苏武传特殊句式_范文大全

苏武传特殊句式

【范文精选】苏武传特殊句式

【范文大全】苏武传特殊句式

【专家解析】苏武传特殊句式

【优秀范文】苏武传特殊句式

范文一:特殊句式[1] 投稿:李哅哆

文言特殊句式

一、 被动句

至激于义理者不然 盖文王拘而演《周易》 屈原放逐,乃赋《离骚》 韩非囚秦,《说难》、《孤愤》 不拘于时

盖当蓼洲周公之被逮 不能容于远近 而君幸于赵王

臣诚恐见欺于王而负赵 虽万被戮,岂有悔哉 秦城恐不可得,徒见欺

永元中,举孝廉不行,连辟公府不就 吾属今为之虏矣 若属皆且为所虏

二、宾语前置

古之人不余欺也 句读之不知惑之不解 谁为哀者

钩党之捕遍于天下 大王来何操

沛公北向坐,张良西向侍 客何为者

不然,籍何以至此 如或知尔,则何以哉 居则曰,“不吾知也” 自书典所记,未之有也 何以知之

技经肯綮之未尝 今日之事何如 沛公安在

三、 定语后置

蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强 石之铿然有声者 持白璧一双

冠者五六人,童子六七人 求人可使报秦者

省略句

木直中绳,( )以为轮 藏之名山,传之其人 今以钟磬置水中

断头置头上,颜色不少变 激昂大义,蹈死不顾 亚父受玉斗,置之地 后数日驿至,果地震陇西 传以示美人及左右 竖子不足与谋

樊哙覆其盾于地,加彘肩上 将军战河北,臣战河南 遂于秦王会渑池 为击破沛公军 欲呼张良与俱去 今其智乃反不能及

军中无以为乐,请以剑舞 公视廉将军孰与秦王

秦时与臣游,项伯杀人,臣活之鼓瑟希,铿尔,舍瑟而作

词类活用:

名词活用作动词

非能水也 微风鼓浪 吾师道也 不耻相师

去今之墓而葬焉 其疾病而死

买五人之( )而函之

是时以大中丞抚吴者为魏私人 沛公欲王关中 沛公军霸上 籍吏民封府库 范增数目项王 刑人如恐不胜 如会同,端章甫 鼓瑟希

浴乎沂,风乎舞雩 三子者出,曾皙后

相如视秦王无意偿赵城,乃前曰 宦官惧其毁己,皆共目之 乃使其从者衣褐 左右欲刃相如

名词活用作状语

君子博学而日参省乎己 余自齐安舟行适临汝

事不目见耳闻,而臆断其有无 士大夫终不肯以小舟夜泊绝壁之下人皆得以隶使之 项伯乃夜驰之沛公军 吾得兄事之 常以身翼蔽沛公 头发上指,目眦尽裂 道芷阳间行

上食埃土,下饮黄泉 故令人持璧归,间至赵矣 而相如廷叱之 良庖岁更刀,割也

使动用法

虽大风浪不能鸣也 众不能堪,( )而扑之 安能屈豪杰之流 项伯杀人臣活之

沛公旦日从百余骑来见项王 拔剑撞而破之 比及三年可使足民 宁许以负秦曲 毕礼而归之 臣请完璧归赵

意动用法

吾从而师之 而耻学于师

与其身也则耻师焉 不耻相师

孔子师郯子、长弘、师襄、老聃大将军邓骘奇其才 先破秦入咸阳者王之 吾羞不忍为之下 且庸人尚羞之

形容词活用作名词

是故圣益圣愚益愚 此其志不在小 君安与项伯有故

形容词活用作动词

亦以明死生之大 素善留侯张良 秋毫不敢有所近 假舆马者,非利足也 不知将军宽之至此也

范文二:特殊句式及其他 投稿:毛矟矠

特殊句式及其他

(共3组,每组限时8分钟)

[一模题组]

1.(2013·南昌一模)It is comforting to see that ________, we are doing our part for the environment.

A.as small may be we

C.small as may be we B.as we may be small D.small as we may be

2.(2013·东北三校一模)I am certain by no means ________ his word since he has promised an amount of money to the poor.

A.he will break

C.broke B.will he break D.did he break

3.(2013·辽宁五校协作体第一次联考)________ about the man wearing sunglasses during night that he was determined to follow him.

A.So curious the detective was

B.So curious was the detective

C.How curious was the detective

D.How curious the detective was

4.(2013·青岛一模)Scientists are still wondering ________ the Egyptians built the pyramids so long ago.

A.how it is that

C.it is how that B.how is it that D.that how it is

5.(2013·安徽合肥三校一模)—Was it at 11 o'clock ________ your father came back last night?

—Yes, he is always coming back so late.

A.that

C.when B.while D.until

6.(2013·山东济宁一模)How close parents are to their children ________ a strong influence on the development of the children's characters.

A.having

C.has B.had D.have

7.(2013·安徽省芜湖三校一模)A recent study has found that the number of smokers

________ sharply over the past five years.

A.is increasing

B.are increasing

C.has been increasing

D.have been increasing

8.(2013·皖南八校第一次联考)He is only too ready to help others, seldom, ________, refusing them when they turn to him.

A.if never

C.if not B.if ever D.if anything

9.(2013·郑州一模)—Did you tell her the bad news?

—Yes, but I'd rather ________.

A.didn't

C.not have B.not D.hadn't

10.(2013·甘肃河西五市一模)Look! The ground is wet. It must have rained last night, ________?

A.hasn't it

C.mustn't it B.hadn't it D.didn't it

11.(2013·宝鸡一模)There is so much rain on the island that its annual rainfall reaches ________.

A.sixty inches as much as

B.as sixty inches much as

C.as much as sixty inches

D.as much sixty inches as

12.(2013·石家庄高三一模)—Have you seen the film Lost on Journey?

—Yeah, amazing! It's ________ than the films I have ever seen.

A.any less interesting

C.no more interesting B.much less interesting D.far more interesting

13.(2013·皖南八校第一次联考)A recent survey shows the number of people who shop in stores ________, while far more are shopping online.

A.decrease

C.is decreasing B.decreases D.are decreasing

14.(2013·咸阳一模)When we entered, we found lying on the ground ________ along with her parents.

A.was a girl

C.a girl was B.were a girl D.a girl were

15.(2013·安徽重点中学一模)Not only ________ to turn off the lights in the kitchen, but we also failed to lock the front door.

A.we forgot

C.did we forget B.forgot we D.we did forget

[二模题组]

1.(2013·陕西重点中学高三二模)We pursue happiness, thinking one day we will find it. But ________ it by seeking it.

A.rarely will we find

C.rarely will find we B.rarely we will find D.rarely find we will

2.(2013·天津12区二模)No sooner ________ down on bed ________ the telephone rang.

A.had he lain; than

C.did he lie; than B.had he lied; when D.had he laid; before

3.(2013·安徽蚌埠二检)Could it be in the restaurant ________ you had dinner with me yesterday ________ you lost your handbag?

A.where; when

C.that; which B.which; where D.where; that

4.(2013·河北石家庄二模)—________ has brought worldwide attention to China?

—Rapid and steady economic growth, of course.

A.What do you think it is

B.What do you think is it

C.What do you think it is that

D.What do you think is it that

5.(2013·湖南长沙二模)Either the judge or the lawyers ________ wrong on the case at that moment.

A.is

C.were B.are D.was

6.(2013·大连二模)We each ________ strong points, but each of us on the other hand ________ weak points.

A.have; have

C.have; has B.has; have D.has; has

7.(2013·咸阳二模)The murderer, together with his two brothers, ________ sentenced to death just now.

A.was

C.is B.were D.are

8.(2013·银川一中二模)—Are you pleased with what he has done?

—Not a bit. It couldn't be________.

A.so bad B.much better

C.any worse D.best

9.(2013·济南二模)It was during the Ming Dynasty ________ the Great Wall was repaired and extended to take on the appearance it has today.

A.when

C.what B.which D.that

10.(2013·陕西宝鸡二检)Not until he went abroad for further study ________ how attached he was to his parents.

A.that the realized

C.did he realize B.had he realized D.that he had realized

11.(2013·江西抚州五校二模)So absorbed ________ in our talk that my brother took a wrong turn on the way to the airport.

A.he was

C.is he B.was he D.he is

12.(2013·甘肃河西五市二模)In the middle of the forest ________, in which we often went fishing when I was a little child.

A.lies a deep lake

C.a deep lake lies B.a deep lake does lie D.does a deep lake lie

13.(2013·芜湖三校二模)I really can't think of ________ told me you were not coming back till tomorrow.

A.it was who that

C.that who was it B.who was it that D.who it was that

14.(2013·石家庄第二次质量检测)I don't believe you can do today's job with yesterday's methods and be in tomorrow's business, ________?

A.do I

C.can you B.don't I D.can't you

15.(2013·洛阳二模)This computer is worse than that one you bought last year, but it costs twice ________.

A.as many

C.so much B.as much D.so many

[押题题组]

1.—Amazingly, Zhuo Jun got first place for the “China's Got Talent”(中国达人秀) last night.

—So wonderfully ________ in the show that he deserved it.

A.did he perform

C.he performed B.had he performed D.he had performed

2.She realized that it was not the words but the way she spoke to Bruce ________ hurt him.

A.who

C.which B.whom D.that

3.The number of historic buildings which ________ has reached a surprising figure that we must be aware of.

A.has been pulled down

C.is being pulled down B.had been pulled down D.have been pulled down

4.—Jeremy rather than his friends ________ for the accident.

—Absolutely. He shouldn't have driven after being drunk.

A.are to be blamed

C.is to blame B.are to blame D.is to be blamed

5.In view of the global financial crisis, every possible means ________ to stimulate the economic development in China.

A.have tried

C.has tried B.have been tried D.has been tried

6.It was President Xi Jinping ________ visited the navy troops and urged to strengthen naval force on April 9,2013.

A.when

C.that B.which D.he

7.________ who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs.

A.Before George stood the policeman

B.Before George the policeman stood

C.Before the policeman stood George

D.Before George did the policeman stand

8.Kate had a terrible time this summer. Not a day ________ without having some .

unpleasantness with her sister at home.

A.she spent

C.did she spend B.she had spent D.had she spent

9.The Chinese government promised that under no circumstances ________ the efforts to provide universal and low-cost health care.

A.it would stop

C.would it stop B.it might stop D.might it stop

10.So quickly ________ is a possibility today may be a reality tomorrow.

A.are science and technology advancing that

B.science and technology advancing are that

C.science and technology are advancing what that

D.are science and technology advancing that what

解析:选D 考查特殊句式。句意:科学技术进步得如此之快以至于今天的可能性在明天也许就变成了现实。本句“so+adj./adv.”位于句首,句子要部分倒装,故助动词are应提到主语的前面。so ... that 引导一个结果状语从句,在这个从句中含有一个主语从句,主语从句缺主语,故用what引导。

11.When the millionaire was young, he was very poor. Only by doing part-time jobs during the summer holiday ________ afford to pay his college fees.

A.he could

C.can he B.could he D.he can

解析:选B 考查倒装和时态。句意:当这位百万富翁年轻的时候,他非常穷。只有在暑假做兼职工作他才能付得起大学的学费。“only+状语”置于句首时,句子应用部分倒装,此处说的是过去的事情,故选B。

12.—How unhappy your roommate looks!

—Yes, but he's not willing to tell me what it is ________ is troubling him.

A.what

C.as B.which D.that

解析:选D 考查强调句型。分析句子结构可知,此处为特殊疑问句的强调句式,其结构为“特殊疑问词+is+it+that+从句”,又因强调句在句中作tell的宾语,应用陈述句语序。故选D。

13.The smoggy weather has made us realize ________ terrible problems we are faced with.

A.how

C.that B.what D.which

解析:选B 考查感叹句。句意:雾霾天气让我们认识到我们面临的是多么严重的问题。terrible修饰句子的中心词problems,故用what。

14.Nothing that you say can change his mind, ________?

A.do you

C.can it B.don't you D.can't it

解析:选C 考查反意疑问句。句意:你说什么都不可能改变他的主意,难道不是吗?当陈述部分的主语是不定代词something, nothing等时,反意疑问部分的主语要用it。句中的nothing是表示否定含义的词,疑问部分用肯定形式,再根据谓语can可知反意疑问部分应用can it。

15.—Which one of these two dictionaries do you advise me to buy, Oxford or Longman? —Well, take Oxford. I think it is the ________ of the two.

A.best

C.good B.better D.well

解析:选B 考查形容词的比较级。句意:“牛津词典和朗文词典,你建议我买哪一本呢?”“哦,买牛津词典吧。这两本里我觉得牛津词典更好。”两者作比较,用比较级,因此选B。

范文三:C特殊句式 投稿:洪惜惝

特殊句式

一、主谓倒置

为了强调谓语,有时将谓语置于主语之前。这仅仅是因为语言表达的需要。

①甚矣,\汝之不惠(慧)!(《愚公移山》) 译文:“你太不聪明了”

②安在\公子能急人之困。(《信陵君窃符救赵》)译文:“公子能为别人困难而急的地方在哪里呢?”

二、宾语前置

【1】否定句中代词宾语前置

格式:主十否定词【不、未、无、莫、毋、弗】十宾【余、吾、尔、自、之、是】十动 ①三岁贯汝,莫我肯顾(《硕鼠》) 译文:“莫我肯顾”应理解成“莫肯顾我”。

②时人莫之许(《隆中对》) 译文:“可当时的人并不赞许他(这么看)”

③秦人不暇自哀(《过秦论》) 译文:“秦人来不及哀叹自己”。

④忌不自信(《邹忌讽齐王纳谏》) 译文:“邹忌不相信自己”

⑤然而不王者,未之有也(《齐桓晋文之事》)译文:“这样还不能称王天下,没有这样的事”

还有如: 毋吾以也,莫己若也(译:“不能因为我,(他)还不如自己”)

成语有:我无尔诈,尔无我虞 (译:“我不欺骗你,你不欺骗我”)

从上面的例句中可以得出这样的结论:否定句中宾语代词前置,必须具备两个条件:第一,宾语必须是代词,第二,全句必须是否定句,即必须有否定副词“不、未、毋(无)”等或表示否定的不定代词“莫”。代词宾语要放在动词之前否定词之后。

【2】疑问句中代词宾语前置

(1)宾语在动词前面

格式:主十宾【谁、奚、胡、何、曷、安、恶、焉】十动?

①良问曰:“大王来何操?”《鸿门宴》 译文:“张良问公道:„大王来的时候拿了什么?‟” ②问女何所思?(《木兰辞》) 译文:“问女儿在思考什么?”

③王见之曰:“牛何之?” (《晏子使楚》)译文:“大王看见了问道:„把牛牵到哪里?‟” ④何伤乎? (《齐桓晋文之事》) 译文:“妨碍什么呢(有什么妨碍呢)?”

⑤王曰:“缚者曷为者也?”(《晏子使楚》)译文:“大王问:„绑着的人是干什么的?‟” ⑥吾谁敢怨?(《捕蛇者说》) 译文:“我敢埋怨谁呢?”

⑦且焉置土石?(《愚公移山》) 译文:“况且把土石放置在哪里?”

(2)宾语放在介词前面

3

格式:主十宾【谁、奚、胡、何、曷、安、恶、焉】十介十动?

①不然,籍何以至此?(《鸿门宴》) 译文:“不这样,我(项羽)凭什么到这个地步呢?” ②谁为哀者?(《五人墓碑记》) 译文:“(你们在)替谁哀哭呢?”

③长安君何以自托于赵?(《蟹龙说赵太后》)译文:“长安君凭什么在赵国站住脚呢?” ④国胡以相恤?(《论积贮疏》) 译文:“国家用什么来救济老百性呢?”

⑤臆!微斯人吾谁与归?《岳阳楼记》译文:“哦!除了这样的人,我能同谁在一起呢?” ⑥虽生,何面目以归汉?(《苏武传》)译文:“即使活着,(我)凭什么脸面回汉朝去呢?”

【3】陈述句中介词宾语前置

格式:宾十介十动

①钩以写龙,凿以写龙(《叶公好龙》) 译文:“用钩子来画龙,用凿子来雕刻龙” ②余是以记之 (《游褒禅山记》) 译文:“我因此记下了这件事”

③一言以蔽之 译文:用一句话来概括它

④楚战士无不一以当十(《勾践灭吴》) 译文:楚国的战士没有谁不用一个抵挡十个来拼命的作战的。

⑤成语有:夜以继日(译:用夜晚来接着白天)

【4】用“之”、“是”作标志的宾语前置

格式:主十宾十之(是)十动

①夫晋,何罪之有? (《烛之武退秦师》) 译文:“晋国,有什么罪过呢?”

②唯弈秋之为听 (《弈秋》) 译文:“只听弈秋的教导”(“唯”译为“只”,下同) ③句读之不知,惑之不解(《师说》) 译文:“不了解句读,不能解答疑惑”

④唯陈言之务去 (《答李翊书》) 译文:“只是务必除去那些陈旧的话”

⑤父母唯其疾之忧 译文:“父母只忧虑他的疾病”

⑥唯马首是瞻 (《冯婉贞》) 译文:“只看我的马头行事”

⑦君亡之不恤,而群臣是忧。译文:“我们的国君(晋惠公)不怜恤自己流亡在外,却忧虑着我们群臣”

还有如成语:唯利是图 (译:“只图有利的”)唯贤是用(译:“只任用有才的人”)

【5】“相”字解释为“动作行为偏指一方”时,可译为“我,你,他(她)”,这时“相”是作宾语放在动词谓语之前,翻译时放在动词谓语的后面。

①吾已失恩义,会不相从许(《孔雀东南飞》)译文:“我已经对她没有情义了,决不会答应你”

②勤心养公姥,好自相扶将(《孔雀东南飞》)译文:“尽心侍奉婆婆,好好服侍她”

③儿童相见不相识,笑问客从何处来(《回乡偶书》)译文:“小孩子看见了我却不认识我” 现代汉语中也有保留,如:请你相信

【6】“见”字解释为“动作行为偏指一方”时,可解释为“我”,这时“见”是作宾语放在动词 谓语之前,翻译时放在动词谓语的后面。

4

①府吏见丁宁(《孔雀东南飞》) 译文:“(我回来时)府吏叮嘱我”

②生孩六月,慈父见背(《项脊轩志》)译文:“生下我六个月,父亲就背弃了我(意思是父亲就去逝了)”

这种情况在现代汉语里也有保留,如:望见恕(希望你宽恕我);有何见教(有什么指教我的);让你见笑了(让你笑话我了);望见谅(希望你原谅我)。

【7】方位词、时间词作宾语时,有时也前置

①亚父南向坐 (《鸿门宴》 译文:“亚父范增面向南坐着”

②至于北海,东面而视,不见水端(《秋水》)译文:“到达北海,向东看去,看不到水的尽头”

三、状语后置

我们知道,在现代汉语中状语置于谓语之前,若置于谓语之后便是补语。但在文言文中,处于补语的成分往往要以状语来理解,即翻译时大多数时候要提到谓语前面去翻译。

(1)格式:动十以十宾 ①饰以篆文山龟鸟兽之形(《张衡传》) 译文:“用篆文山龟鸟兽的形状来装饰” ②还矢先王,而告以成功(《伶官传序》) 译文:“把箭放回先王灵位之前,禀告大功告成” ③请其矢,盛以锦囊(《伶官传序》) 译文:“并请出那三枝箭,装进锦囊” ④方其系燕父子以组,(《伶官传序》) 译文:“当庄宗用绳索捆绑燕王父子” ⑤申之以孝悌之义 (《齐桓晋文之事》)译文:“把孝敬父母敬重兄弟的事向他们反复讲述”

①覆之以掌 (《促织》) 译文:“用手掌覆盖(蟋蟀)”

(2)格式:动十于(乎,相当“于”)十宾 ①使归就求救于孙将军(《赤壁之战》) 译文:“让他回去向孙将军求救” ②能谤讥于市朝 (《邹忌讽齐王纳谏》) 译文:“能够在集市上指出我的过错的人” ③且立石于其墓之门(《五人墓碑记》) 译文:“并且在他们的墓门前建立石碑” ④生乎吾前 (《师说》) 译文:“生在我的前面” ⑤风乎舞雩 (《四子侍坐》) 译文:“在舞雩台上吹风”

(3)格式:形十于十宾 ①长于臣(《鸿门宴》) 译文:“(他,指项伯)比我长(大)” ②虽才高于世,而无骄尚之情(《张衡传》)译文:“虽然才能比世人高,但却没有骄傲的情绪”

四、定语后置

在现代汉语中,定语是修饰和限制名词的,一般放在中心词前,这种语序古今一致,在文言文中,除此情况外,也可以放在中心词后。定语放在中心词后面,用“者”煞尾,构成定语后置的形式。那么,在翻译的时候,要注意把后置定语提到中心词前面去翻译。

【1】格式:中心词十定语十者 ①求人可使报秦者。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)译文:“寻找可以出使秦国回来复命的人” ②楚人有涉江者。(《刻舟求剑》) 译文:“楚国有个渡江的人”

5 ③荆州之民附操者。(《赤壁之战》) 译文:“荆州依附曹操的老百姓” ④四方之士来者。(《勾践灭吴》) 译文:“四方前来投奔吴国的士人” ⑤村中少年好事者。(《黔之驴》) 译文:“村中有个喜欢多事的年青人”

【2】格式:中心词+之+定语+者 ①马之千里者(《马说》) 译文:“千里马” ②僧之富者不能至 译文:“富有的和尚却不能到达” ③国之孺子之游者(《勾践灭吴》) 译文:“吴国出游的年青人” ④石之铿然有声者。(《石钟山记》 译文:“铿然有声的石头”

【3】格式:中心语+之+定语 ①蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强。(《劝学》) 译文:“蚯蚓没有尖利的爪牙和强健的筋骨” ②居庙堂之高则忧其民,处江湖之远则忧其君(《岳阳楼记》)译文:“在朝廷作官(或居在高高的庙堂),就要忧虑老百姓的疾苦,退隐江湖远离朝廷(或身处遥远的江湖),就要为国君担忧”

【4】格式:中心语+而+定语+者 缙绅而能不易其志者,四海之大,有几人与?(《五人墓碑记》)译文:“能够不改变自己志向的官员,普天之下,有几个人呢?”

【5】数量词做定语多放在中心词后面。格式:中心语十数量定语 ①比至陈,车六七百乘,骑千余,卒数万人。译文:“等到了陈这个地方,有六七百辆车,千多名骑兵,数万名士兵” ②一食或尽粟一石(《马说》) 译文:“吃东西有时能吃完一石粮食”

范文四:(10)特殊句式 投稿:刘覃覄

10 情态动词和特殊句式

Ⅰ.在下列各句中填入适当的情态动词

1.It ______ (not)be the postman at the door.It's only six o'clock.

2.If you ______ go,at least wait until the storm is over.

3.They ______ have arrived at lunchtime but their flight was delayed.

4.—Why didn't you come to Simon's party last night?

—I wanted to,but my mom simply ______ not let me out so late at night.

5.—How's your new babysitter?

—We ______ (not)ask for a better one.All our kids love her so much.

6.I ______(not)go through that bitter period without your generous help.

7.—Will you read me a story,Mummy?

—OK.You ______ have one if you go to bed as soon as possible.

8.I ______(not)worry about my weekend—I always have my plans ready before it comes.

9.There ______(not)be any difficulty about passing the road test since you have practiced a lot in the driving school.

10.The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the World Wide Wait because it ______ be very slow.

11.I ______ not stay for lunch.My brother is coming to see me.

12.If I ______ plan to do anything I wanted to,I'd like to go to Tibet and travel through as much of it as possible.

13.Tom,you ______ not leave all your clothes on the floor like this!

14.—I don't really like James.Why did you invite him?

—Don't worry.He ______ not come.He said he wasn't certain what his plans were.

15.—No one ______ be compared with Yao Ming in playing basketball.

—Oh,you are really his big fan.

Ⅱ.用所给动词的适当形式填空

1.—Where are the children?The dinner's going to be completely ruined.

—I wish they ______ (not be)always late.

2.Maybe if I ______ (study)science,and not literature then,I would be able to give you more help.

3.We ______ (put)John's name on the race list yesterday but for his recent injury.

4.If she ______(come)here tomorrow,she ______(tell)me that.We know she will fly to Beijing tomorrow.

5.If I ______(see)him tomorrow,I will give it to him.

6.I wish I ______(have)a room of my own when I was a boy.

7.I wish I ______(go)to university next year,so now I must study much harder.

8.I suggested that he ______(go)there at once.

9.He insisted he ______(send)to the city.

10.His expression suggested that he ______(pass)the test.

11.I was ill yesterday.Otherwise,I ______(take)part in the sports meeting.

12.If only I ______(see)the film.

13.You ______(come)to the conference yesterday.What was the reason for your absence?

14.I ______(work)out the problem,but I was too nervous.

15.They insisted that the boy ______(go)with them.

特殊句式练习

1. It was in 1969 ______ two Americans went to the moon by spaceship. A. when B. that C. at that time D. just then

2. we first heard of the man referred to as a computer specialist in software. w.w.w.k.s.5A. It was Hilary that B. That it was from Hilary

D. It was from Hilary that

C. It was from Hilary whom 3.He is a good student,and works very hard;.

A. so it is with her

A. that

A. as B. so was she C. so she is D. neither does she w.w.w.k.s.5.u.c.o.m4.Was it when you were talking with a friend under the tree ______ your bike was gone? B. where B. which C. which C. what D. that D. while 5. Is it the burning of more fossil fuels ______ is resulting in this increase in carbon dioxide ?

6. Only after I had known him for some time to appreciate his real worth.

A. do I begain B. did I begin C. I began D. had I begun

7.So quickly ____ popular that some people who think his style is vulgar(庸俗的)are worried.

A. has Xiao Shengyang become

C. had Xiao Shengyang become B. Xiao Shenyang has become D. Xiao Shenyang became

8. There ____ .

A. come they

--______, I think.

A. Because of his unique style

C. His unique style B. As a result of his unique style D. Because he invented his unique style B. they come C. they are come D. they will come 9.--What do you think makes the painter so well received?

10. The witness suggested that the cheat _________ in prison.

A. referred to be put B. refer to be put C. referred to put D. was referred to put

11.--How was the televised debate last night?

--Super! Rarely ______ so much media attention.

A. a debate attracted

C. a debate did attract B. did a debate attract D. attracted a debate

12.--Tomorrow is a holiday. Why are you doing your homework now?

--I am doing these exercises so that I won’t have

A. to B. it C. them D. for

13. It was too noisy outside. Not until _______ at the top of my voice _______ his head.

A. I shouted; had he turned

C. had I shouted; he turned

A. nor do I B. I do neither B. did I shout; did he turn D. I shouted; did he turn C. nor will I D. I will nor 14. If you don’t tell him the true story, _______________.

15.--What do you think made him so excited?

--_____in the English competition.

A. Winning the first prize

C. He won the first prize

--I guess, there are only few, . B. Won the first prize D. Because he won the first prize 16.--Are there any English story books for us students in the library?

A. if any

A. they heard B. if have B. they had heard C. if some C. did they hear D. if has D. had they heard 17. No sooner the news than they rushed out into the street.

18.________ that saw the rise of quite a number of famous women writers in China, such as Zhang Ailing, Xiao Hong and so on.

A. During the first half of the 20th century B. That it was in the first half of the 20th century

C. It was in the first half of the 20th century D. It was the first half of the 20th century

19.--I' m sorry; I shouldn't have been so rude to you.

--You___________ your temper but that's OK

A. did lose B. have lost C. had lost D. were losing

20. I have recently discovered that _____ is the people you surround yourself with that matters most in life. A. what B. it C. who D. that

语法填空一

Paul Lucas can often be seen to be walking around the city of San Francisco. Sometimes people are surprised to see him walking 1.________ any shoes or socks, 2.________ Lucas doesn't mind at all. 3.________ likes to walk barefoot, and so do 640 other members of Dirty Sole Society, the club that Lucas 4.________ (start) years ago. Lucas' idea for this is to encourage others to live 5.________ (free)—free of shoes.

According to Lucas, the barefoot life has many advantages. 6.________ most important is simply that it feels good. He also says 7.________ walking barefoot allows you to experience the world directly by touching it with your feet. 8.________ addition, the feet do not smell as much because they stay dry, making it hard for bacteria to grow. And, of course, 9.________ (walk) barefoot keeps your feet in good shape, so it's actually 10.________ (healthy) than wearing shoes.

语法填空二

Alice, a shark that lives at the National Sea Life Centre in England, did not start out life as a vegetarian. When she1.________ (bring) in from Florida in 2009, she was happily eating any seafood.

2.________, that changed in a few months, and she suddenly stopped eating completely. Deeply

3.________ (concern), the centre officials took her in for an X-ray, 4.________ showed that a fishing hook was hiding deep inside her mouth. So they took her to see a doctor who realized the only way to save the shark was performing 5.________ rather risky operation. 6.________ (fortune), things went really well.But just when everybody was happy about the shark's recovery, the history-making shark began changing her eating habit, instead, 7.________ (prefer) to use her sharp teeth to eat vegetables! Although this may sound good, it is not really good 8.________ Alice's health because vegetables cannot provide enough protein that she needs to survive. Shark experts all over the world are confused at Alice's 9.________and they guess that 10.________ may have something to do with the wound the hook caused. But unless she speaks up, nobody is really going to know the real reason.

范文五:过秦论特殊句式 投稿:贾魔魕

过秦论特殊句式

判断句

1、此四君者,皆明智而忠信,宽厚而爱人,尊贤而重士 过秦论

2、关中之固,金城千里,子孙帝王万世之业也

3、然陈涉瓮牖绳枢之子,氓隶之人,而迁徙之徒也

4、仁义不施而攻守之势异也

5、子孙帝王万世之业也

倒装句

1、定语后置:

伏尸百万

铸以为金人十二

金城千里

2、宾语前置:

信臣精卒陈利兵而谁何

仁义不施,而攻守之势异也

崤函之固,自若也

3、介词短语后置:

陈涉之位,非尊于齐、楚、燕、赵、韩、魏、宋、卫、中山之君也; 锄耰棘矜,非銛于钩戟长铩也;

谪戍之 众,非抗于九国之师也

余威震于殊俗

省略句

委命(于)下吏

身死(于)人手

威振(于)四海

士不敢弯弓(射箭)而报怨

聚之(于)咸阳

以(之)为桂林、象郡

蹑足(于)行伍之间

而倔起(于)阡陌之中

被动句

一夫作难而七庙隳

身死人手,为天下笑者

范文六:特殊句式.(A级) 投稿:孔嬃嬄

特殊句式(A)

课前热身
关于祈使句的一个小笑话: 老师:请把马儿跑了这句话转换成疑问句。 小伊万:马儿会跑吗? 老师:正确!很好!现在把它转换成祈使句。 小伊万:驾!

其实祈使句在平时生活中到处可见,当对别人发出命令、请求甚至在训斥时都会用到祈使句。 下面这个也是: 作文题目:请以“爱情”为题写一篇作文 要求:1.言简意赅,主题突出 2.该故事必须以悲剧结尾 3.字数不限 正文如下:——嫁给我好吗? ——滚! 哈哈,虽然只是个笑话,但是大家可见,祈使句真是无处不在呀。

本讲要求
内容 感叹句 祈使句 2. 掌握祈使句的基本句型和反义疑问句 基本要求 1. 掌握感叹句和祈使句的概念及用法

知识讲解
祈使句
一、 定义:用于表达命令、请求、劝告、警告、禁止等的句子叫做祈使句,祈使句最常用于表达命令,

因此在学校文法中也常称为命令句。 祈使句因对象(即主语)是第二人称,所以通常都省略。祈使句的动词都为一般现在时,句末则使 用句号来表示结束。例: Go and wash your hands. (去洗你的手。——命令) Be kind to our sister. (对姊妹要和善。——劝告) Look out! Danger! (小心!危险!——强烈警告,已如感叹句) No parking. (禁止停车。——禁止)

二、特征 祈使句无主语, 主语 you 常省去; 动词原形谓语当,句首加 don’t 否定变; 朗读应当用降调,句末常标感叹号。

三、表现形式 ● 肯定结构: 1. Do 型(即:动词原形(+宾语)+其它成分)。如:Please have a seat here. 请这边坐。 有的祈使句在意思明确的情况下,动词可省略。 如:This way, please. = Go this way, please. 请这边走。 2. Be 型(即:Be + 表语(名词或形容词)+其它成分)。如:Be a good boy! 要做一个好孩子! 3. Let 型(即:Let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分)。如:Let me help you. 让我来帮你。

● 否定结构: 1. Do 型和 Be 型的否定式都是在句首加 don’t 构成。如:Don’t forget me! 不要忘记我! Don’t be late for school! 上学不要迟到! 2. Let 型的否定式有两种: “Don’t + let + 宾语 + 动词原形 + 其它成分”和“Let + 宾语 + not + 动词原形 + 其它成分”。如:Don’t let him go. / Let him not go. 别让他走。 3. 有些可用 no 开头,用来表示禁止性的祈使句。如:No smoking! 禁止吸烟!No fishing! 禁止钓鱼!

四、“let”带头的祈使句 1. 主要用法

1)表示“建议”。 这个句型里的 “let”后头紧跟着一个第一人称的代词宾语,如: Let me try. Let’s ... 2)表示“间接命令”或“愿望”。 这句型里的动词宾语是第三人称名词或代词, 如:Let Robert take charge of the marketing department. 2. 用 “let”的祈使句时,必须
注意下列几点: 1) “Let”后头除了是不带 “to”的不定式动词之外,还可以是某些适当的副词,如 out, in, down, alone 等: 如: Let the puppy out. Open the windows and let the fresh air in.

2)用 “Let’s”时,把谈话者的对象包括在内,如:Let’s try it, shall we? ;用 “Let us”时,并不包括对方, 如: Let us do it by ourselves, will you? 翻译下列各句: 1.咱们一起玩吧!

2.请不要迟到.

3.回答这个问题.

4.我来打开窗户好吗?

5.你和我们一起去好吗?

感叹句
A. 以 what 开头的感叹句 What 在感叹句中修饰名词,以它开头的感叹句主要有以下几种结构类型: 1.“What a(n) + 形容词+单形可数名词(+主语+谓语)”。如:What an important job it is! 那是多么重要 的工作呀! 2.“What + 形容词+不可数名词(+主语+谓语)”。如:What sweet music it is! 多么美妙的音乐啊! 3.“What +形容词+复形可数名词(+主语+谓语)”。如:What delicious moon cakes (they are)! 多么好吃 的月饼啊! B. 以 how 开头的感叹句

以 how 开头的感叹句有以下几种常见结构类型: 1.“How +形容词 (或副词) (+主语+谓语) 例如: ”。 How blue the sky is! 天空多蓝啊! How quickly you walk! 你走得多快呀! 2. “How +形容词+a(n) +单形可数名词(+主语+谓语)”。例如:How good a student he is! 他是多好的一 个学生啊! C.一些特殊句式 1.在陈述句、祈使句或疑问句句尾加感叹号变成感叹句。如: He runs so fast! 他跑的真快呀! Do read it carefully! 2.用一个词或词组表达强烈感情的句子也是感叹句。 Wonderful ! 棒极了 Look out 当心! Great! 太棒了! 3.以 there、here 等副词开头的感叹句。如: There she is! 她在那! There goes the bell!铃响了!



感叹句记忆口诀

感叹句,并不难,what与how应在前。 形容词、副词跟着how,what后面名词连。 名词若是可数单,前带冠词a或an。 主语、谓语放后面,省略它们也常见。



巧变感叹句

在把陈述句变感叹句时,可以根据以下这种方法——一断二加三换位。 “一断” 即在谓语后面断开,使句子分成两部分。如: He works hard. → He works / hard. He is a good worker. → He is / a good worker. “二加” 即在第二部分前加上how(强调形容词、副词)或what(强调名词)。如: He works(how)hard. He is(what)a good worker.

“三换位” 即把第一部分和第二部分互换位置,句号换感叹号。如: How hard he works! What a good worker he is!

【练习】
一 :用What或How来补全以下的感叹句。 1. ______ a pretty girl she is! 3. ______ kind teachers they are! 2. ________ quickly the boy is running! 4. ________ clever the baby is!

二 :从所给的四个选项中选出正确的填空。 What What a What an H
ow 2. ________ sad child he is! 4. ________ hard they study!

1. ______ happy I am! 3. ______ hot water it is! 5. ______ good young man he is!

三 :按要求对下列句子进行句型转换。 1. He listened to his teacher carefully. (该为感叹句) _______ ________ he listened to his teacher! 2. What a clever monkey it is! (该为同义句)

_______ ________ a monkey it is! 3.The food is very nice. (该为感叹句) _______ ________ food it is! 4. How sadly they are crying! (该为陈述句)

They ________ ________ ________. 5. The Christmas tree is beautiful. (该为感叹句)

_______ _______ the Christmas tree is!

重难点
祈使句的反义疑问句 1. 基本原则 若陈述部分为祈使句,反意疑问句通常用will you, won’t you, would you等: Mail the letter today, will you? 今天就把信发掉,好吗?

Try to be back by two, won’t you? 设法两点之前回来,好吗? If you want help, let me know, would you? 如果你需要帮助,告诉我,好吗? 【注】若陈述部分为否定式,则反意疑问句部分只用will you: Don’t forget to post the letter, will you? 请别忘了寄信。 有时根据语境的需要,反意疑问句也可以用can you, can’t you 等: Give me some cigarettes, can you? 给我些香烟,可以吗? Walk faster, can’t you? 走快点,不行吗? 一般说来,用will you, won’t you, would you 等构成的反意疑问句语气较委婉。比较: Be quiet, will you? 请安静,好吗? Be quiet, can’t you? 你不能安静点吗? 2. 当祈使句为Let’s…时 反意疑问句总是用 shall we: Let’s phone her now, shall we? 我们现在就给她打电话,好吗? Let’s go to the cinema tonight, shall we? 今晚咱们去看电影,好吗? 3. 当祈使句为Let us…时 若表示请求,反意疑问句用will you,若表示建议,反意疑问句用 shall we: Let us know your address, will you? 请把你的地址告诉我们,好吗? Let us go swimming together, shall we? 我们一起去游泳好吗? 【注】let’s…只表示建议,所以其后反意疑问句总是用shall we。而let us…既可表示建议请求,也可表示建 议(较正式),其后的反意疑问句要根据这两种不同情况分别使用will you和shall we。 4. 当祈使句带有主语时 有时祈使句带有自己的主语,此时不要将其误认为是陈述句: Jim, you go there to help him, will you? 吉姆,你去那儿帮他,好吗? You girls stand in the front row, will you? 你们女孩子站在前排,好吗? 【注】不要将这类祈使句误认为是陈述句,而误用don’t you这样的反意疑问句.

【练习】 :
用括号内所给动词的适当形式填空。 1. It’s an important meeting. __________ (not, be )late. 2. ____________ (not, make) any noise! Your mother is sleeping. 3. ____________ (not, speak) with your mouth full of food and ____________ (be) polite.

4. ____________ ( not, talk) and ____________ (read) alou
d. 5. ____________ (not, leave) your homework for tomorrow, Larry. 6. ____________ (look) out! A car is coming. 7. ____________ (give) us ten years and just see what our country will be like. 8. ____________ (not, let) the baby cry. 9. Wear more clothes or you ____________ (catch) a cold. 10. Let’s ____________ (not, say) anything about it.

例题精讲
一、单项选择 1. - Here is a ticket to the magic show, Jason. - Wow! ________ gift it is! It’s my favorite. A. What a delicious C. How nice B. What a nice D. How delicious

2. - Listen! Our music teacher is playing the music of Two Butterflies. - ________! A. What a sweet music C. How a sweet music 3. ________ beautiful flowers they are! A. How B. What C. What a D. How a B. How sweet music D. What sweet music

4. Mary got good grades in school. ________ excited she is! A. What B. What a C. How D. How an

5.Her doctor said: “________ work so hard” A Stop B Don’t C Can’t D No

6.. Sindy, ________ to be here at 8 o’clock A is sure B is sure that C will be sure D be sure

7..________ when you cross the road. A Do care B Care C Do be careful D To be careful

8. ________him the secret, will you?

A Don’t tell

B Not to tell

C Not telling

D No telling

9. ________ in bed. It’s bad for your eyes. A Not to read B Don’t read C Don’t to read D Not read

10. ________ your child. We’ll look after him. A Not to worry about C Not worry for B Don’t worry about D Don’t worry with

11. They are very tired. Why ________ have a rest? A not they B do not they C don’t they D not to

12 --You look rather tired. ________ stopping to have a rest? -- All right. A Why not 13 ______ tell a lie. A Hardly B Not C No D Never B How about C Why not to D why don’t

14.Please ________ look outside. Look at the blackboard. A not B don’t C aren’t D can’t

课堂检测
一.将下列句子翻译成英语. 1.这件毛衣真好看!

2.那些钢笔太贵了!

3.多好的一本书啊!

4.这张相片多么有趣啊!

5.他是位多么善良的人啊!

6.春天多么暖和啊!

7.这是一部多么激动人心的电影啊!

8.这些问题真难!

9.多可爱的礼物啊!

10.那个老太太走路真慢!

总结复习
1. 感叹句中 what 和 how 的功能分别是什么? 2. 感叹句常见的句型有哪些? 3. 祈使句常见的类型有哪些?分别造个句子吧。

课后作业 结复习 一 、将下列句子改为感叹句.
1.He cooks very delicious food.

2.They had a good time last Sunday.

3.The girl comes to school so early.

4.He told me important news.

5.We have a very happy family.

6.Mrs. Li found her handbag luckily.

7.The plane flies quite quickly.

8.She is a very careful student.

9.This is an easy problem.

10.Your mother looks very young.

11.The music sounds nice.

12.That is hard work.

13.Her son is very naughty.

14.He has a useful dictionary.

15.Li Ping jumps very high.

二. 用 What , What a , What an , How 填空. 1._____________ h
ot the weather is ! 2._____________hard her father works ! 3._____________long way it is from Guangdong to Paris ! 4._____________fine day it was yesterday ! 5._____________beautiful your voice is ! 6._____________interesting picture-books ! 7._____________lovely baby ! 8._____________strong wind ! 9._____________ sad new he told us !

10._____________happy she was last weekend ! 11._____________good weather ! Why not go out for a walk ! 12._____________nice the garden is ! 13._____________difficult work he did ! 14._____________broken the house looks ! 15._____________ happy life we have !


范文七:特殊句式之疑问句 投稿:钱奬奭

一、基本概念

  借疑问词发出疑问的句子叫疑问句。疑问句,一般都有疑问词。疑问词包括疑问代词(谁、何、曷、故、安、焉、孰等),疑问语气词(乎、诸、哉、欤、耶等)以及疑问副词(岂、独、其等)。有时,疑问句也不用疑问词。

  二、辨识技巧

  如何辨识疑问句呢?我们可以采用以下几种方法:

  1.把握好语气。疑问句是用来向别人询问、解除自己疑团的,它是有疑而问,是己问他答,答在问后。在翻译疑问句时,我们要翻译出疑问的语气和重点的语气词。

  2.注意宾语前置的情况。疑问句中如果疑问代词是宾语,宾语一般要前置。如:良问曰:“大王来何操?”译文:张良问道:“大王来的时候拿了什么?”

  3.掌握常见的表疑问的固定结构。文言文中,疑问句里形成了一些固定结构。如:如何(何如)、如……何、若何(何若)、若……何、奈何、奈……何(怎么样、怎么办、把……怎么样、拿……怎么办)等。如:取吾璧,不予我城,奈何?这一句中的“奈何”应译为“怎么办”。

  三、疑问句典型固定结构例析

  1.何以……?(根据什么……?凭什么……?)如:孔文子何以谓之“文”也?译文:孔文子凭什么被赐给“文”的谥号呢?

  2.何所……?(所……是什么?)如:问女何所思,问女何所忆。译文:问这个女孩在思考什么,在回忆什么。

  3.奈何……?(……怎么办?为什么……?)如:今者出,未辞也,为之奈何?译文:刚才出来,未曾同他们辞别,这该怎么办呢?

  4.如……何,奈……何?(拿……怎样呢?)如:如太行、王屋何?译文:又能把太行、王屋这两座大山怎么样呢?

  5.孰与……?(与……比哪个……?)如:吾孰与徐公美?译文:我和城北的徐公相比谁更漂亮?

  6.安……乎?(怎么……呢?)如:然豫州新败之后,安能抗此难乎?译文:但是刘豫州刚败之后,又怎么能抵抗得住曹操的攻势呢?

  7.独……耶?(难道……吗?)如:公子纵轻胜,弃之降秦,独不怜公子姊邪?译文:再说公子即使不把我赵胜看在眼里,抛弃我让我投降秦国,难道就不可怜你的姐姐吗?

  8.何……哉(也)?(怎么能……呢?)如:何可胜道也哉?(兼有感叹)译文:哪能说得完呢?

  9.何……为?(……干什么呢?)如:何辞为?译文:还辞别什么呢?

  10.何……之有?(有什么……呢?)如:夫晋,何厌之有?译文:晋国,哪有什么满足的呢?

  11.如之何……?(怎么能……呢?)如:君臣之义,如之何其废之?译文:君臣之间的正常关系,又怎么可以废弃呢?

  12.岂(其)……哉(乎,耶)?(哪里……呢?……哪里呢?)如:沛公不先破关中,公岂敢入乎?译文:沛公不先攻破关中,你怎么能入关呢?

  13.安……哉(乎)?(哪里……呢?)如:燕雀安知鸿鹄之志哉!(兼有感叹)译文:燕雀这些小鸟怎么能知道鸿鹄的志向呢!

  14.不亦……乎?(不是……吗?)如:人不知而不愠,不亦君子乎?译文:不因别人的不理解而愠怒,难道不是君子所为吗?

  15.……非……欤?(……不是……吗?)如:子非三闾大夫欤?译文:您不是三闾大夫吗?

  16.宁……耶?(哪里……呢?)如:宁知此为归骨所耶?(兼有感叹)译文:又怎么料到这里是你埋葬骸骨的地方呢?

  17.顾……哉?(难道……吗?)如:顾不如蜀鄙之僧哉?(兼有感叹)译文:难道还不如四川边境上的那个和尚吗?

  18.独……哉?(难道……吗?)如:相如虽驽,独畏廉将军哉?译文:相如虽然才能低下,难道偏偏害怕廉将军吗?

  19.无乃……乎(欤)(恐怕……吧?)(兼表反问)如:无乃尔是过与?译文:这恐怕是你的责任吧?

  20.得无(微)……乎?(该不是……吧?)(兼表反问)如:得无教我猎虫所耶?译文:恐怕是向我暗示捕捉蟋蟀的地方吧?

  21.其……欤?(不是……吗?)(兼表反问)如:其可怪也欤!译文:不是很奇怪吗!

  22.……庶几……与?(……或许……吧?)如:吾王庶几无疾病与?译文:我们君王大概没什么病吧?

  23.与其……孰若……?(与其……,哪如……?)如:与其坐而待亡,孰若起而拯之?译文:与其坐着等待村庄的毁灭,哪如起来拯救它呢?

  24.……欤(耶),抑……欤(耶)?(是……,还是……呢?)如:岂得之难而失之易欤?抑本其成败之迹,而皆自于人欤?译文:难道是因为取得天下艰难而失去天下容易吗?还是探究他的成败过程,都出自人为的原因呢?

  25.其……耶?其……也?(还是……呢?还是……呢?)如:其真无马邪?其真不知马也。译文:难道真的没有千里马吗?(恐怕)是他(们)真的不认识千里马。

范文八:特殊句式之判断句 投稿:程喹喺

判断句是文言文中较为常见的一种特殊句式,它对事物的性质、情况及事物之间的关系作出了肯定或否定的判断,即指明了某事物是什么或不是什么。文言文中的判断句不同于现代汉语中的判断句,它最显著的特点就是基本上不用判断词“是”来表示,而往往让名词或名词性短语直接充当谓语,对主语进行判断。其句式变化多端,常有如下几种表示法:

  一、……者,……也

  这是文言文中判断句最常见的形式。主语后用“者”,表示提顿,有舒缓语气的作用;谓语后用“也”结句,对主语加以肯定或解说。如司马迁《鸿门宴》中“楚左尹项伯者,项羽季父也”。

  二、……者也

  有些判断句,在句末连用语气词“者也”,表示加强肯定语气,这时的“者”不表示提顿,只起称代作用。这种判断句,在文言文中也比较常见。如《邹忌讽齐王纳谏》中“城北徐公,齐国之美丽者也”。

  三、……者,……

  只在主语后用“者”表示提顿的判断句,并不多见。如王安石《游褒禅山记》中“四人者:庐陵萧君圭君玉,长乐王回深父,余弟安国平父、安上纯父”。

  四、……,……也

  判断句中,“者”和“也”不一定同时出现,有时省略“者”,只用“也”表判断。如司马迁《廉颇蔺相如列传》中“和氏璧,天下所共传宝也”。

  五、借助动词“为”或“是”表判断

  如司马迁《鸿门宴》中“如今人方为刀俎,我为鱼肉,何辞为”。

  六、利用副词“乃”“即”“则”“皆”“亦”“素”等表示肯定判断,“非”表否定判断

  “乃”“即”“则”“皆”等副词表示肯定判断,兼加强语气。用“非”表示否定判断,如苏洵《六国论》中“六国破灭,非兵不利,战不善,弊在赂秦”。

  七、无标识判断句

  文言文中的判断句有的并没有任何标志,直接由名词对名词作出判断。如司马迁《屈原列传》中“秦,虎狼之国,不可信”。

  总之,在理解文意时,学生如果根据上述判断句的特点,就能准确把握判断句,理解其表达的意思,顺畅地翻译文句。在翻译句子时,学生应注意以下几个方面:

  1.文言文中的判断句在翻译时要注意现代汉语判断句的特征,一般情况下,肯定的判断句译为“是”,用“非”表示否定的判断时译为“不是”。以2009年高考语文湖南卷为例,试题要求翻译“赐之车马而辞者,不畏步者也”,此句为用“也”做标志的肯定判断句,译为“赏赐给他车辆马匹却推辞的人,是不害怕步行的人”。

  2.用“即”“乃”“则”“皆”“亦”“素”“诚”等副词表示肯定判断时,翻译时往往在副词的解释后加“是”。如“此诚危急存亡之秋也”,译为“这的确是危急存亡的紧要关头啊”。

  3.具备一种意识:虽然我们借助标志词判断句子是否为判断句,但并非所有具有这类词的句子都是判断句。以“是”为例,有些句子中的“是”表示判断,如《木兰诗》中“同行十二年,不知木兰是女郎”。但谓语前出现的“是”一般都不是判断词,而是指示代词,作句子的主语,如《寡人之于国也》中“是何异于刺人而杀之,曰‘非我也,兵也’?”,译为“这和(用兵器)刺人把他杀死,(却)说‘不是我(杀的),是兵器(杀的)’有什么两样?”。“是”在先秦古汉语中很少用作判断词,在汉以后用作判断词则多起来。因此学生在理解句子时不能生搬硬套,必须有语境意识。

范文九:特殊句式之省略句 投稿:丁蓿蔀

一、基本概念

  省略句就是指句子中省略某一词语或某种成分的现象。文言文中省略的地方特别多,如果我们在阅读时不能明确省略的成分,在理解时就会失之毫厘,谬以千里;在翻译时,省略的内容应该准确补出,否则,直接影响译文的意思。

  二、抓住特点,识别类型

  省略句主要有主语的省略、谓语的省略、宾语的省略、兼语的省略、介词的省略、量词的省略等。下面笔者结合每一类型的特点具体来谈。

  (一)省略主语

  主语的省略,在文言文中很常见。翻译时,要根据具体情况把省略的主语补出来。主语省略可以分为承前省、蒙后省、对话省等形式。

  1.承前省。前后两个句子的主语是一致的,为了避免行文的�唆,可将后一句的主语省略,翻译时后一句的主语可根据前一句的主语推测出来。如:其后秦伐赵,拔石城。明年复攻赵。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)“明年”后省略主语“秦”,可根据前一句“秦伐赵,拔石城”推测出来。

  2.蒙后省。前后两个句子的主语是一致的,为了避免行文的�唆,可将前一句的主语省略,翻译时前一句的主语可根据后一主语推测出来。如:沛公谓张良曰:“……度我至军中,公乃入。”(《鸿门宴》)“度”前省略主语“公”,可根据后一句“公乃入”推测出来。

  3.对话省。在人物对话的语境里,当交代清楚对话双方之后或对话者人名已在前文出现过,为了使行文简洁,可以将作主语的对话双方省略,翻译时可以根据上下文推测出来。如:樊哙曰:“今日之事何如?”良曰:“甚急!”(《鸿门宴》)“甚急”前省略主语“今日之事”,可以根据上文“今日之事如何”推测出来。

  (二)省略谓语

  在文言文中,省略谓语也是比较常见的,尤其是并列的句子,如果一句话中用了某个动词,另一个同样的动词就可以省略。翻译时应根据上下文意思推知省略的谓语。常见的谓语省略有以下几种形式:

  1.承前省。前后两个句子的谓语是一致的,为了使行文简洁,可将后一句的谓语省略,翻译时后一句的谓语可根据前一句的谓语推测出来。如:军中无以为乐,请以剑舞。(《鸿门宴》)“舞”后省略了“为乐”二字,可根据前一句的谓语“为乐”推测出来。

  2.蒙后省。前后两个句子的谓语是一致的,为了使行文简洁,可将前一句的谓语省略,翻译时前一句的谓语根据后一句的谓语即可推测出来。如:因跪请秦王。秦王不肯击缶。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)可根据后一句“秦王不肯击缶”的谓语推测出第一个“秦王”后省略谓语“击”。

  3.共喻省(据文意省略)。根据上下文一看便会明白省略的是什么谓语。如:及左公下厂狱,史朝夕狱门外。(《左忠毅公逸事》)根据上下文,可推测“史朝夕”的谓语为“俟”,等待的意思。

  (三)省略宾语

  文言文中省略及物动词或介词后面的宾语是比较普遍的现象,省略部分多是代词“之”。

  1.省略及物动词后的宾语。及物动词后面应该有宾语却没有出现。如:遂拔以击荆轲。(《荆轲刺秦王》)“遂拔”后省略动词“拔”的宾语“之”,也就是剑。

  2.省略介词(“与”“以”“因”“为”等)后面的宾语。介词不能独立作句子成分,一般要和后面的名词组成介宾结构作状语或补语。如果介词后面没有名词,就是其宾语被省略。如:竖子不足与谋!(《鸿门宴》)“与”是介词,而“谋”前面省略了宾语“之”,即项羽。

  (四)省略兼语

  “使”“令”“命”“召”“俾”“拜”“除”等动词后,应该有兼语(通常是“之”)与之搭配,但这个兼语却没有出现。如:为国者无使为积威之所劫哉!(《六国论》)“无使”后省略兼语“之”,即自己。

  (五)省略介词

  文言文中介词“于”“以”等经常和后面的宾语组成介宾结构作句子补语或状语时,介词往往被省略。如:后数日驿至,果地震陇西。(《张衡传》)“地震”后省略介词“于”,“在”的意思。

  (六)省略量词。

  数词后面量词通常省略。如:蟹六跪而二鳌。(《劝学》)“跪”前省略“条”,“螯”前省略“只”。

  三、方法指导

  (一)分析语法,今为古用

  我们可以运用现代汉语的基本语法规则去分析文言文中的省略情况,明确被省略的成分。分析时首先要找出句中的谓语动词。然后分析谓语动词前半部分,如果没有陈述对象,就是缺少主语。再分析后半部分,若是及物动词后面没有与之搭配的成分,有可能省略宾语;有名词、代词而不是宾语,就有可能是省略介词。

  (二)抓住关键,掌握类型

  所谓关键就是省略句中每一类型的突出特点。从词性上讲,动词、介词、数词等是我们关注的重点;从句式上看,结构一致的句子、对偶的句子等,是我们关注的重点。在此基础上,结合具体例句,切实掌握常见的省略类型。

  (三)瞻前顾后,联系语境

  文言文中有些省略,我们只要联系上下文,瞻前顾后,结合具体语境,就能够顺利地推断出省略的成分。

  

  跟踪训练

  1.下列各句中,句式不同于其他三项的一项是()

  A.师者,所以传道受业解惑也

  B.寒暑易节,始一反焉

  C.不如因而厚遇之,使归赵

  D.天下云集响应,赢粮而景从

  2.下列各句中,句式不同于其他三项的一项是()

  A.句读之不知,惑之不解

  B.欲呼张良与俱去

  C.古之人不余欺也

  D.惟兄嫂是依

  3.下列各句中,句式不同于其他三项的一项是()

  A.不者,若属皆且为所虏

  B.风流总被雨打风吹去

  C.私见张良,具告以事

  D.不拘于时,学于余

  4.下列各句中,句式与例句相同的一项是()

  例句:胡为乎遑遑欲何之

  A.蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强

  B.大王来何操

  C.为天下笑者,何也

  D.上古有大椿者,以八千岁为春,八千岁为秋

  5.阅读下面的文字,完成后面的问题。

  子谓颜渊曰:“用之则行,舍之则藏,惟我与尔有是夫!”

  子路曰:“子行三军,则谁与?”

  子曰:“暴虎冯河,死而无悔者,吾不与也。必也临事而惧,好谋而成者也。”

  (选自《论语》)

  (1)解释下列黑体词语的意思。

  ①子行三军,则谁与

  ②必也临事而惧

  (2)把文中画横线句子翻译成现代汉语。

  ①用之则行,舍之则藏,惟我与尔有是夫!

  译文:____________________

  ②暴虎冯河,死而无悔者,吾不与也。

  译文:____________________

  6.阅读下面的文字,完成后面的问题。

  孟子谓戴不胜曰:“子欲子之王之善与?我明告子。有楚大夫于此,欲其子之齐语也,则使齐人傅诸,使楚人傅诸?”(①)曰:“使齐人傅之。”(②)曰:“一齐人傅之,众楚人咻之,虽日挞而求其齐也,不可得矣;引(③)而置之庄岳之间数年,虽日挞而求其楚,亦不可得矣。子谓薛居州,善士也,使(④)居于王所。在于王所者,长幼尊卑皆薛居州也,王谁与为不善?在王所者,长幼尊卑皆非薛居州也,王谁与为善?一薛居州,独如宋王何?”

  (选自《孟子》)

  (1)在括号内补上合适的词语。

  ①( ) ②( )

  ③( ) ④( )

  (2)下列各句中,与“王谁与为善”的句式相同的一项是()

  A.虽日挞而求其齐也,不可得矣

  B.在王所者,长幼尊卑皆非薛居州也

  C.太子及宾客知其事者,皆白衣冠以送之

  D.君何以知燕王

  (3)把文中画横线句子翻译成现代汉语。

  ①一齐人傅之,众楚人咻之,虽日挞而求其齐也,不可得矣。

  译文:_____________________

  ②在王所者,长幼尊卑皆非薛居州也,王谁与为善?

  译文:_____________________

  

  参考答案

  《特殊句式之省略句》

  1.A(判断句,其他各项为省略句)

  2.B(省略句,其他各项为宾语前置句)

  3.C(省略句,其他各项为被动句)

  4.B(都是宾语前置句)

  5.(1)①行:率领。②惧:谨慎。(2)①用我呢,我就去干,不用我,我就隐藏起来,只有我和你才能做到这样吧!②赤手空拳和老虎搏斗,徒步涉水过河,死了都不会后悔的人,我是不会和他在一起共事的。

  6.(1)①戴不胜。②孟子。③他。④之,即薛居州。(2)D(都是宾语前置句)(3)①一个齐国人教他,许多楚人用方言扰乱他,纵使天天打他,逼他说齐国话,也不能达到目的。②在王左右的人,不论年龄大的年龄小的,地位低的地位高的,都不是薛居州那样的人,那么王和谁去做好事呢?

范文十:特殊句式之被动句 投稿:赵穌積

一、句式特点

  什么是被动句呢?被动句是相对于主动句而言的。在动词谓语句中,主语是动作或行为的施动者,这样的句子叫主动句;如果主语是动作或行为的受动者,这种句子就叫被动句。

  现代汉语中,为了突出宾语的受动地位,一般将宾语置于主语的位置,但为了不改变句意,必须在动词前加“被”“让”“叫”等词,让动作的施动者成为宾语。和现代汉语一样,文言文中也用被动句表达句意,只不过使用形式要比现代汉语中的被动句复杂得多,其句子的结构方式也和现代汉语不大一样。

  我们可以通过以下八种形式辨识文言文中的被动句。

  1.……于……句式,如:故内惑于郑袖,外欺于张仪。(《屈原列传》)

  2.……受……于……句式,如:吾不能举全吴之地,十万之众,受制于人。(《赤壁之战》)

  3.……见……句式,如:欲予秦,秦城恐不可得,徒见欺。(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)

  4.……见……于……句式,如:吾长见笑于大方之家。(《秋水》)

  5.……为……句式,如:父母宗族,皆为戮没。(《荆轲刺秦王》)

  6.……为……所……句式,如:有如此之势,而为秦人积威之所劫。(《六国论》)

  7.……为所……句式,如:若属皆且为所虏。(《鸿门宴》)

  8.……被……句式,如:风流总被雨打风吹去。(《永遇乐京口北固亭怀古》)

  二、注意事项

  除了掌握上述几种形式外,具体运用时还要注意几点:

  1.并非所有的“……于……”句式都表示被动。

  “于”字是文言文里使用较为广泛的一个介词,表示的意义、关系也较为繁多,同样作为介词结构的句子,如何判断是不是被动句呢?

  首先,看“于”前面是动词还是形容词,如果是形容词,一般是表比较,翻译成“比”,如“冰,水为之,而寒于水”(《劝学》)。

  其次,如果“于”前面是动词的话就要看“于”后面的成分是动作行为的发出者还是动作行为产生的时间、处所、对象等。如“设九宾于廷,臣乃敢上璧”(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)一句中,“廷”是“设”的处所,所以这句话不是被动句。

  2.并非所有的“……见……”句式都表示被动。

  “见”的义项也很多,怎样判断是不是被动句,就要看“见”后面是什么词,如果是名词或代词,那么“见”便成了及物动词,如“秦王坐章台见相如”(《廉颇蔺相如列传》)。如果“见”后面是动词,那么就要考虑到“见”前面有没有动词的承受者,有的话,此句是被动句,如“众人皆醉而我独醒,(我)是以见放”(《屈原列传》);如果没有,“见”本身可能就是这个动作的承受者,那么这个句子就不是被动句,如“生孩六月,慈父见背”(《陈情表》),“见”就是“背”的承受者,相当于“我”。

  3.并非所有的“……被……”句式都表示被动。

  判断句子是否是被动句关键要区别“被”的词性,因为“被”常作名词或动词用,直接用于动词前组成“被+谓语”的格式时,才表示被动,如“盖当蓼洲周公之被逮”(《五人墓碑记》)。

  4.有些用了使动用法的句子,在意思上有时可理解为被动句。

  “太上不辱先,其次不辱身。”(《报任安书》)这句话中的“辱”属于使动用法,“使……辱”。按照主动句翻译则句意为:“最上是不使祖先受辱,其次是不使自身受辱。”从文意和语气上看此句应该突出强调“辱”的宾语“祖先”所以我们把它按照被动句的要求译为:“最上是祖先不被侮辱,其次是自身不被侮辱。”两句比较,显然是被动句的表达效果更好一些。

  遇到这种情况,我们可依据上下文意是否贯通,风格是否一致,是否更符合作者的意图而定。

  5.还有一些句子虽然没用任何的表示被动关系的词语,但是依据上下文表达的意思可以确认这些句子为被动句。

  判断这样的句子是否是被动句,要注意主语产生动作行为的原因是否来自于外界。主语要有“被迫”的情形。如“彭越、张敖,南面称孤,系狱抵罪。”(《报任安书》)这句话中“彭越、张敖”的“系狱”只能是“被迫”而为。有些虽不是“被迫”,但其情形,仍是来自外界的原因。如“帝感其诚……”(《愚公移山》)这句话中“感动”的原因是来自外界,受外界的影响,这样的句子往往就是被动句。

  以上对于被动句的形式及用法的例解,学会要在具体的语言环境中加以体会,加深印象,才能做好文言文题。

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