法》Giles译本译误分析 [J].青岛师专学报,1998,(03):77-79[4] 牛晓莉. 浅析《孙子兵法》英译本(贾尔斯)的几处误译 [J]海外英语,2010,(08):311。

范文二:典籍翻译之我见 投稿:邱敯数

摘要: 本文从中国典籍翻译的历史、文化全球化现象和关于中国典籍翻译的问题三方面详细探讨了中国典籍翻译,最后得出了在中国典籍翻译的翻译实践中应该加强“文化平等对话”的自觉意识的结论。

关键词: 中国典籍翻译文化全球化问题

一、中国典籍翻译的历史

汉语典籍的概念,《现代汉语词典》(第280页)说:“记载古代法制的图书,也泛指古代图书。”1999年版《辞海》(上卷第831页)有详细的解释:“国家重要文献。《孟子・告子下》:‘诸侯之地方百里;不百里,不足以守宗庙之典籍。’赵岐注:‘谓先祖常籍法度之文也。’亦统称各种典册、书籍。《尚书序》:‘及秦始皇灭先代典籍。’《后汉书・崔�传》:‘少沈静,好典籍。’”另外《左传・昭公十五年》中也有“司晋之典籍”的说法。看来“典籍”主要有两个义项,一是古代重要文献、书籍;二是法典、制度。依据上述分析和我们要研究的这个领域,“典籍”似应界定为“中国清代末年(世纪中叶近现代汉语分界处)以前的重要文献和书籍”为宜。(杨自俭:2005)。

中国儒家经典最早传入西方是在16世纪。早在1593年意大利人利玛窦将《四书》译成了拉丁文。1662年天主教传教士柏应理以拉丁文译出《大学》、《论语》以后,英国传教士理雅各花了20年又译出了十三经中的十部经书,在当时被视为“标准”译本。与此可作一比的是,1898年我国晚清时期的文化怪杰辜鸿铭的译本,这是一个中国人首次独立、自主和完整地向西方输出了中国儒家经典,打破了长期以来中国儒家经典的翻译由西方传教士所垄断的局面。中国戏剧最先介绍到欧洲的是《赵氏孤儿》,由马若瑟神父于1731年节译成法文,1735年发表。法国启蒙主义作家伏尔泰又以它为素材,改编成《中国孤儿》,使它成为了一部颂扬中国儒家文化、古代文明的剧作,更引起了西方人的兴趣。自《中国孤儿》于1775年在巴黎公演之后,中国戏曲译成外文的范围逐渐扩大,例如,法译本《灰阑记》(1832)、《西厢记》(1872)、《琵琶记》(1841)等。1938年《中国戏剧选》在法国巴黎出版。自上世纪50年代起,国外对中国戏曲的介绍又有所扩大,以《西厢记》为例,目前已有英、法、德、意、拉丁、俄、日、朝、越等文种的译本。

由于起源于民间创作的中国小说被认为是了解中国风俗习惯、伦理道德、文化心理的窗口,因此,几个世纪以来,中国小说的翻译,尤其是民俗文学相关的章回体古典小说的翻译,持续不断。法国是最早译介中国小说的国家,上世纪70一80年代形成高潮。译作不断涌现,像《好逑传》、《西游记》、1959年“东方知识丛书”(包括《红楼梦》、《水浒传》、《儒林外史》等)、《中国白话小说》;从70年代起翻译出版的还有《儒林外史》、《水浒》全本、《红楼梦》全本、《孽海花》、《老残游记》、《金瓶梅词话全本》、《明代短篇小说选》和《镜花缘》等。在英国,《红楼梦》的翻译本在1973年以前曾流行多种,均为节译。1973年大卫・霍克思翻译的80回《红楼梦》,这是该书首次的英文全译本。在美国,流传的《红楼梦》翻译本已有多种。一是霍克思的全译本,一是王际真的节译本。此外,还有一种是麦克休姐妹据库恩德文节译本转译的。70年代还流传一种由北京外文出版社出版,杨宪益、戴乃选合译的英文全本(1978)。据统计,《红楼梦》迄今有英、德、法、意、俄、日、捷、匈、罗、希腊文等十几种文字的译本。

二、文化全球化现象

联合国前秘书长加利在南京大学接受名誉博士学位时发表题为《多语化与文化的多样性》的演讲时说:“必须清醒地认识到,世界化并不仅仅局限于商贸往来或信息交流的全球化。从‘世界化’这个词最广泛的含义来看,它首先对文化产生影响。……也许大家并不都知道,每两个星期就会有一种语言从世界上消失。随着这一语言的消失,与之相关的传统、创造、思想、历史和文化也都不复存在。……因此,只有国际社会各个权力层次都行动起来,只有保护语言和文化的多样化,国家关系的民主化才能得以实现。”(许钧:2002)。文化在全球化中有不同民族文化的多样性存在才是真正意义上的文化全球化。

文化全球化是一个无法阻挡的历史潮流。只注意文化全球化造成的种种消极后果是有失偏颇的,也应该发现文化全球化进程客观上起到的积极作用。文化全球化在挑战各民族文化的同时,也给予了它们发展的新机遇。“全球化不仅有利于西方的强势文化向弱势文化侵略和渗透,它在某种程度上也为弱势文化对强势文化的抵抗和反渗透提供了契机”。(王宁,2006)文化全球化要求各民族文化敞开大门,积极主动地与外来文化进行交流,双方取长补短,互相沟通、理解,具体到中国文化发展上面,就是充分利用全球化,推动民族文化的发展和创新。我们要抓住机遇,迎接挑战。这也是我们的基本策略。文化全球化是我们发展民族文化的大舞台。我们有机会也有条件融入全球化进程之中,从而推动民族文化向前发展。坚持在不损害中国文化精神本质的前提下,积极参与和推动全球化,扩大中国文化在全球范围内的影响,彰显中国的文化的民族特征。

三、关于典籍翻译的问题

(一)关于典籍翻译中的传真的问题

1.文体传真

由于中文不同于西方语言,西语多为形合语言,有性、数、时、体、格等严格的语法规约,中文尽管有其相对独立的语法规则,但语义的产生不靠语法形态的变化,而依赖于语序和语境,因此是有别于西语的意合式语言。德国语言学家洪堡(Humboldt)评价中文说:“任何人都无法否认古典汉语具有一种惊人的高雅之美,这种美表现于它抛弃了一切无用的(语法)关系,以语言本身而不必凭借语法形式来充分表达纯粹的思想。”

2.语义传真

传统典籍在翻译为目的语之前,首先要将古代汉语“翻译”为现代汉语,即典籍的今译。译者对典籍正确、深刻的理解是典籍翻译的前提和基础,也是译者翻译典籍面临的第一个难题。冯友兰先生说:“中国哲学著作由于它们的提示性质,语言的困难就更大。中国哲学家的言论和著述中的种种提示,很难翻译……当我们把《老子》书中的一句话译成英文时,我们是在按照自己的理解来阐述它的含义。译文通常只能表述一种含义,而原文却可能还有其他层次的含义。原文是提示性质的,译文则不可能做到这一点。”

3.文化内涵传真

语言是文化的载体。翻译不但是语言的转换,而且是文化的传递。中华典籍的意义和价值不仅在于其文本包含的丰富深刻、博大精深的实用性内容,更是由于一部部的经典作品才成就了厚重深远的中华文化。因此,典籍的翻译不应该只顾及内容的传达,更应该注重展示其间的文化内涵。

(二)关于中文典籍翻译中的语言学问题

从Nida,Catford,Newmark,Wilss他们重视语言的共性,强调语言规律与客观世界规律的一致性,努力寻求语义的对等和语言转换的规律,以求通过研究人类翻译活动的科学性,这种语言学翻译观对非文学翻译(尤其是科技翻译)是可行的,但在文学翻译中表现出了不足。由于它对不同语言之间的差异和人类翻译活动的艺术性关注不够,对语言外的社会、历史、文化、意识形态、译者的目的等重要因素对翻译活动的影响研究不够,因此,在翻译中表现出某种程度的程式化倾向。(杨自俭:2005)

(三)典籍翻译的损失问题

1.典籍翻译损失的表现

(1)审美层面的损失。包括音乐性的损失,形象性的损失和修辞手法的损失等

(2)语义层面的损失。前苏联翻译家巴尔胡达罗夫在等值概念基础上提出,等值成分空缺可造成语义损失(Barhudarov1975:218-219)。

(3)语用层面的损失。赫维(Sandor.G.J.Hervey)在一项言语行为和意向功能(illocutionary function)的研究中发现,虽然语言一般都可以通过使用小品词、语调和语序等手段传达意向功能,但不同语言在传达意向功能时,明显偏重其中某一种手段,而削弱了其他手段(Hervey 2000:16-18)。如果源语与目的语传达意向功能手段不同,翻译中势必会造成损失。希金斯(Ian Higgins)将法语诗剧原文与翻译本对比后发现,法、外语言分别采用不同手段实现强调、改变信息焦点、施加特别示意语力、增强表现力等语用功能(Higgins 2001:203-208)。

2.典籍翻译损失的补偿法

(1)美国翻译家奈达(Eugene Nida)的补偿法,即以同构为基础的功能性补偿策略,认为“可以把对同构缺失的补偿作为准确再现原文意义的手段。例如,如果在比喻词语中缺少贴切的对等成分,那么就有必要用目的语的非比喻短语来翻译一些比喻词语。然而,如果有过多的比喻词语变成非比喻词语,那么一段文字的力度就会有很大损失。对诗歌而言,这种情况尤为严重。为了补偿这类损失,在目的语中通过使用比喻手段来翻译一些非比喻词语是很重要的。用这种方式,可以实现与原文的某种平衡”(Nida 1993:124)。

(2)英国翻译家纽马克(Peter Newmark)的补偿法,他参照了德国语言学家比勒(K. Bühler)提出的语言功能三元分类法:表情(Ausdruck)、表述(Darstellung)、呼吁(Appell)三大功能,在此基础上将其修改成表情(expressive)、信息(informative)和呼吁(vocative)三大功能。对于表情类型文本要以作者为中心,翻译时尽量尊重原文表层形式,即便有所损失,也不要轻易补偿;对于呼吁类型文本要以读者为中心,注重对读者产生的语效,补偿的运用相对自由;对于源语与目的语很少有完全对等的词语。追求充分翻译可丧失简洁;追求简洁又可造成欠额翻译。故应权衡利弊,在补偿与简洁之间保持适当张力。

(3)德国翻译家威尔斯(Wolfram Wilss)的补偿法,他把源语的词位、语境、语义视为三位一体,将其一并融入翻译过程,并通过补偿,在目的语中基本维系源语中由三者组成的统一体之间的相对关系与地位。补偿应兼顾源语和目的语文本,达到文本的交际性同步;补偿范围应包括言内、言外的结构差异,在微观和宏观语境中实施补偿;补偿策略无普遍适应性,而是随着语对不同而发生变化;补偿是在句子和篇章层面对语境确定的语义成分实施的重构过程。

(4)赫维与希金斯的补偿法,他们针对语用损失提出了相应对策。赫维认为,当源语和目的语以不同手段传达示意功能时,不必拘泥于源语的形式,可以把转类补偿作为常规翻译策略,在目的语中以不同于源语的手段重建源语所传达的示意功能(Hervey2001:16-18)。希金斯认为由于目的语(外语)中无法通过同样手段再现原文(法语)的语用功能,可采用不同于原文的手段或外语特有的手段对潜在的语用功能损失进行补偿。例如,通过用外语音步、节奏、重音和头韵等手段来补偿法语用内韵、半韵、尾韵等手段取得的语用效果。译者还可通过词汇和语音手段来补偿译文因使用与原文不同结构而造成的语用损失(Hervey 2001:208-210)。他们针对不同损失提出4大类补偿手段:转类补偿(compensation in kind)、转位补偿(compensation in place)、兼并补偿(compensation by merging)和拆分补偿(compensation by splitting)(Hervey & Higgins 1992:34-40)。

(四)典籍外译的归化与异化问题

德国学者Schleiermacher(施莱尔马赫)1813年在其宣读的一篇论文中讲道:“译者或是不打扰作者,而把读者引向作者。或是不打扰读者,而使作者适应读者。这两种方法迥然不同。”在这里施莱尔马赫提到了foreign一词。根据以上两种情况,Schleiermacher提出了以作者为中心的译法和以读者为中心的译法,这一做法突破了传统的直译和意译的界限。1995年美国学者Lawrence Venuti根据这一理论提出了翻译的归化和异化(domesticating translation and foreignizing translation)两种翻译方法。所谓归化就是在翻译中,译文采用明白流畅的风格,使目标语读者对外来文化的陌生感降到最低程度。所谓异化就是在生成目标语文本时会通过保留文中某些异国情调的东西来故意打破目标语惯例的翻译类型。不过,Schleiermacher的理论是基于德国的阐释学之上,是翻译的哲学思考,而Venuti却将Schleiermacher 的论点放在后殖民语境下来考察,从而得出了异化的翻译主张,是翻译的文化思考。Venuti在《翻译再思》一书写道:“翻译是纯粹的差异游戏:翻译总得涉及差异,也掩饰差异,同时又偶尔显露差异,甚至经常突出差异。这样,翻译本身就是这差异的活命化身。”在他看来,差异在翻译中被弱化的原因有二:首先,长久以来,翻译的讨论被遮蔽了,它在目的语坐标的价值体系中处于边缘化地位,差异非但没有活现,反而处于融化的过程之中;其次,二战后,英美英语的价值标准在战后形成了全球性的优势,确定了英美国家主体文化的语境。这种语境只接受在意识形态上符合英美文化的意识形态的外语文本,对其他的则加以排斥。在这样一种背景下,归化翻译为了迎合接受者的口味,总是依照译入语的特定的政治、文化、意识形态的规范对译入文本进行调整,于是,弱式文化只得听从英美文化的摆弄,成为殖民者进行文化殖民的工具。(Venuti 1992:11―13)

古罗马帝国初期著名诗人、批评家、翻译家贺拉斯(Quintus Horatius Flaccus 65-8 B.C)在《诗艺》中提出“必要时可以创造新词或引进外来词,以丰富民族语言和增强作品的表现力”(参见李文革,2005:15)。英西奥多萨瓦里(Theodore Horace Savory)提出的十二条翻译原则其中第四原则:译作得读起来像译作(李文革,2005:37)。上述二位西方翻译家均已关注异化翻译的重要性。文化与语言的互塑性与一致性要求跨文化翻译异化的必要性。在语言的“实际研究中,特别重要的是不要停留在任何较低层次的语言解释原则上,而是要上升至最高层次的终极的解释原则,并且把下面的论点确定为讨论精神发展对语言形式的影响问题的可靠基础:人类语言的结构之所以会有种种差异,是因为各个民族的精神特性本身有所不同”(洪堡特,1977:51)。Venuti认为在那些“咄咄逼人的”归化翻译盛行的单语文化(如英美文化)中采用异化式翻译,可以“挑战霸权主义的外语国家和不平等的文化交流”(Venuti,1995:20),打破“西方中心”的文化自恋和文化帝国主义。他认为异化翻译可以对目标语文化价值观施加“反我族主义的压力”,这些译本标志着目标语言文化主流价值观的极限,并阻止这些价值观对某一文化他者进行帝国主义的归化(Venuti,1995:13),Venuti强调偏离本土主流文化价值观的“异化”翻译思辨,这些观点反映了“文化研究”语言表证的“政治性”,反映“学术政治”的学术话语包含或折射的特殊政治观点和方法论――后结构主义解构中心,反抗权威,强调边缘性和多元性等。所谓“归化”“异化”翻译思辨和实践不仅属于结构、文化、语义层面上的探讨,而且亦属于对结构和语符所承载的语义认知升华和处延,是基于是否具有“文化间平等对话”。

归化或异化策略这种翻译手段,他们并不是绝对的,而是对立统一,相得益彰。归化的翻译在理论上是把语言作为交际工具,在实践上强调通俗易懂,避免多义或歧义。一般认为当原文和译文由于文化因素而不能通达时,“要用译语文化代替源语文化”即把目的语中找不到的词汇改头换面,或套用与之相似的表达,把他们变成读者熟悉的目的语文化形象。翻译中的异化,则是指译者采用相异于译出语作者的表达方式,再现译出语的内容和异质因素。要尽量传达原作异域文化特色、尽量传达原作特有的语言形式、尽量传达原语作者特有的写作方法。由此可见,异化翻译是尽可能地保留译出语的语言和文化差异,展现译出语的异域性,使译入语读者感受到“洋腔洋味洋风景”。其目的是要开拓译入语读者的文化视野,丰富译入语的表达能力,促进不同文化之间的交流融合。译者在翻译实践中采用“归化”的原则和方法,还是采用“异化”的原则和方法,应根据在翻译中涉及的多种因素,应根据具体的语境、翻译的目的、译入语的包容度、文学作品、作家、译入语读者的接受效果、民族的思维习惯和不同文化的趋同程度的具体情况进行取舍。中、西方的翻译实践史均证明了采用一种宽容和归、异化兼蓄的理性态度和实践。例如在西方的文艺复兴时期,大量的古希腊的哲学、文化、伦理和科学术语被创化异化翻译而成为外语和欧洲其他各种语言的一部份便是一个极好的例子。

四、结语

在我典籍汉译外的翻译实践中,应该加强“文化平等对话”的自觉意识,应该打破历史上“西方中心”的翻译思辨观和译介现象,以异化方法论翻译我汉典籍独有的哲学概念和思辨范式,让目标语文化下的读者群体在阅读时有某种偏离本土文化和哲学思辨观的陌生感。同时认识到:异化翻译不可滥用,“异化”造词的翻译实践和所谓文化平等对话只是一个相对的。不同语言文化间的互文性使得大量的异质文化特质重现,因此,译者必须寻求和依赖原质文化和语言的语理和语性的合作而翻译实践。

参考文献:

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(作者系北京师范大学外国语言文学学院2007届在职硕士)

范文三:(考)典籍翻译 投稿:许塡塢

典籍翻译

一.典籍名称

1. The Book of Poetry 《诗经》

2. The Confucian Analects 《论语》

3. Strategies of the Warring States 《战国策》

4. The Works of Mencius 《孟子》

5. Historical Records 《史记》

6. Peace-Blossom Source 《桃花源记》

7. History of the Three Kingdoms 《三国志》 Three Kingdoms 《三国演义》

8. The Song of Eternal Sorrow 白居易:《长恨歌》

9.The Four Books 《四书》

10.The Five Classics 《五经》

11.The Verse/Elegies of Chu 《楚辞》

12.Zuo’s Commentary 《左传》

13.Strategies/Intrigues of the Warring States;Anecdotes of the Warring States 《战国策》

14.The Great Learning 《大学》

15.The Doctrine of the Mean 《中庸》

16.The Book of History/Documents, or The Classic of 《书经》或《尚书》

17.The Book /Record of Rites or The of Rites 《礼记》,

18.The Book of Change (s) 《易经》

19.The Spring and Autumn (Annals) 《春秋》

20. Chuang Tzu 《庄子》

21. Lao Tzu; Laotse 《老子》

22. The Wisdom of Laotse 老子 《道德经》

23. The Story of the Stone/ A Dream of Red Mansions 《红楼梦》

24. Journey to the West 《西游记》 History

25. Outlaws of the Marsh/ The Water Margin/ Heroes of the Marshes/ All Men Are Brothers 《水浒传》

26. History as a Mirror 司马光 《资治通鉴》

27. History of the Han Dynasty 《汉书》

28. Discourse Weighed in the Balance 王充 《论衡》

二.句子、段落

1.今风尘碌碌,一事无成,忽念及当日所有之女子,一一细考较去,觉其行止见识,皆出于我之上.何我堂堂须眉,诚不若彼裙钗哉?实愧则有余,悔又无益之大无可如何之日也!

---《红楼梦:楔子》

In this bust dusty world, having accomplished nothing, I suddenly recalled the girls I had known, considering each in turn, and it dawned on me that all of them surpassed me in behavior and understanding.

2.It is therefore a mark of the limitless goodness of god that he permits evils to exist, and draws from them good.

因此,上帝允许恶的存在,并使善从其中产生,这正是他无限善的标志。

4.吾今以此书与汝永别矣!吾作此书时,尚为世中一人;汝看此书时,吾已成为阴间一鬼。 I am writing this letter to bid you farewell! At this moment, I am still with breath in this world. When you read it, I will already become the member of the nether world.

5.吾作此书,泪珠和笔墨齐下,不能书竟,而欲搁笔。

Upon this, I feel so sad that tears are running along my cheeks, down to the napkin together with the ink, that I could hardly continue with the words.

6.又恐汝不察吾衷,谓吾忍舍汝而死,谓吾不知汝之不欲吾死也,故遂忍悲为汝言之。 for several times, I want to quit this letter but in that case you will never be able to know my ambition, and you may hold that I am willing to part with you, that I am too cruel to know you need me alive, thus this letter finally comes out sending my heart with unbearable sorrow.

7.吾至爱汝!即此爱汝一念,使吾勇于就死也!

I love you more than I can say! It is all my love for you that make me not fear for death./

I love you from the bottom of my heart. What makes me brave enough to die

a martyr’s death is the faith that I love you.

8.吾自遇汝以来,常愿天下有情人都成眷属,然遍地腥云,满街狼犬,称心快意,几家能够? Since we get to know each other, I always wish that Jack shall have Jill and all shall be well. However, we are confronted with a blood-soaked world full of turmoil, which make it almost impossible.

9.司马青衫,吾不能学太上之忘情也。

Since Bai Juyi, wet his clothes with tears out of sympathy for a girl who played the lute, how could I behave like a Saint and forget all my love for you ?

10.回眸一笑百媚生,六宫粉黛无颜色。

Glancing back and smiling,

She revealed a hundred charms.

All the powdered ladies of the six palaces

At once seemed dull and colourless.

11. 是故弟子不必不如师,师不必贤于弟子。

Hence pupils are not necessarily inferior to teachers, and teachers need not always be superior to pupils.

12. 鱼,我所欲也,熊掌,亦我所欲也,二者不可得兼,舍鱼而取熊掌者也。

I like fish and I also like bear’s paws. If I cannot have the two together, I will let the fish go, and take the bear’s paws.

13. 有朋自远方来,不亦乐乎?

It is such a delight to have friends coming from afar.

14. 上有天堂下有苏杭。

Just as there is a paradise in Heaven, there are Suzhou and Hangzhou on earth.

15. 山不在高,有仙则名;水不在深,有龙则灵。

Any mountain can be famous with the presence of an immortal, and any river can be holy with the presence of a dragon.

16. 昔我往矣,杨柳依依;今我来思,雨雪霏霏。

At first, when we started on our track,

The willows green were growing.

And now, when we think of the journey back,

It is raining fast and snowing.

17. 吾日三省吾身:为人谋而不忠乎?与朋友交而不信乎?传不习乎?

I daily examine myself on three points:-whether, in transacting business for others, I may have been not faithful;-whether, in intercourse with friends, I may

have been not sincere;-whether I may have not mastered and practiced the instructions of my teacher.

18.吾今与汝无言矣。吾居九泉之下遥闻汝哭声,当哭相和也。

In the days to come, I will never be able to speak to you. But while living in the nether world, my wail will echo with yours

19.吾平日不信有鬼,今则又望其真有。今人又言心电感应有道,吾亦望其言是实,则吾之死,吾灵尚依依旁汝也,汝不必以无侣悲。

I didn’t believe that there might be immortals on the earth but now I do hope so ! I also heard that there is a way for spiritual link and I do hope it truly works! In that case, in spite of my death, my soul could still be with you to ease your pain.

20.吾平生未尝以吾所志语汝,是吾不是处;然语之,又恐汝日日为吾担忧。吾牺牲百死而不辞,而使汝担忧,的的非吾所忍。吾爱汝至,所以为汝谋者惟恐未尽。卒不忍独善其身。 You may blame me for having never spoken of my ambition with you, but if I had, I would have blamed myself for worrying you day and night. I am willing to die a hundred times for our country, but I cannot stand your single worry for me. I love you so much and I always falls into the anxiety that the future I have planned for you is not well enough. I can’t bear to attend to my own ambition only!

21.穷则独善其身,达则兼济天下

When poor, they tried to better their own condition. When in power, they tried to better the condition of whole world as well.

22.嗟夫!巾短情长,所未尽者,尚有万千,汝可以模拟得之。吾今不能见汝矣!汝不能舍吾,其时时于梦中得我乎!一恸!

Alas! The napkin has so limited space that I couldn’t write down my unlimited love for you. Tens of thousands of words await, which you may encounter by reading the ones already on the napkin . I ,who will never be able to see you but still be living in your heart, will come to reunite with you in your dreams. What a pain!

23.家中诸母皆通文,有不解处,望请其指教,当尽吾意为幸。

If you have any difficulty in understanding this letter, please turn to our aunts all of whom are literate for help, so that you can fully understand my love and wishes for you.

范文四:翻译百本书籍 投稿:张瀞瀟

翻译史料文集(一)

1,《翻译论集》(罗新璋编),商务印书馆1984年初版,1047页;

这是我在商务做编辑时,约请北大校友罗兄编撰的,出版后,深受欢迎。最近,经修订后,已交清华大学出版社出版新版。

2,《翻译论集》[香港]刘靖之编,三联书店1981年香港版,387页;这是80年代出版的较好的译本翻译理论文集。只是在内地不大好买。

3,《翻译研究论文集》(1894—1948)、(1949—1983)两册,中国译协《翻译通讯》编辑部编,外语教学研究出版社1984年版,609+371页;

4,《翻译理论与翻译技巧论文集》中国对外翻译出版公司选编出版,1983年版,279页; 5,《翻译的技巧》钱歌川编著,商务印书馆1981年版,570页;

6,《语言与翻译》[苏联]巴尔胡达罗夫著蔡毅等编译,中国翻译出版公司1985年版,215页; 7,《翻译论集》吴曙天编,上海光华书局1933年版;

89,《奈达论翻译》,谭载喜编译,中国对外翻译公司1984年版,152页;

10,《林纾的翻译》钱钟书等著,商务印书馆1981年版,103页;

11 12,《西方翻译简史》谭载喜著,商务印书馆1991年版,324页;

13,《译艺谭》黄邦杰著,三联书店香港分店1991年版,199页;

14,《翻译新论》杨自俭、刘学云编,湖北教育出版社1994年版,849页; 15,《译学论集》张柏然、许钧主编,译林出版社1997年版,614页;

16, 17,《中国科学文献翻译史稿》黎难秋著,中国科技大学出版社1993年版,315页; 18,《中国科学翻译史》李亚舒、黎难秋主编,湖南教育出版社2000年版,744页; 19,《浑金璞玉集》刘重德著,中国对外翻译出版公司1994年版,344页;

20,《通天塔—文学翻译理论研究》[英]乔治·斯坦纳著庄绎传编译,中国对外翻译出版公司1987年版,136页;

翻译技巧文集(二)

21 22,《中国翻译简史——五四以前部分》马祖毅著,中国对外翻译公司1984年版,333页;

23,《影响中国近代社会的一百种译作》邹振怀著,中国对外翻译公司1996年版,442页; 24页;

25,《朱生豪传》,吴洁敏、朱宏达著,上海外语教育出版社1990年版,316页; 26,《严译名著丛刊》(8种10册)严复译,商务印书馆1981年版,包括《天演论》《原富》

《群学肄言》《孟德斯鸠法意》《社会通诠》《穆勒名学》《名学浅说》《群己权界论》(即《自由论》)等。

27,《三湘译论》刘重德主编,湖南出版社1995年版,435页;

28,《同声传译》(翻译必携实用中日口译即席翻译)大连理工大学出版社1991年

范文五:学籍卡翻译 投稿:朱讁讂

高 中 学 籍 卡 片

姓名 性别

年龄

23

农民、居民

居民

民族

家庭住址 政治面貌 科 目

政 语 治 文 语 学 语 语 语 理 学 史 理 物 育 95 96 86 82 89 93 84 84 97 89

吉林省 籍

第一学年

吉林省延吉市

第二学年 第三学年

第一 学期

91 89 94 90 90

第二 学期

90 95 87 89 87

第一 学期

91 90 90 91 93

第二 学期

95 90 85 90 93

第一 学期

96 90 92 89 95

第二 学期

92 95 95 92

汉 数

英 日 俄

物 化

90 85

87 94

91 92

85 87

历 地 生 体

89 92

91 95

91 97

90 95

第三高级中学

Senior High School Student Transcript

Name

Sex Male

Age 23

Farmer/Resident Resident

Nationality

Home Add Political Status

Jilin Province

Place of Birth

Yanji City, Jilin Province 2nd School Year Term 1 Term 2 3rd School Year Term 1 Term 2

1st School Year Subject Politics Korean Chinese

Mathematics

Term 1

Term 2

91 89 94 90 90

90 95 87 89 87

91 90 90 91 93

95 90 85 90 93

96 90 92 89 95 92 95 95 92

English Result of Study Japanese Russian Physics Chemistry History Geography Biology P.E.

86 82 87 93

84 84 97 89

90 85

87 94

91 92

85 87

89 95 96

92

91 95

91 97

90 95

No.3 Senor High School(seal)

范文六:第八届全国典籍翻译学术研讨会召开 投稿:钟蝝蝞

近期,由中国英汉语比较研究会典籍英译专业委员会主办,河北师范大学外国语学院承办的中国英汉语比较研究会典籍英译专业委员会第八届全国典籍翻译学术研讨会在河北师范大学新校区隆重举行。本次会议以中国文化典籍翻译为研讨主题。来自华东师范大学、南开大学、苏州大学、上海师范大学、广西百色学院等全国90多所高校的180余名代表参加了本次大会。

开幕式上河北师范大学副校长陆军恒致欢迎词,全国典籍英译研究会会长、南开大学外国语学院博士生导师王宏印教授致开幕词,外语教学与研究出版社社长徐建中出席会议并讲话。

会议期间,国内外语界知名学者进行了广泛而深入的交流。中国英汉语比较研究会会长、华东师范大学终身教授潘文国,中国典籍英译研究会名誉会长、苏州大学教授汪榕培,美国著名汉学家、翻译家、诗人梅丹理,中科院彩虹翻译终身成就奖、翻译文化终身成就奖获得者江枫教授,西南大学教授罗益民,河南大学教授郭尚兴分别作了《再论中国特色翻译学建设》《中国典籍英译的几点认识》《〈易经〉翻译与研究》《典籍翻译必须学好汉语汉字》《辜译〈论语〉中的虚化和归化问题》《宏观相契与微观相切》学术报告。

会议还根据研究主题划分了9个分会场进行小组讨论,包括“诗词翻译与研究”“典籍翻译史研究”“《红楼梦》与《金瓶梅》翻译研究”“中国文化对外传播”“典籍翻译理论研究”“民族典籍翻译研究”“典籍翻译策略研究”“哲学典籍翻译研究”“典籍翻译批评与质量评估”等。

受全国典籍英译研究会会长王宏印、常务副会长李正栓教授委托,河北师范大学赵长江教授在闭幕式上作了学术总结报告,既说明了目前典籍翻译领域所取得的成绩,也指出了其中存在的不足。比如,中国思想类作品的翻译作品译史长,译本多,研究多,成果丰,角度少,难度大;中国文学作品英译过分注重诗歌的韵脚和美,变得形式大于内容;散文在中国没有受到重视,译者很少,专职研究者更少;到目前为止,民族典籍翻译与民族典籍研究正在形成规模,但还存在一些问题,如,民族典籍译本相对较少、语言障碍问题、理论提升问题、团队问题和译本问题等。

此次会议参与人数众多,提交论文质量上乘,充分展示了老、中、青学者的最新研究成果。本次会议的举办肯定了我国目前典籍翻译所取得的成就,推动了典籍翻译工作的进一步发展,提高了典籍翻译工作的热情,也为典籍翻译今后的工作指明了方向。据了解,中国典籍翻译研究会每一年半举办一次“全国典籍翻译学术研讨会”,下一届全国典籍翻译学术研讨会将于2015年在江南大学召开。

(特约记者 李绍青 摄影 卢振林)

范文七:张志恒外文翻译 投稿:范捲捳

毕业论文(设计)

外文翻译

论文题目: 逆向物流回收:客户服务决定因素

系部名称:

学生姓名:

指导教师: 商学系 张志恒 李亚杰 专业班级: 学 号: 教师职称: 工商123班 201204014322 讲师

2015年01月09日

逆向物流回收:客户服务决定因素

一、引言

逆向物流是一个连续的物流过程,通过这一过程,产品从消费者转移到生产者为可能的再利用,回收,再制造或处置(约翰逊,1998)。欧洲逆向物流工作组(REVLOG,2002)描述为“逆向物流过程的计划、实施和控制原材料的流动、在制品库存、成品,从制造、分销或使用点对点的合理处置”。逆向物流的目的是重新恢复材料的价值或妥善处置提供了手段。与逆向物流相反,正向物流专注于从生产者到消费者的货物的流动。

马尔兹和玛兹(1998)提出,正向物流渠道的客户服务是一个多层面的概念,可以包含任何客观的或感性的元素。目标元素对应于基本的客户服务(或硬服务),如库存的可用性,准时交货和订单周期时间可靠性。感知元件(或软服务)是与供应商的反应能力,以应对特定的客户要求,如售后服务和有效处理信息要求。一些学者认识到,客户服务是物流研究和实践中关注的中心问题。逆向物流回收系统开始与消费者完成终端市场。这些系统可以是更多或更少的复杂取决于他们是否具有中间水平,如收集水平,传输水平和处理水平。

消费者在这一逆向物流系统中起着特别重要的作用,因为它们是整个物流链中的第一个环节。没有消费者的参与(通过对可回收材料的分类和处理),该系统将是不可能的。通过提供一个方便的系统,客户服务成为为消费者创造价值的试金石,以及在确保他们参与。

正如最近指出的,大多数的逆向物流领域的研究基本上是描述性的,而不是基于主观的证据,也不是理论基础(吉尔阿尔瓦雷斯等人,2007)。在回收的逆向物流系统,一个缺口仍然是开放的客户服务的主要内容,解释消费者参与选择性收集计划的全面调查。这一分析将提供最重要的客户服务的要素,因此,需要更多的关注和投资的基本信息。

二、逆向物流回收的背景

回收利用是一个资源回收选项,使部分或全部退货材料的使用,通过他们的原始生产者(S)或其他行业(REVLOG,2002)。回收过程基本上包括2个阶段。首先是收集服务阶段,包括所有必要的程序,使可能的进一步处理回收。二是从原材料的收集到原材料的再加工阶段。

一些研究表明,解决回收网络组织的重点在公共网络上,而其他人则描述私人系统。

在第一种情况下,环境问题和垃圾处理立法是逆向物流的主要动因。与这个观念相反是私人的逆向物流网络处理残留或报废的产品,回收经济上更具吸引力。私人处理器资助这些材料的运输以及回收过程本身。因为回收在经济上是可行的,大量的废弃产品(或零件)需要处理。

回收的逆向物流文献还探讨了回收活动的规划和控制(即关于收集,拆卸和处理,以及多少数量,如何,何时何地),可用的信息和通信系统(例如,软件,数据要求),回收的后勤影响,以及实施方案,以增加可回收材料的需求。

三、方法

3.1设置

绿点社会(GDS)是一家民营企业,创建于1997的目标管理综合回收系统包装废弃物管理。目前,GDS是发展这类活动在葡萄牙唯一的公司。GDS基本上是一个逆向物流的聚合与由三控股,代表近200家公司的股东结构。第一次举行的代表包装/进口商,其次是分销和零售贸易,和第三个代表的制造商和包装材料的回收。与国家法律的规定,GDS的目的是恢复整体包装重量的60%和2011年底回收55%的这种材料。可回收的材料包括玻璃,纸/纸板,轻包装(塑料,金属)和木材。除了这最后一种类型的材料,脱落的系统,通常被称为生态点,允许收集的包装残留物。

在其他欧洲国家的目标管理综合回收系统依赖于共同的环境责任原则。包装和公司财务制度,根据污染者付费原则中的数量和相应的包装材料的重量,俗称绿斑值,调节费必须支付。反过来,包装和进口商收到许可用绿色点标志包装,这表明这些公司将回收责任GDS和目标管理综合回收系统。分配的角色,确保他们的商业范围只卖不可重复使用的包装,通过集成系统。GDS的业务结构不包括直辖市,虽然他们有责任通过合同协议的多材料的收集和整理家庭包装残留。

消费者应该在生态环境中分离和处理他们的包装废弃物。包装制造商通过确保收集家庭包装回收完成循环。GDS的总体任务是逆向供应链管理,财务,保证整个系统的运作。该公司投资的一个主要部分,其年度总收入,以弥补城市带来的额外费用的多材料收集和排序。GDS还分合同运输服务处理包装残留物的回收公司和确保他们接收、储存和回收利用回收材料。

3.2问卷

这项研究结果的数据,来自2006年四月份五月份在结构化的问卷基础上进行的个人访谈。问卷设计考虑了一个广泛的对回收行为的科学审查,对关键要素的访谈GDS在其他欧洲国家进行管理和基准研究(西班牙,意大利,比利时)。问卷包括三个部分。第一节进行了社会经济的调查人口学特征:性别,年龄,学历,婚姻状况,职业,居住类型,房屋所有权和家庭月收入。第2节涉及到11元(包括在早期的研究)中的逆向物流系统特征的客户服务回收:处置收件人(1)位置,垃圾收集(2)频率(3)可至处置收件人,

(4)数处置收件人,(5)清洁和维护处置收件人,(6)当地的安全,(7)排空规律,(8)提供的信息,(9)支持和索赔服务,(10)系统是否足够的生活方式,和(11)号的合适的废物原料和类型。一个李克特五点量表评估这些因素,从1 - 很不满意5 - 非常满意。

第3节看消费者参与回收计划,并考虑两个问题。第一项措施,自我报告的家庭回收行为(规模:1 - 分离并有选择地丢弃可回收垃圾,0 - 不分离,并有选择地丢弃可回收垃圾)。第二评项估可回收材料的分离和处理的生态点的频率(比例:1 - 从来没有,2 - 有时,3 - 永远)。

3.3样本和数据

研究人群包括生活在法鲁市成人葡萄牙公民。法鲁是阿尔加维的首都,位于葡萄牙南部,包括六个教区,总人口有58 350居民,其最重要的经济活动是旅游业和服务业。从这一人群中,本研究选取了一个随机抽样的267名公民。样本的计算使用的最保守的估计为一个单一的比例(p= 0.5),置信水平为95%和最大误差为6%。本研究采用分层抽样和访谈分布根据教区是常住人口的比例。在每个教区最重要的购物街被选作地点来进行面试。学院学生管理的问卷调查的受访者在这些街道上,与随机选择的受访者,根据一个系统的过程。一份调查问卷被送到第一人称(14岁以上),在一个限定的时间内通过面试官。然后,建立了一个采样间隔5人,以选择其余的受访者,因此,以填补样本阶层定义为每个教区。

3.4数据分析方法

本研究主要采用多元数据分析:探索性因子分析(EFA),验证性因素分析(CFA)和判别分析(DA)。

四、讨论和结论

消费者是一个逆向物流链中最重要、最重要的环节,目的在于回收家用包装物。事

实上,没有消费者的参与和持续合作,这个系统不可能存在。本文探讨了消费者参与的动机的重要性确保可回收的材料可用于回收产业目标管理综合回收系统。通过使用多元统计方法相结合,这项研究表明,提供消费者的便利,以获得更大的参与回收逆向物流系统的重要性。

这项研究还观察到客户服务水平,考虑到它们的相对在促进消费者参与的重要性:硬的水平是相对较软的水平。这一发现也有管理的影响,因为它有助于优先考虑整体的物流需求对于一个更有效的选择性收集系统。虽然回收葡萄牙逆向物流系统的整体组织和性能需要整体改善重要的优先级我们定义的生态点的位置更容易和更方便的人口访问。在这方面,重点应转如可用的支持和索赔服务,更多的回收意识活动,和一般的处理条件向方面(清洁,维护,安全等)。

带有集中处理设施的逆向物流系统(以生态点为例在葡萄牙)更不方便,因为消费者必须下降点运输和存款可回收材料。然而,这些系统也比路边的替代较昂贵的。在路边的方案,是集送货上门,这增加了便利的同时也收集成本和最终系统的整体成本。一个不太昂贵的收集选择是保持生态点并投资于更方便的地点。然而,考虑到硬的客户服务水平的相对重要性为消费者参与的主要因素,提供路边收集的可能性,至少是暂时的,在几个直辖市应考虑。正如这项研究表明,缩短了距离,消费者必须前往到达收集点是最好的方式,以获得更大的参与。对所收集的材料的数量和质量的提高可以弥补路边收集额外征收费用。这是一方面,显然值得进一步调查。

总的来说,这项研究阐明了需要解决所有的客户服务元素。重要限制,但是,是一个事实,样本是小的,从一个单一的城市,作为一个结果,推广的结论需要额外的研究。此外,改善客户服务带来的挑战,其克服需要额外的研究。管理系统的实体必须增加消费者的参与度,而不需要增加消费者的参与度损害系统的经济可行性。因此,一个重要的挑战,这样的反向物流系统需要克服的是要找到最好的方法,使战略成本降到最低收集系统不影响消费者的服务性能。另一个挑战,出现在回收的逆向物流系统是保证市场吸收回收的材料。收集的包装残留物的质量影响系统的性能,因为大多数弄脏材料要么不能再回收,要么会导致返工成本的增加。在这个意义上,应给予更多的支持,以促进新产品的开发利用回收的材料,也是营销活动,目的是提高消费者使用这种材料时的意识。

本文摘译自“国际商业杂志科学和应用管理,2009年4卷1期”

Reverse logistics for recycling: The customer service

Determinants

1 INTRODUCTION

Reverse logistics is the continuous logistic process through which shipped products move from the consumer back to the producer for possible reuse, recycling, remanufacturing or disposal (Johnson, 1998). The European Working Group on Reverse Logistics (RevLog, 2002)describes reverse logistics as “the process of planning, implementing and controlling the flows of raw materials, in process inventory, and finished goods, from a manufacturing, distribution or usage point to a point of proper disposal”. The purpose of a reverse logistics process is to regain the value of returned materials or provide the means for proper disposal. Forward logistics, in contrast to reverse logistics, focuses on the flow of goods from the producer to the consumer.

As Maltz and Maltz (1998)propose,customer service in the forward logistics channels is a multifaceted concept that can encompass either objective or perceptual elements. Objective elements correspond to basic customer service (or hard service) such as inventory availability, on time delivery and order cycle time reliability. Perceptual elements (or soft service) are those related to the suppliers’ ability to respond to specific customer requests such as after-sale service and effective handling of information requests. Several authors recognize that customer service is an issue of central concern in logistics research and practice .

Reverse logistics systems for recycling begin with the consumer and finishes with the end market. These systems can be more or less complex depending on whether they possess intermediate levels, such as, the collection level, the transfer level and the processing level. Consumers have a particularly important role in this reverse logistics system since they are the first link in the overall logistics chain. Without consumer participation (through the sorting and disposing of recyclable materials), this system would not be possible. By providing a convenient system, customer service becomes the touchstone in creating value for consumers as well as in securing their participation (Turner et al., 1994).

As recently pointed out, most research in the reverse logistics field is essentially descriptive and based on subjective evidence rather than on theoretical bases (Alvarez-Gil et al., 2007). In terms of the reverse logistics systems for recycling, one gap that remains open is the comprehensive investigation of the main elements of customer service that explain the

consumer involvement in selective-collection programs. This analysis would provide fundamental information about the most important customer service elements and, thus, that require more attention and investment.

2 BACKGROUND ON REVERSE LOGISTICS FOR RECYCLING

Recycling is a resources recovery option that enables the use of part or all materials from returned goods, either by their original producer(s) or by other industries (RevLog, 2002). The recycling process essentially encompasses two stages. The first is the collection service stage and includes all the necessary procedures that make recyclables possible for further reprocessing. The second is the reprocessing stage from the collection of materials to the replacement of primary raw materials.

Some of the studies that address the organization of recycling networks focus on public networks, while others describe private systems. In the first case,environmental concerns and waste disposal legislation are the main motivations underlying reverse logistics. Contrary to this notion are private reverse logistics networks that handle residues or end-of-life products in which recycling is economically more attractive. Private processors finance the transportation of these materials as well as the recycling process itself. For recycling to be economically viable, a significant amount of discarded products (or parts) need to be processed.

The reverse logistics literature for recycling also explores the planning and control of recovery activities (i.e., the decisions about what to collect, disassemble and process, and in what quantities, how, when and where), the available information and communication systems (e.g., software, data requirements), the logistical implications of recycling, and the implementation of programs to increase the demand of recyclable materials.

3METHODS

3.1 Setting

The Green Dot Society (GDS) is a private company, created in 1997 with the purpose of managing the Integrated Recovery System of Packaging Waste Management . Currently, GDS is the only company that develops this type of activity in Portugal. GDS is essentially a reverse logistics aggregator with a shareholder structure composed of three holdings that represent almost 200 companies. The first holding represents the packagers/importers, the second represents the distribution and retail trade, and the third represents the manufacturers and recyclers of packaging material. In compliance with national legislation, GDS aims to recover

60% of the overall packaging weight and recycle 55% of this material by the end of 2011. Recyclable materials include glass, paper/cardboard, lightweight packaging (plastic, metal) and wood. With the exception of this last type of material, drop-off systems, often referred to as eco-points, allows for the collection of packaging residues.

As in other European countries, the IRSPWM relies on the principle of shared environmental responsibility. Packers and importers finance the system, based on the polluter-pays principle in which the amount and weight of the corresponding packaging material, commonly known as the green spot value, regulates the fee they must pay. In turn, packers and importers receive permission to mark their packaging with the Green Spot symbol, which shows that these companies transfer their recovery responsibility to GDS and the IRSPWM. The distribution role ensures that their commercial confines only sell non-reusable packaging through the Integrated System. The GDS’s business structure does not include municipalities though they are responsible through contract agreement for the multi-material collection and sorting of household packaging residues.

Consumers should necessarily separate and dispose of their packaging waste at the eco-point. The packaging manufacturers complete the cycle by securing the recycling of collected household packaging. The GDS’s overall mission is to manage the reverse supply chain, finance and guarantee the functioning of the entire system. This corporation invests a major part of its annual overall income to compensate for the additional costs that municipalities incur with multi-material collection and sorting. GDS also sub-contracts transportation services that handle packaging residues for recycling companies and ensures that they receive, store and recycle recovered material.

3.2 Questionnaire

Data of this research result from personal interviews performed in April and May of 2006 based on a structured questionnaire . The questionnaire design took into account an extensive review of scientific on recycling behavior, interviews on key elements of GDS management and benchmark studies carried out in other European countries (Spain, Italy and Belgium). The questionnaire encompasses three sections. Section 1 conducts an inquiry of the socio-demographic characteristics: gender, age, educational qualification, marital status, occupation, residence type, home ownership and family monthly income. Section 2 involves eleven elements (included in the earlier study) characterizing customer service in the reverse logistics system for recycling: (1) location of disposal recipients, (2) frequency of waste

collection, (3) distance to the disposal recipients, (4) number of disposal recipients, (5) cleaning and maintenance of disposal recipients, (6) local safety, (7) emptying regularity, (8) available information, (9) support and claim service, (10) system adequacy to lifestyle, and (11) number and type of suitable waste materials. A Likert five-point scale assesses these elements, ranging from 1–very unsatisfied to 5–very satisfied. Section 3 looks to measure consumer involvement in the recycling program and considers two questions. The first measures the self-reported household recycling behavior (scale: 1 – separates and selectively discards recyclable waste, 0–does not separates and selectively discards recyclable waste). The second evaluates the frequency of separation and disposal of recyclable materials at the eco-points (scale: 1–never, 2–sometimes, 3–always).

3.3 Sample and data

The study population encompassed the adult Portuguese citizens living in Faro city. Faro is the capital of Algarve, located in the southern Portugal, comprehending six parishes. Faro has a total population of 58 350 inhabitants and its most important economic activities are tourism and services. From this population, the study selected a random sample of 267 citizens. The calculation of the sample used the most conservative estimate for a single proportion ( p = 0.5), a confidence level of 95% and a maximum error of 6%. The study used stratified sampling and the distribution of the interviews according to parishes was proportional to the resident population. In each parish the most important shopping street was selected as the location to perform the interviews. College students administered the questionnaires to respondents in those streets, with respondents chosen at random, according to a systematic procedure. A questionnaire was delivered to the first person (older than 14) passing near the interviewer at a defined hour. Then, a sampling interval of 5 people was established in order to select the remaining respondents and, thus, to fill the sample stratum defined to each parish.

3.4Data analysis methods

This study uses the following methods of multivariate data analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and discriminant analysis (DA).

4 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION

Consumers are the foremost and decisive link in a reverse logistics chain that aims to recycle household packaging residues. In fact, without consumers’involvement and continuous collaboration, this system cannot exist. This article explores the importance of consumer motivation to participate in the IRSPWM by ensuring that the recyclable materials are

available for the recycling industries. By using a combination of multivariate statistical methods, this study shows the importance of providing consumer convenience in order to gain greater involvement in reverse logistics systems for recycling.

The study also observes the customer service levels by taking into account their relative importance in fostering consumer involvement: the hard level is relatively more important than the soft level. This finding also has managerial implications since it helps prioritize the overall logistics needs for a more effective selective-collection system. Although the overall organization and performance of the Portuguese reverse logistics system for recycling requires global improvement, an important priority us defining the location of the eco-points in terms of easier and more convenient population access. In establishing this, focus should turn to aspects such as available support and claim service, more recycling awareness campaigns, and general disposal conditions (cleaning, maintenance, safety, etc).

Reverse logistics systems with centralized the disposal facilities (as is the case with the eco-points in Portugal) are more inconvenient because consumers must transport and deposit recyclable materials at drop-off points. However, these systems are also less expensive than the curbside alternative. In curbside schemes, collection is door-to-door, which increases convenience but also collection costs and ultimately the overall cost of the system. A less expensive collection option is to maintain eco-points and invest in more convenient locations. However, considering the relative importance of the hard customer service level as the main determinant of consumer involvement, the possibility of providing curbside collection, at least temporarily and in a few municipalities, should be considered. As this study shows, shortening the distance that consumers have to travel to reach the collection points is the best way to obtain greater involvement. The improvement of the quality and quantity of the collected materials may compensate the additional collection costs of curbside collection. This is as aspect that clearly deserves further investigation.

On the whole, this study clarifies the need to address all customer service elements. An important limitation, however, is the fact that the sample is small and drawn from a single city and, as a consequence, the generalization of the conclusions needs additional research. Furthermore, the improvement of customer service brings challenges whose overcoming requires additional research. Entities that manage the system must weight the need of increasing consumers’ involvement without compromising the system’s economic viability. Therefore, an important challenge that such a reverse logistics system needs to overcome is to find the best way to minimize the strategic costs of the collection system without affecting consumer service performance. Another challenge that arises in the reverse logistics systems

中原工学院信息商务学院外文翻译

for recycling is to guarantee that the market absorbs the recycled materials. The quality of collected packaging residues affects the performance of the system because most soiled materials either cannot be further recycled or may lead to increased reprocessing costs. In this sense, additional support should be given to research that promotes the development of new products using recycled materials and also marketing campaigns that aim to increase consumer awareness in using such materials.

10

范文八:《游恒山记》翻译 投稿:覃腇腈

十一日,天空无云,风也停了,澄碧的天像水洗过一样。我拄着拐杖开始攀登恒山,向东走,一路尽是低矮的土山,没有爬山的辛劳。

走了一里,转向北再走,所见之山都是煤炭,不需要深挖就可得到。又走了一里,山上的土石都呈红色。有盘曲的松树并列路旁,有一座亭叫望仙亭。又走了三里,山崖渐渐高起来,阳光透过松树像过筛一样投下阴影,这里名叫虎风口。从此石路萦绕盘旋,开始了顺着山崖借着峭壁向上攀登。攀了三里,有一座高大的牌坊刻着“朔方第一山”,里面有一间官房,有厨房,有水井。从牌坊的右边向东顺着石阶而上,崖的半腰是寝宫,寝宫的北边是飞石窟,再向上就是北岳殿了。北岳殿上面是绝壁,下面挨着官房,殿下很高的台阶插向云天,廊屋上下,高大的石碑密集地竖着。从殿的右面上去,有石窟,靠着北岳殿构成一间屋子,叫会仙台。台中塑着群仙,四周排列紧密没有空隙。我这时想着从高崖攀援登.亡绝顶。转过北岳殿东,望见高崖裂开的地方,中间悬垂千尺草莽,是登顶的小路。行了二里,出了高崖,抬头远看山顶,还突出地悬在半空里,然而满山的荆棘茂密,参差的树枝和枯竹,只是钩刺衣服,抓住攀踏立即折断,不断地努力,却好像坠人洪流中,没在水里不能出来。我更加鼓足勇气攀登,许久才钻出荆棘,登上峰顶。 这时阳光明亮绚丽,向下看山的北面,山崖崩裂的石块纷纷坠落,各种树浓阴遮蔽。这山的土山没有树,而石山才有树。北边的山坡都是石山,所以树都长在北边。浑源州城,也在山麓。向北看,隔着一重山,苍茫看不到边际。南边是龙泉山,西边是五台山,一片青葱,和恒山为伴。近处是向西延伸的龙山,龙山的东边是它的支峰,好像肩并肩、袖接袖地阻挡着沙漠。

过了一会儿,从峰西下山,寻找先前进入山峡的高崖,俯身看一片茫茫,不敢下。忽然回头向东看,见有一个人在上面飘摇,因而又上到那里问那个人,他指着东南松柏之间,朝着那个方向走,就是上山时所见到的寝宫后面的高崖顶。不一会儿,果然有一条路。经过松柏林,先前从山顶望松柏是一片葱青,好像是蒜叶草茎,到了这里一看却是合抱的参天大树,比虎风口的松柏不止百倍啊。从山崖隙缝直下,恰好到寝宫的右边,就是飞石窟了

范文九:典籍翻译道德经2 投稿:萧洜洝

道德经第五章

原文:天地不仁,以万物为刍狗;圣人不仁,以百姓为刍狗。天地之间,其犹橐籥乎?虚而不屈,动而愈出。多言数穷,不如守中。

现代汉语:天地是无所谓仁慈的,它没有仁爱,对待万事万物就像对待刍狗一样,任凭万物自生自灭。圣人也是没有仁爱的,也同样像刍狗那样对待百姓,任凭人们自作自息。天地之间,岂不像个风箱一样吗?它空虚而不枯竭,越鼓动风就越多,生生不息。政令繁多反而更加使人困惑(加速国家的衰败),更行不通,不如保持虚静。

重点词汇:①仁:仁义,仁爱和仁慈,没有偏爱,偏私②刍狗:祭品,古代祭祀时用草扎成的狗(sort of oblation)③犹:如同。④橐籥:古代冶炼时用以鼓风吹火的装置,犹今之风箱。⑥屈(jué):竭,尽。7.多言数穷:人话多,政令繁多⑧守中:守中道,恰当,保持虚静,虚空。

译文:The haven and the earth do not emphasize benevolence and kindheartedness. It treats everything as straw dogs and let them run their own course. This is also true of the sage. He treats the ordinary people as straw dogs too, and let them stew in their own juice. Doesn’t it look like a bellow between the heaven and the earth? It is hollow but not exhausted, the more frequently you pull, the more wind will arise, continuing to go on and never stop. Too much policies and regulations make people even more confused and possess less feasibility. Perhaps keep void and quiet is the best way.

修改之处:1.“不仁”的译法,译文benevolence

2.“刍狗”,可译为“straw dogs”并在后面加以解释

3.“虚而不屈”原意味“empty”,后发现译为“hollow”更为贴切

4.“守中”译为保持虚静,即keep void,与前几章节互相呼应

5.“多言数穷”既可理解为政令繁多,亦可理解为人言多必失

道德经第六章

原文:谷神不死,是谓玄牝。玄牝之门,是谓天地根。绵绵若存,用之不勤。

现代汉语:生养天地万物的道(谷神)是永恒长存的,这叫做玄妙的母性。玄妙母体的生育之门,这就是天地的根本。连绵不绝啊!它就是这样不断的永存,作用是无穷无尽的。

译文:Tao(God of Grain), which feed everything in the world is eternal and will exist forever. It’s a womb, and the opening of the womb is the roots of the heaven and the earth. It exists forever and its use is infinite.

重点词汇:①谷:谷神,引申理解为“道”changeable and inexhaustible。②玄牝:玄是不可思议的意思。玄牝:微妙化生之意,是说道化生万物而不见其所以生,所以将道比作一个女性生殖器,参照辜正坤译为“womb”,“matrix”。

③绵绵:连续不断地样子。④若:如,像。⑤勤:指道不断地运作,不会停止。 修改之处:1.“谷神”理解为“the changeable and inexhaustible Tao”

2.“玄牝”译为“womb”

道德经第七章

原文:天长地久。天地所以能长且久者,以其不自生,故能长生。是以圣人后其身而身先,外其身而身存。非以其无私邪?故能成其私。

现代汉语:天长地久,天地所以能长久存在,是因为它们不为了自己的生存而自然地运行着,所以能够长久生存。因此,有道的圣人遇事谦退无争,反而能在众人之中领先;将自己置于度外,反而能保全自身生存。这不正是因为他无私吗?所以能成就他的自身。

重点词语:①不自生:不为自己所生。②身:自身,自己。③私:以自己为中心的意识。④私:自己的事业。

译文:The Heaven and the Earth are eternal and will exist forever, and the reason of their external existence lies in that they do not running for their own. Therefore, the sage who mastered the secret of Tao is modest and bears no ill will against anybody, while always keeping ahead among others; he completely disregards his own existence, and yet it turns out that his existence is persevered.

道德经第八章

原文:上善若水,水善利万物而不争。处眾人之所恶,故几於道。居善地,心善渊,与善仁,言善信,正善治,事善能,动善时。夫唯不争,故无尤。

现代汉语:最善的人好像水一样。水善于滋润万物而不与万物相争,停留在众人都不喜欢的地方,所以最接近于“道”。最善的人,居处最善于选择地方,心胸善于保持沉静而深不可测,待人善于真诚、友爱和无私,说话善于格守信用,为政善于精简处理,能把国家治理好,处事能够善于发挥所长,行动善于把握时机。最善的人所作所为正因为有不争的美德,所以没有过失,也就没有怨咎。

重点词语:①几(jī):将近,接近。②渊:指程度深。③仁:仁人志士。④信:诚信,信用。⑤能:允许的,可以的。⑥时:时机。⑦尤:过失。

译文:The highest level of goodness is like the running water which does good to everything rather than contend with them. It prefers to dwell a place where others are not willing to stay, and that place is close to Tao. A man of perfect goodness, living in a place full of goodness, with a heart as calm as water, treating people friendly, loyfully and selflessly, speaking sincerely, ruling the state wisely, doing things properly, taking action timely. A man of perfect goodness never contends with others, so he will never make mistakes.

范文十:书籍--孙犁翻译 投稿:范攂攃

我和书

我同书籍,即将分离。我虽非英雄,颇有垓下之感,即无可奈何.

I will part with my books soon and there is nothing i can do about it. Though i am not a hero, I have gone through the same kind of emothional sentimennt Xianyu, a hero and the Chu king in the late Qing dynasty, had when he was besieged in Haixia. 这些书,都是在全国解放以后,来到我家的。最初零零碎碎,中间成套成批。有的来自京沪,有的来自苏杭。

I purchased them after Liberation, fewer at the beginging, but in larger quantity later on. Some were obtained in Peking and Shanghai,and some others in Suzhoug and Hanzhoug.

最初,囊中羞涩,也曾交臂相失。中间也曾一掷百金,稍有豪气。总之,时历三十余年,我同它们,可称故旧。

As I was not rich at the begining, I was pitifully unable to claim possession of some books. Later on I generously squandered large sums just to get hold of some others. Ultimately we become old buddies since the relationship has lasted as long as thirty years.

十年浩劫,我自顾不暇,无心也无力顾及它们。但它们辗转多处,经受折磨、潮湿、践踏、撞破,终于还是回来了。

During the cultural revolution which lasted as long as a decade, i could not take care of myself and my books which, after being tramped, dented and toutured in a state of constant damp and travel,eventually came back

失去了一些,我有些惋惜,但也不愿去寻觅它们,因为我失去的东西,比起它们,更多也更重要。 Althrough I lost some over the years Regretablly, I was reluctant to reclaim them because what I lost in the past was something of greater importance and larger quantity.

它们回到寒舍以后,我对它们的情感如故。

When they came to my humble abode once again, my affection towards them did not change.

书无分大小、贵贱、古今、新旧,只要是我想保存的,因之也同我共过患难的,一视同仁。 Whatever they are, large or small, expensive or cheap, new or old,and whenever their publication, in the past or at present,I treat them equal as long as they fall into my type and thus have gonethrough the same sufferings and hardships with me. 洗尘,安置,抚慰,唏嘘,它们大概是已经体味到了。

They must have felt what they mean to me when I laboriously brushed them, settled them down, soothed them and sighed over their tragedies.

近几年,又为它们添加了一些新伙伴。当这些新书进入我的书架,我不在打印章,写名字,只是给它们包裹一层新装,记下到此的岁月。

In recent years, I accompanied them with new partners who, instead of getting named and signatured, were simply wrapped up in new covers with words indicating their date of arrival before I put them on the shelves.

这是因为,我意识到,我不久就会同它们告别了。我的命运是注定了的。但它们各自的命运,我是不能预知的,也不能担保的。

For I am aware of the fact that, as I have my own destiny, I will part with them in no time,. But their destiny can not be predicted and ensured.

My Books

Sun Li

Soon I'll part with my books; I'll have to, the way the ancient hero Xiang Yu parted with his favorite lady Y u Ji at Gaixia.

The books had arrived at my home since 1949, the year the country was liberated (from KMT rule). At first they came piecemeal and, later, in set or in bulk, some from Beijing and Shanghai, some from Suzhou and Hangzhou. During the first few years, as I was financially embarrassed, sometimes I had to turn from the books that would have liked to give everything in exchange for. However, there were occasions on which I threw my money on books with quite sense of lavish generosity. In short, having kept each other for over 30 years, I felt lifelong intimacy with them all.

During the ten years of the disastrous

After their return home I felt about them with the same affection as I did earlier. I treated them alike, whether they were big or small, old or new, expensi ve or inexpensive, classical orcontemporary, since they had been in my collection and, therefore, when I dusted and caressed them and then found a place for them to go to. I guessed they must have sensed how I felt about their return.

During the last couple of years I have found them some new companions. I no longer stamp my seal or write my name on them, however. Before putting them onto the bookshelves, I only clothe them with a new cover and put down the date of their arrival. This is because I am well aware that it will not be long before I bid farewell to my books. My fate has been predestined; as for what will happen to theirs, I can not foretell, much less can I guarantee.

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