怎样学英语的英语作文_范文大全

怎样学英语的英语作文

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范文一:怎样学英语的英语作文 投稿:史尞尟

蓝天外语培训http://www.blueskyschool.net/News/News.aspx?NewsID=866

怎样学英语的英语作文

英语写作是英语听、说、读、写、译的其中一项输出型技能。从初中、高中再到大学,乃至每一种英语测验几乎都有英语作文这一题型。英语作文似乎成了许多人英语学习过程中的一大“绊脚石”,那么,该怎样学英语的英语作文,解决这个棘手问题?

蓝天外语质量承诺:包学会,学不会全额免费重学!

外语水平免费测试www.blueskyschool.net/Questions/ 点击进入 或百度搜索:“蓝天外语” 蓝天外语关于学习英语写作给出以下几点意见:

首先,要写好英语作文,一定要狠抓语言基本功。提高英语写作水平并非一朝一夕能够奏效。平时要经常研读范文,学会模仿。一些美文往往都是用精炼、地道的语言写成。模仿范文写作是成功的第一步。有现成可以套用的句、段、篇,何苦还要拈断胡须再去写因思维负向迁移而导致的大量Chinglish。当然,精读范文不仅仅是习得几个单词而已,更是要学习其结构、句型和表达方式等。

其次,有针对性地进行勤练多写。我们可以形成并保持写英语日记的习惯,盲目和超负荷的学习量对切实提高写作水平无益。因此我们可带纸笔在身边,随时拿出来记记刚刚发生的事,碰到的人,在想什么等等。除了随笔、日记外,还可以经常写课文概要。

再者,阅读是写作的源泉。要克服用词贫乏、内容空洞的通病可通过广泛阅读来解决。蓝天外语称,“语言的学习就是那种习惯与感觉的养成”。读得多了,自然而然会有感觉这种积累。平时看些英语散文对提高议论文的写作很有帮助;而看些科普读物对举例论证也会大有裨益。

最后,虽然我们总是说在学习英语过程中一定要注意从母语思维中脱离出来,但我们这里要强调的是,学生在写英语作文时时离不开母语写作水平的,这一点主要体现在审题能力上。中文写作水平高的人对其在考场上写英语作文时审题、立意、布局、逻辑等方面有一定益处。

英语写作同于其它英语技能的学习,要真正提高英语写作能力是不能一蹴而就的,惟有脚踏实地,勤奋练习才可能实现质的飞跃。

范文二:怎样学好英语作文 投稿:钟臥臦

 中考英语:如何写好英语作文?

 作者: 来源: 时间:2013-3-11 14:58:18 阅读68次 【大 中 小】

 一、怎样写好文章的开头

开头是作文在阅卷老师面前的第一次亮相,它将决定你所写的文章在阅卷老师心中所留下的第一印象。如果第一印象好,就意味着有了良好的开端,也就成功了一半。Good beginning is half done,我们该怎样一提起笔就让自己成功一半呢?

(一)“开门见山”式开头

一般来说,文章的开头应尽量做到“开门见山”,即要用简单明了的语言引出文章的话题,使人一开始就能了解文章要说明的内容。

1. 对于叙事类的文章,可以在开头把人物、时间、事件和环境交代清楚。如“A Trip to Huangshan(黄山之旅)”的开头可以是:Last month, my family went to Huangshan by train. It took us ten hours to get there. What a long and tiring journey! We were tired but the beautiful scenery excited us.

2. 对于论述性的文章,可以在开头处先阐明自己的观点,接着展开进一步的论述。如“The Time and the Money(时间和金钱)” 的开头可以是:Most people say that money is more important than time. But I don’t think so. First, when money is used up, you can earn it back, but……

(二)回忆性开头

在描述事件或游记类的文章中,采用回忆性的开头往往更能吸引人的眼球。这种类型的开头中通常含有描述自己心情或情绪的词汇,如never forget (永远无法忘记), remember (记得),unforgettable (难以忘怀的), exciting(令人激动的),surprising(令人惊讶的), sad (难过的)……如“A Trip to Huangshan(黄山之旅)”的开头还以这样写:I will never forget my first trip to Huangshan. 或It was really an unforgettable experience I had.

(三)疑问性开头

在叙事类或论述性的文章中,都可采用疑问型开头,这样既可以吸引阅卷者的注意又容易抓住中心。如“Planting Trees(种树)”的开头可以是:Have you ever planted trees? Don’t you think planting trees is ……

再如“Traveling Abroad(出国之旅)”的开头可以是:If you have an opportunity to travel abroad, why not consider Singapore?

(四)倒叙式开头

在有的文章,特别是叙事类的文章中,可以采用倒叙的写作手法,先写出事件的结果,再陈述过程。如“Catching Thieves (捉贼)”的开头可以这样写:I lay in bed in the hospital. I smiled at my friends even though my legs hurt.

Do you want to know what happened to me? Let me tell you. It’s a … story.

二、怎样写好正文

(一).在整篇文章中,避免只使用一两个句式,要灵活运用诸如倒装句、强调句、主从复合句、分词状语等。

①强调句

[原文]my parents praised ah fu warmly. it had saved my little sister bravely.

[修正]my parents praised ah fu warmly. it was our brave ah fu who had saved my little sister

bravely.

②由what等引导的从句,此处的what相当于中文的“所……”,有很大的概括力,如:

[原文]we had to stand there to catch the offender.

[修正]what we had to do was (to) stand there, trying to catch the offender.

what china has achieved in recent years is known through the world. china is no longer what it used to be.

③由with或without引导的短语。如:

he sat in a chair with a newspaper in the hand.

④分词短语。如:

satisfied with the result, he decided to go on with a new experiment.

⑤倒装句。如:

only in this way can we achieve our goal.

never before have i seen such a wonderful film.

⑥省略句。如:

if so, victory will be ours.

you can make some changes wherever necessary.

⑦对比,这是中文中也常用的方法。如:

failure is not a crime, but failure to learn from failure is.

when i play, i feel excited, and after it i feel relaxed.

(二).通过分句和合句,增强句子的连贯性和表现力。

[原文]he stopped us half an hour ago. he made us catch the next offender.

[修正]he stopped us half an hour ago and made us catch the next offender.

[原文]we had a short rest. then we began to play happily. we sang and danced.

some told stories. some played chess.

[修正]after a short rest, we had great fun singing and dancing,telling jokes and playing chess.

(三).学会使用过渡词。如:

①递进: then(然后), besides(还有), furthermore(而且), moreover(此外)等。

②转折: however(然而), but(但是), on the country(相反), after all(毕竟)等。

③总结: finally(最后), at last(最后), in brief(总之), in conclusion(最后)等。

④强调: indeed(确实), certainly(一定), surely(确定), above all(尤其)等。

⑤对比: in the same way(同样地), just as(正如), on the one hand…on the other hand(一方面……另一方面……)等。

(四).注意使用不同长度的句子。

(五).对于“较复杂的词汇”,可以从以下几个方面着手。

①.注意使用词组、习语来代替一些单词,以增加文采。如:

[原文]a new railway is being built in my hometown.

[修正]a new railway is under construction in my hometown.

②.使用一些很有“洋味”的单词。如:

thank you for sharing the time with us.

the way he views the world is very practical.

③.避免重复使用某一单词或短语。如:

[原文]i like reading while my brother likes watching television.

[修正]i like reading while my brother enjoys watching television.

三、怎样写好文章的结尾

文章的结尾没有固定的模式,同学们可以根据表达主题的需要灵活创造。一般情况下,记叙文和说明文经常采用自然结尾的方法;但夹叙夹议和发表观点类的文章则往往有结束语,以使文章首尾呼应,结构完整。文章结尾的形式也因文章类别和开头的风格而灵活多

(一)自然结尾,点明主题

随着文章的结束,文章自然而然地结尾。如“Helping the Policeman(帮助警察)”的结尾可以是:The two children were praised by the police and they felt happy.

再如“The Tortoise aand the Hare(龟兔赛跑)” 的结尾可以是:When the hare got to the tree, the tortoise had already been there。

(二)首尾呼应,升华主题

在文章的结尾可以用含义较深的话点明主题,深化主题,起到“画龙点睛”的效果。如“I Love My Hometown(我爱家乡)”的结尾可以是:I love my hometown, and I am proud of it.

(三)反问结尾,引起深思

这种方式的结尾虽然形式是问句,但意义却是肯定的,而且具有一定的强调作用,可引起他人的深思。如 “Learning English can Give us a Lot of

Pleasure (学英语能为我们带来许多乐趣)” 的结尾可以是:If we learn English well, we can …Don’t you think learning English is great fun?

(四)表达祝愿,阐述愿望

这种方式的结尾常出现在书信或演讲稿的文体中,表示对他人的祝福或对将来的展望等。如“A Letter to the Farmers(给农民们的一封信)”的结尾可以是:I hope the farmers’ life will be better and better.

另外,书信的结尾常有以下形式的祝福语:Best wishes;I wish you a merry Christmas and a happy new year;I wish you have a good time等。

范文三:怎样学好英语作文 投稿:唐褴褵

How to learn English English is one of the most important languages in the world. It’s necessary(必 要) for us to learn it well. How do you study it well? Everyone can learn Englsih well in different ways. I think the best way it’s that we must listen more, speak more and read more. We should practice them every day. It’s good for you if you are interested in English. One more thing, remember “Practice makes perfect”.(熟能 生巧)

范文四:英语语言学论文作业样本 投稿:张奶奷

《语言学导论》学期论文格式要求:

1、 标题二号,times new roman字体,加粗;居中。

2、 标题下面另起一行标明姓名:班级:学号:三项内容

3、 正文小四号,times new roman,行距1.5倍。段首缩进四个字符。

两端对齐。

4、 正文小标题加粗。

5、 正文中出现的文献格式如下:(Bechman,1990)

6、 Reference中的文献写法:

(1) 若引文为著作,按下列顺序:

作者,年代,书名,出版社

如:

Bchman, L.,1990. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford University.

(2) 若引文为杂志,则按下列顺序:

作者,年代,文章名,杂志社名,第几期的顺序。

如:

Coleman, H. 1987. Teaching Spectacles and Learning Festivals, English Language Teaching Journal, (2).

Sample:

Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure and Countermeasures—A Case Based on College

Students in Ningbo

Name: Class: Student No.

1 Introduction

Learning a second language is to develop the pragmatic competence, including language competence and application (He,1997). Bechman believes that linguistic competence includes organizational competence and pragmatic competence. The former means the accuracy of the language, the latter refers to the appropriateness of the language in the certain situation (Bechman,1990) .

Pragmatic failure was first proposed by Thomas (1983), referring to the inability to understand ―what is meant by what is said‖ (Thomas, 1983). The failures above render it more difficult for college students in the cross–cultural communication, thus being the main causes of pragmatic failures. Based on the case study of college students in Ningbo, the article is meant to find out the pragmatic failure existed in college students when

talking with native speakers and give some countermeasures to pragmatic failure. 2 Pragmatic Failures in Cross-cultural Communication

Although students have learned a great number of vocabulary, phrases and sentences and known a few grammar rules, they may not speak with proper language, causing the pragmatic failure. As a result, misunderstanding happens in response to greetings, saying goodbye, showing gratitude and answering for apologies, etc.

According to the survey among the Ningbo College students, 19% of English learners, who learn English for many years, follow the Chinese greeting customs to

express their greetings to their western friends.

Another cause for pragmatic failure exists in the misunderstanding by the unawareness of target-language culture.

In order to express their care to other people, Chinese people want to inquire other people’s age, address, job and their income. Such questions are the privacy for westerners.

Chinese people seem to pay little attention to the concept of privacy while native English speakers value their privacy very much. Questions about a person’s age, marital status, salary or the price of an item are perfectly acceptable in Chinese culture, but they are not in Western culture.

The analysis of three types of pragmatic failures above reveals that the students’pragmatic competence is not adequately developed. They made mistakes where it was common sense for western customs and culture. They proved to be insufficient in the range and depth of the knowledge of western customs.

3. Methods to overcome the Pragmatic Failure in Cross-cultural Communication

After carefully pondering over the case study among Ningbo College students, it is quite necessary for us to raise students’ awareness of cross-cultural differences. The followings are some suggestive ways to overcome the pragmatic failure.

3.1Make the textbook improved to develop culture awareness

For many decades, colleges have emphasized in only the teaching of grammar and vocabulary. Most of the exercises are based on the textbooks. What appear in the book is often different from the reality. In order to communicate well in real life, the textbooks should be replaced. Besides, textbook compilers should add more cultural information to textbooks because if we teach language without teaching at the same time the culture in which it operates, we are teaching meaningless symbols or symbols to which the students attach the wrong meaning.

3.2 Provide real context in the textbooks

He Ziran said that one of the biggest drawbacks for Chinese English-learners are lack of context (He,1997). It is suggested that there should be oral test in the English exams. Only in this way, an increasing number of students will open their mouths to speak English. Watching film and TV is a good way to learn English under unique context. It is hoped that more channels will be provided in English learning, from which, children learn English will be much easier. Besides, pair work and team work in English class are efficient ways to offer context for learners.

3.3 Improve teaching strategies in the development of pragmatic awareness

Teachers should consciously reflect cultural perspectives in the course of teaching and let students know that a good command of language forms alone is inadequate for the needs of communication. For example, while teaching culturally loaded words, they should explain not only grammatical usage but also referential meanings and social meanings. Furthermore, teachers themselves should be bi-cultural, or at least familiar with the target culture.

4. Conclusion

It is high time for college teachers and undergraduates to raise their cross-cultural awareness. To reduce pragmatic failure, countermeasures like improving the textbooks, training in the specific contest and changing the traditional way of teaching has been put forward. The pragmatic problems reflected in Ningbo College students is the common problems shared by all Chinese undergraduates. The phenomena should be given primary importance.

References

1 Bchman, L.,1990. Fundamental Considerations in Language Testing. Oxford University.

2 Thomas, J., 1983. Cross-cultural failure. Applied Linguistics, quoted from He Zhaoxiong, 2003. Selected Reading for Pragmatics. Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press.

3 何自然,1997.语用学与英语学习.上海外语教育出版社。

范文五:大学英语四级作文样文 投稿:杜騒験

2013年6月四级作文样文

14 points

As we can see in the picture, a teacher shows multiplication table on the blackboard to the students. Nevertheless, one of the children doubts its significance and says, “No offence, but by the time we’re in the job market, won’t that stuff be outdated?” From his perspective, it is no use studying basic skills because it won’t help them find a job.

However, from my personal point of view, we should attach great importance to learning basic skills. To begin with, basic skills are the solid foundation of our knowledge system. Without it, nothing can be achieved. Furthermore, although some basic skills may be outdated as time goes by, learning basic skills can benefit us a lot in improving our ways of thinking. Only by getting basic knowledge can we explore more difficult tasks. Lastly, through the process of learning basic skills we can acquire certain qualities, such as carefulness, determination and perseverance.

From what has been discussed above, we may arrive at the conclusion that students should do their utmost to learn basic skills.

11 points

As is shown in the picture, when a teacher introduces the multiplication table to the students, they doubt that it is useful when they are in the job market.

Learning basic skills is questioned by more and more people. They complain that these skills are never used later in their lives. Thus, it’s a waste of time learning basic skills, and instead, we should study more practical skills.

As for me, I totally disagreed about this opinion. To begin with, we have to admit that it’s impossible for us to learn skills far beyond our capability. What’s more,

learning basic skills enable us to study better. We can’t hold the illusion that we are smart enough to ignore these skills. In fact, we use them anywhere in our lives. Last but not least, we all learn from zero, so it’s necessary to learn basic skills.

In short, everyone should aware of the importance of learning basic skills. Only in this way can we acquire more skills and knowledge in an efficient way.

8 points

As the picture shown, a teacher is teaching students a multiplication table and some students are looking at the blackboard carefully. One of the students say, “No offense, but by the time we’re in the job market, won’t that stuff be outdated?” Maybe some people believe that it’s important to learn basic skills. However, others don’t think so.

Personally, I think to learn basic skills is useful to everyone. First, there are basic skills may help you do other things easier, especially something that has relation with the basic skills. Second, if you have learn basic skills, you can find to do many work easier so that you will have more chance than others. Thirdly, you will learn more when you are learning basic skills and the basic skills may give you some inspire and find a new way to do your work.

Just as say by the student, stuff will be outdated and nowadays new skills are created frequently. We should learn basic skills to catch the society and learn other skills.

5 points

There is a picture of a teacher was teaching Multiplication Table for her students. The teacher’s teaching way were lively and active. However, the students were confused, because they take this basic skills is unmeaning and unused.

In morden job market, we merely often take effectively advantage of this basic skills that learn from school. But it is affected our ways when we work.

I think, the important role of learning basic skills is familared with the air that we breathed the wind, and the food we eated it. So we must high speedly realized that learning well the basic skills is necessary and important. If we don’t study the Multiplication Table, we will don’t know maths, if we unknow math, we will not be able to scale. It is a bad circle.

“No offense, but by the time we’re in the job market, won’t that stuff be outdated” was wrong. The knowledge is wealthy. We must have confident that as long as we learn good, we must look for a good job in the future.

2 points

In this picture, we can see there is a teacher teached students multiplication table, but the students didn’t think it offense in the job market.

Advance with the society more and more controversial issues have brought, one of which is teaching, just like the picture, with the developenting society, our teaching must developenting as well, now in the job market, the company request more and more, but our school and college teach too simple. It due to the student can’t find the job in the job market, and they say no offense but by the time we’re in the job market, won’t that stuff be outdated?

Now we must to know student want, that we can make them useful in the job market, then it can sovle the issue.

范文六:英语不好高考英语作文照样拿高分 投稿:谭熀熁

1.写信告诉爸爸,我被心仪的( )大学录取了

I am very excited to tell you that I have passed the entrance examination and been admitted into ( ) University-the famous university which I have been longing for.大学很美丽有高级的器材。The university is beautiful and has excellent equipment. 和大图书馆,There is a large library in it. 老师很好,对学生耐心The teachers here are very good. They are very kind and patient to the students. I am satisfied with all these and determined to study harder. 别担心我,我会茁壮成长的Don’t worry about me. I have grown up and can deal with all kinds of matters. Wish you a good health。 2.数年的学校生活已经教我很多东西,其中合作对我来说是最重要的东西Years of school life has taught me a lot of things, of which teamwork is the most important for me.我被选为班长后什么事都自己做好累。In face, I didn't realize its importance until I was chosen monitor of my class in my senior middle school. At first, I did most of the duties myself while other students cared little about class activities. As a result, I was tired out and depressed. Then I turned to my teacher and he advised me to cooperate with others. Thus I began to recognize the strengths of my classmates and have everyone do their part in class. 正是团队合作而不是我自己备尝艰辛,让我的工作更有效It is working in teams instead of on my own that has freed me of trouble and made my work more efficient

3.写给父母的信,,成绩好不是万能的,身心健康最重要

你困惑的问题正是很多中国家长困惑的问题,我的主意是这么做对你来说不太合适。What puzzles you is actually a puzzle for many parents in China. My idea is that it is not quite right for you to do so.Although high grades are an important factor in evaluating students and for their future university admission, development in wisdom, emotion, health, and life attitude should never be ignored. There are many examples around us. 很多学生在社会上不如他们想象的那么成功。Some all-A students in school have turned out not to be as successful in society as they were expected. The reason is often that the pressure from their parents allows them almost no time for other activities. Furthermore, 惩罚无论如何都不是一个帮助他们生理和心里成长的理智选择。punishment is by no means a wise choice to help them grow up mentally and physically.更重要的是,让她活得更像一个可爱的小女孩,让她有更多的朋友和社交,让她犯同龄人都会犯的错误More importantly, let her live like a lovely girl; let her have more friends and social activities; and let her make mistakes of her own as we teenagers often do.

4。看图作文的题的套路 这个图想要传达的信息很清楚,The message conveyed in the picture is clear.在图中In the picture,

作为一个高中生,我们在学习中时常碰到各种麻烦己的方法。As high school students, we run into one difficulty after another in the process of learning. Everyone has their own way to deal with them. Here I would like to share mine.浏览网页。When I am faced with a difficulty, I usually choose to refer to relevant learning materials or Web pages. In this way, I can not only solve it out but also improve my ability to overcome problems all by myself.

然而当问题很棘手时我去问同学,最后我取得了进步However, when it is something beyond my sompetence, I turn to classmates or teachers for help. Sometimes I also ask my parents for advice. As a result, I have made steady progress in my studies.

6.和朋友的一次郊游I went for a pleasant outing on Saturday with some friends from school. We went to a lovely lake about a hundred kilometres north of here. We left by bus at seven o’clock in the morning and arrived at the lake at eight thirty. 我们早上游泳划船We spent the morning swimming and rowing small boats. 我们在湖边小餐厅吃饭Then we had lunch in a small restaurant by the lake. After lunch we climbed a large hill behind the lake and enjoyed the beautiful view from the top. We got back to the bus at around four o’clock and then we came back to town. We had a wonderful time.

7.我对自己未来的规划是想当个老师Everyone of us is thinking about the future. What is mine? I have decided become a middle school teacher . Does it sound surprising? 我从小就想当老师

I had his dream when I was only a child. I love children . I don’t think to deal with them all years round is just wasting time . On the contrary , to me it would mean happiness . As we all can see, teachers are badly needed in our country, but not many of us want to become teachers. One of the main reasons for this is that teachers work too hard but get too little . In spite of that, 我将全身心的投入教育工作I’m determined to devote all my life to the cause of education.

8.最近有很多人出国 In recent years, studying abroad has been popular.Tens of thousands of Chinese students have gone to foreign countries to study.Many people are trying their best to apply to apply to go abroad. 好处There are many advantages in attending schools abroad.能联系不同的文化学外语更方便First, students who have studied abroad can act as mediators between people of different cultures.Second, we can learn much more advanced knowledge of science and technology from foreign countries.Third, we can learn much foreign languages more quickly. 不好处 However, there are some disadvantages.在国外孤独寂寞冷Most of the students are too young to live alone without any living experience.Besides, being far away from their home country, they may feel lonely and homesick.比在家里花费更高Also, of course, the costs are much higher there than at home.In spite of theses, advantages are more than disadvantages.我觉得出国还是有必要的In my opinion, it is advisable to attend schools abroad.

9.零花钱该怎么花 With the development of our living standard, we get more and more pocket money given by our parents or relatives. But how should we spend it?首先你可以在银行存着First of all, you can save it in the bank to cultivate a good habit of saving money. When you really need money you can take it out其次你可以投资在学习上. Secondly, you can buy some book on science or arts which bring more knowledge. Or, you are interested in stamp collecting, music or sports, you can use your pocket money on it.有很多选择但是千万别花在玩游戏上School students may make different choices on their pocket money. But never waste it just

eating or playing electronic games.

10.财富与健康谁重要 Which is more important, wealth or health? Different people have different opinions. 有些人爱财富Some people prefer wealth, holding that money can not bring everything, but without it, one can do nothing. In order to accumulate more money they can do anything..我更爱健康However, other people regard health as more important. Once health is lost, it is no use having a lot of money.As far as I am concerned, I love wealth, but I value health more. Everybody wants to live a happy life. So they try their best to earn money which they can ensure they lead a comfortable life, but if happiness and comfort are achieved at the cost of their health, how can they be happy? 没有健康要钱何用Without health money becomes meaningless. 所以要好好保持健康 In my opinion, no one agrees that a wealthy person without good health can be happy. So, just do our best and keep fit.

11.百分比表达观点的题,同学之间讨论(政府)(拆旧民房)的事,,I' m a student of Senior Three. I'm writing to tell you about the discussion we’ve had about whether the (city government) should (demolish illegal buildings). Opinions between us are divided.百分之70觉得要拆 About 70% of the students are for the government’s decision. They think the (illegal buildings) have taken up too much of the greenbelt and always blocked the traffic. What’s more, most illegal buildings are over years or out of date, which not only breaks the beauty of the city but also exists some hidden dangers.百分之30持有不同观点,觉得yes About 30% of the students, however, hold the opposite opinion. The main reason is that a lot of (illegal buildings )are done by people who were out of job. They want to run some small business to support their families. So, to pull down these buildings will make some of them lose the means of earning a living.

12.讨论是否要私家车I’m writing to tell you about the discussion about whether it is good or not for families to own private cars.随着社会的发展,越来越多的人们拥有私家车。 With the improvement of people’s living conditions, more and more people have their own cars. Some of us think it good to own a car. For one thing, the car is a kind of convenient, fast and pleasant transportation. For another thing,它表明人们的生活越来越富裕 it shows that people’s living conditions are improving and our country is getting richer and stronger. 同时他让生意做得更便利。Meanwhile, it makes other businesses and industries develop faster. However, others hold different views. 有人觉得车污染环境They think waste gases from the cars pollute our environment badly. Besides, too many cars will have some had effects on the traffic and lead to more accidents. Also, parking is another big problem. In my opinion, we shouldn‘t encourage people to own private cars.

13. 该不该养宠物 Recently we have had a heated discussion on whether people should keep pets at home in cities.有些人说宠物能带给人安慰,Some students think it's a good idea to keep pets because many old people who live alone at home can get some comforts from pets. Besides, getting along well with animals will make our life interesting.但有些人认为,宠物污染环

境On the contrary the other students are against the idea. In their opinion if too many people keep pets at home, it's bad for the environment. What is worse, pets may make too much noise and even attack people.我的观点是这个可以养 I like animals, so I don't think it's bad to keep pets at home. But we must take some measures to prevent them from polluting our environment.

14.很多学生参加补习班More and more middle school students are going to all kinds of training classes or having family teachers at the weekend. There are two different viewpoints about it.有些人觉得有必要Some thinks it necessary. Firstly, it’s more effective to study with a teacher than by themselves. Secondly, it can strengthen what is learnt in class. 可以学更多东西Besides, they can learn a lot more, 有些觉得没必要Others think it unnecessary.学生可以学会独立自主学习 For one thing, students can easily form the habit of dependence. For another, students need time to relax from time to time. 有些老师黑心为了赚钱What’s more, the purpose of many training classes and teachers is to make money.我的观点是要是你成绩太差可以补一补In my opinion, whether a training class or family teacher is needed just depends. If you are really very weak at or interested in a certain subject, maybe it’s OK for you. But be sure to choose a good and suitable class or teacher, otherwise it would be a waste of time and money.

15。看报纸很重要Newspapers are important media. They can provide all kinds of latest news from both at home and abroad, which can help us understand the world better.让我们的生活更丰富Newspapers can also make our life rich. In newspapers, we can read stories about a variety of people, find weather reports, introductions to new books, advertisements on traveling, and so on.看报纸帮助英语学习As English learners, reading newspapers in English, such as “China Daily”, is one of the best ways to improve our English. There are many words, phrases and structures for us to learn, and what’s more, we can acquire abundant knowledge of history, culture and society.

16.做志愿者工作的利与弊 弊端 It can be argued that the advantages of doing unpaid volunteer work are enormous, because volunteer work is actually a two-way street. First of all, volunteer work should always benefit people who need help. Those who need help will feel happier due to our immediate help. On the other hand, as far as the young people ourselves are concerned, 利端 通过......我们增强了责任心,的动手能力.......we have more opportunities to develop the sense of responsibility, independence as well as interpersonal skills in the process of helping others. Through this kind of work, we become confident and mature. In addition, we can make many friends and increase our chances of getting the jobs of our dreams. 志愿者在建设和谐社会方面做出巨大贡献Furthermore, volunteer work plays an active role in building up a harmonious society.

17.诚实很重要。What is honesty? Honesty means speaking the truth and being fair and upright in act. Considered a virtue, honesty is admired in every country and every culture. 有的人不诚实However, there are still some dishonest people living in this world. Some people try

to take advantage of other people whenever they can. Some businessmen are not always honest in their dealings. Some students are caught cheating over exams and punished to leave school. Some newspapers carry some untrue news just in order to attract more readers.我相信诚实是让社会变的更美好的东西 I do believe honesty is a virtue which is the only key to open the door to the success in our careers and lives.所以让我们一起诚实吧So let’s be honest and make this world more beautiful.

18.对祖国的赞扬Our great motherland is one of the largest countries in the world.他有世界上最多得人口It has a population of over eleven hundred million. Peking is its capital.我们的人民勤劳勇敢We Chinese people are brave and hardworking. We have a glorious revolutionary tradition. We drove out Japanese invaders and overthrew Kuomingtang government. In 1949 the People’s Republic of China was founded. Since then great changes have taken place in our motherland.我们的国家变得越来越强盛 Now our country is getting stronger and stronger. We Chinese people are working hard to make our motherland into a powerful socialist country.

19.介绍我的家乡是一个开放的地方My hometown is an economic-open-zone. It is a town on the sea with a population of three hundred thousand. 在改革开放以前,人民捕鱼为生Before the liberation it used to be a fishing village. Most people lived on fishing. 没有高中,小学也很少There was no industry. And there were only few primary schools here. 自从改革开放,人民富裕了,Since the open-door policy, a lot of foreign businessmen invested here. A lot of factories have been built. Economics have developed rapidly and big port has also been built, which is connected with many ports of other ports both in and out of our country. 建立了大学A new university now has been founded.Three thousand students have already graduated from it. 我相信我的家乡会越来越好I am sure in the near future our hometown will become more modern.

20.申请一个工作。How do you do? Through the ad .我知道你需要一个( )I know you need a( )I would like to have this job. Now let me introduce myself to you.我的名字是( ),我即将毕业,My name is ( ). I am twenty and will soon graduate from a vocational school. My major is business management. I have been learning English for 8 years and I have computer experience.我曾经当过校园报纸编辑 I have been one of the editors for the student newspaper in our school for the past three years. My grades remain upper level in my class. The most important thing is that I like office work very much. I am sure I can do it well. 如果你给我这个机会我会很感激的I will appreciate it very much if you would give me the opportunity. Thank you for your consideration.

I am looking forward to hearing from you .

21.学习英语很重要Now many people are working hard at English. In fact, English is very important to us.英语在世界范围内广泛被使用 First, English is widely used in the world and most business letters are written in English. Again if we grasp English, we can learn a lot of advanced experience from other countries. 如果我们学好英语就能更好为祖国服务If we learn English well,

we can serve our motherland better. And, sometimes, learning English is also a great fun.

22.教师节为老师们办的一个party (9月10日)是(教师节)(September 10) is our (Teachers’ Day. )In the afternoon, Zhonghua school held a celebration meeting, 其间三十位(老师)被表彰at which more than twenty (old teachers )each were praised with a medal for their over thirty years of teaching. 我们的(校长)作了热情的讲话Our (principal )made an enthusiastic speech at the meeting, and then the representative of the teachers and students gave a talk to us. 会后我们开始表演,很精彩After the meeting. We started performances played by some teachers and students, which were very interesting and instructive. We all had a wonderful time.我觉得我们要感谢老师,因为他们是人类的灵魂工程师 I think we all should respect the teachers, engineers of human soul.

23,抽烟现象在少年儿童中越来越普遍Smoking is a widespread habit even among school children. The number of young smokers is increasing.It is reported that over two-fifths of the students in a certain school smoke, and some of them even steal money to buy cigarettes, This is terrible.据我们所知,抽烟有害健康,不仅是身体还有心灵As we all know, smoking is harmful to our health. But it’s even more harmful to middle school students for it does great harm not only to their health but also to their mind.中学生是祖国的未来,他们应该花更多时间学习Middle school students are future builders of the country. They should spend their time learning what is useful. 所以是时候让年轻人戒烟了So it’s really time that these young smokers made up their minds to give up smoking.

24.欢迎来到我们的(英语角)Welcome to our (English Corner.) 这个角在(三)年前成立This Corner was set up (three) years ago. Every Sunday morning, 学生都来到这里students from different schools gathered around here. Many college students and some foreigners often join us, 我们用英语说任何我们感兴趣的东西We practice spoken English by talking about everything we are interested in. We also exchange our experience in English study. We all have a good time here. Thousands of people have been here since it was set up.

25.现在我们说说( )Now let me say something about ( .) 他是很受欢迎的() is very popular in China. 他有超过()年的历史It has a history of more than ( )years. 两种风格混合成了今天所知的( ). The two types of singing mixed together and gradually a new type came into being known as( ) 现在就要表演啦,我希望你喜欢Now is the performance. I hope you will like it.

范文七:怎样学好英语 投稿:戴醏醐

16 学 法指导 5 英语 

・《

新 课改革程与践)o实12 l 年第 6 卷第 1 (期  0 )下

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摘【】 要初中在语英学教过程巾, 对教学法方研的究改进对提高初中英语和教的效学果有很大帮的, 本助文者作从兴 趣

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进更有 深的认识刻, 才能不断提高 我 的教们教学育 质 。量 

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范文八:自学英语,怎么样 投稿:武媝媞

自学英语,怎么样?

学习英语的目的就是为了能和别人进行流利的交流。对于英语口语中的几个要素分别是:准确、流利、适合。找到一个合适的学伴一起练习口语,比如英语角就是个不错的地方,不仅可以在那儿练习口语,还可以相互交流英语学习经验方法,开拓视野,进步增进英语学习兴趣。如过没有学伴或者参加英语角的机会很少,也没有关系,可以通过其他方法练习口语,比如通过自己对自己将英语来创造英语环境,可以对自己描述所看到的景物,英语口述自己正在做的事情。靠自己去自学英语口语能学好吗?提高英语口语最好的方法就是模仿,我给你介绍下模仿的方法。

一、模仿语音。模仿时要一板一眼,口形要正确,刚开始模仿时,速度不要过快,用慢速模仿,以便把音发到位,待把音发准了以后,再加快速度,用正常语速反复多说几遍,个单词一个单词地练,在那些常用词上下功夫,尽量模仿得像一些。

二、模仿词组的读法。有了第一步的基础,这一步就容易多了。重点要放在熟练程度和流利程度上,要多练一下连读、的同化等语音技巧。

三、段落及篇章模仿,重点在于提高流利程度。打开录音机或收音机跟着模仿,“他”说你模仿,同步进行。目的要提高口腔肌肉的反应速度,使肌肉和大脑更加协调起来。

模仿练习时候,切记要注意一个问题就是害羞心理。克服这种心理障碍,是学好英语的前提。

ABC360是专业的外教一对一在线英语培训机构。这样就保证了老师可以在第一时间内了解到学员的学习情况,并及时的进行课程和教学方式的调整。这样可以大大提高学员的学习效率。最重要的是价格便宜啊,ABC360的价格更加亲民,外教一对一最低每节课只要7.2元,适合一个长期的学习过程。而且不满意的话还全程无条件退还剩课余额,完全是站在客户角度出发的机构,给人安心,选择ABC360不会后悔。

范文九:怎样学好英语? 投稿:赵厠厡

怎样学好英语,这似乎是一个很古老的话题了。在四年的大学生活中,我最引以为豪的是我的英语成绩。从四年的学习英语的经历中,我总结出了以下几点,以供参考。

  首先,要学好英语,最关键的是要有兴趣。俗话说:兴趣是最好的老师。教我们英语的是一位年轻的老师,他讲课很风趣,还总是让我们自己上台讲课,演小品。生动的英语教学,让我对英语产生了浓厚的兴趣。

  光有兴趣还不行,我们还得知道如何去学。

  先说说背单词吧!对很多同学来说背单词无疑是件很痛苦的事了。我在背单词时,不是按照单词书上的一个一个背下来,这样很容易让人产生厌倦心理,而且很容易忘。我是在每一页抽几个背,就是很随机的。在平时,我们可以制作一些小卡片,把很难记的写在上面,一有空就拿出来看一下,或者可以在床头放一些卡片,每天睡觉前看几眼。更有效的就是在睡前和寝室的同学进行猜字竞赛。每次大家互相把当天学的单词猜一遍,这样就记的牢了。当然背单词最重要的是要不间断的进行温习。

  很多同学都很头疼阅读理解,一是时间紧,二是难理解。如果觉得时间紧,那我就教你一招。那就是把每次的练习当作考试,自己限定时间,做不完的就猜。久而久之,你的心中就会有一只无形的闹钟,使你在做题时总有一种紧迫感。练习时间长了,你也就习惯了。

  对于阅读理解,我觉得我们应该扩大阅读的范围。我们可以看英文报或杂志。在大一时我看的是中英文对照的《英语沙龙》。以后随着词汇量的增加,我就开始看英文报。我经常看的是上海星报,shanghai star。这份报纸内容覆盖广,且较浅,易懂。在看报纸的时候,我不喜欢逐个字的去查,碰到生词就猜,遇到好的词句,就顺手抄下来。三年下来,这样的小小摘录本我已有好几本了。总之,看英文报,不仅可以摄取更多的知识,而且可以培养语感,练习阅读速度。

  听力也是大家头疼的一个问题。我觉得要提高听力能力,光用听力磁带是不够的。我们可以采用其他的方法啊!比如我们可以听英语新闻。我常听的是上海990的夜间十一点档播出的live it up shanghai。这个说话节目挺不错的。当然另一个方法便是去英语角。我是从去年开始上英语角的,在那里一大群的英语爱好者在一起,大家用英语聊天,发表言论。有时也有机会和老外来个亲密接触。多说多听,你的听力和口语的能力就在不知不觉中提高了。到英语角去说,去听,去感受,你会发现原来讲英语并不是一件难事哦!

  学英语,也要学会做个有心人。每次看到街上的英文招牌或网上的英文缩写,你有没有去想过它的全称呢?bbs,大家都用过吧,但它的全称bulletin board system 你知道吗?在报纸上经常看到rmb ,这是什么的缩写呢?当然是人民币的中文缩写了。还有gdp ,mba ,mpa 等等。时间长了,你就会发现,原来英语不仅出现在课堂里,它已溶入到了整个社会中了。看看你的衣服,或许上面就有一个你不认识的单词呢!赶紧学吧!

  各人有各人的学习方法,或许你自己寻求的方法更有效呢!经常和同学交换一些方法,这不是很好吗?有一位哲人说过,两个人各有一个苹果,交换后你终究只有一个,但只有交换了思想,你的脑海里就会多出一个思想来。你说呢?

  线话英语,顾名思义是学生通过电话和网络与大洋彼岸的专业外教每天进行一对一的对话,给学员们一个真实的英语语言环境来提高英语。学员可以不用再跑培训学校,在家、在单位或出差途中就可以和专业外教进行一对一学习。

范文十:英语可以这样学 投稿:叶藀藁

英语可以这样学(http://www.zijin.net/blog/user1/8551/index.shtml) 桂清扬 发表于 2009-10-6 6:08:00 阅读全文(39) | 回复(0) | 引用通告

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abyss → 万丈深渊 (我必死)

English → 英语 (阴沟流水)

gangster → 土匪 (干死他)

husband → 丈夫 (黑漆板凳)

pest → 害虫 (拍死它)

ponderous → 沉重的 (胖的要死)

tycoon → 大款 (太酷)

以上是英语学习的“经典”回放。虽然如今的学生不会这样学英语了,但社会上推出的英语学习法层出不穷,也让人眼花缭乱,莫衷一是。什么功能学习法、意念学习法、双向学习法、思维学习法、表演学习法、雕刻学习法、疯狂学习法等等等等,恨不得人们彻底忘掉母语连睡觉也全用英语说梦话,甚至汉语词典都难以表达英语学习热的万种风情。

英语到底应该怎么学呢?事实上,不同年龄段、不同学历层次的人都会遇到此问题。我这里谈三点:1、东西方思维方式不同,学习的习惯和行为模式不同,效果也不同;2、学无定法,何况世界上不存在“最好的学习方法”,因此,必须寻找适应自己、又能进行有效的学习的方法和途径;3、语言是文化的载体,学语言,更要学文化。以全球文化为主流风格,以地方文化为基本视角,实现跨文化语境下的“全球地方化”。

我们常常被这些问题困扰:为什么中国人的英语很难学得地道?为什么中国人学了英语到国外还有较长一段适应期?

一、两种模式,两种结果

1、关于“规定式”和“描写式”

语法学家们在阐述语法规律时往往采取主观的和客观的两种不同的态度。所谓主观的态度,就是有些语法学家依据一种语体(特别是书面语)的语法主观地规定一些语法规则,以此为标准去评论语法,凡是符合标准的,便认为是“好语法”,凡是违反规定的便是“坏语法”。这种语法体系叫做“规定式语法”(Prescriptive Grammar)。

与规定式语法持相反态度的是描写式语法(Descriptive Grammar)。这一派语法学家不带个人成见去阐述语法规律,而是客观、如实地反映语法规律在不同语体和不同语境中的表现。描写语法不谈论什么“好语法”、“坏语法”,它的主要着眼点是如何恰当地使用语法。语法规律在不同语体和不同语境中的表现是不同的,在一种语体或语境中的“好语法”,如果搬到其他语体或语境中便不一定“好”,相反也是一样。所以规定式语法把某一种结构形式视为“唯

一正确”的形式是很不科学的。

举例说明:规定式语法必须说It is I(是我),因为按照传统语法的规则,作表语的只能是主格。但按照描写式语法的原则,既然人们都说It is me(是我),就必须如实地按照语言事实进行描写。最有趣的是,“Long time no see.”这句典型的Chinglish已被收入多种英语字典。

事实上,中国学生基本上是在“规定式”模型中锻造出来的,无论是学语法,还是学语音、学写作、学快速阅读等,都是先接触一系列的规则和技巧,辅之以大量的model供模仿,以及老师无休止的纠错。如果用“准确性”

(accuracy)、“流利性”(fluency)、“得体性”(appropriacy)三个指标衡量,我们的英语学习者往往是“准确”有余,“流利”不足,“得体”有限。而西方人学外语是倾向于“描写式”的,认为语言是用来交际的,只要自己说的对方能听懂,对方说的自己能听懂就足够了,结果往往是“流利”有余,“准确”不足。

2、源自两种不同的纠错观

“规定式”信奉者主张严防错误,有错必改,这种观点在我国较为流行。主要理由是,学习外语一开始就应掌握正确的标准语音的外语,错了应立即改正,以免形成动力定型。教师常常用母语与外语两种语言对比分析法预测语法的解释和分析,认为错误是由母语与外语的不同、负迁移的干扰引起的,主张归纳两种语言的不同结构和用法特点,加强操练,有错必纠,消灭错误于萌芽状态,以形成正确的自动化习惯。但“描写式”提倡者持相反的观点。它们允许学生犯错误,认为学生犯错误是自然现象。像He touched my shoulder这句话,在以“描写式”为特征的课堂上,老师是不会跳出来纠错的,但中国英语老师十有八九会立即给学生提供“标准”答案:He touched me on the shoulder. 当代语言学家指出,外语学习过程中存在着一个中继语(inter-language)阶段。所谓中继语是受母语影响的一种不成熟的外语,即学生在学习过程中对外语规律所作的错误归纳和类推而产生的一种语言。专家认为,在这个阶段中产生语言错误是不可避免的,但经过日后的不断模仿、假设、摸索、分析、类比等实践,逐步掌握了外语体系,错误就会逐步自然消失,语言日臻完善。经常改错会不断打断学生的思路,影响学生的积极性。因此,为了鼓励和促进学生积极参与语言操练和交际活动,并在言语练习和交流活动中不断完善语言,不能苛求并频繁纠正语言错误。优秀的外语教师应善于分析错误性质,进行分类,分析产生的原因,哪些错误需要改正,哪些错误可以不改,如果要改,什么时候改,怎样改,由谁改。如果这些问题能妥善解决,就能做到恰当地纠正错误,获取学习外语的有效反馈。

3、两种模式的不同结果及其原因

除了在“精确性”,“流利性”,“得体性”方面表现出差异外,中国学生还存在以下通病:

不善于思考,更不会批判性思维;不善于讨论,更不会分享情与智;不善于交际,更不会跨文化交际。

温家宝总理曾经指出:我国的基础教育围绕高考指挥棒转,高等教育围绕市场转。我们培养的是“侏儒”,无大师级人才。总理的话震耳发聩!

中国在整个社会体制(包括教育体制)都是带有“自上而下”或“规定式”特征的,上面发号施令,下面照办。在学校里,老师教什么,考什么,学生就学什么,背什么。在课堂上教师是绝对的权威,学生主要是知识的吸收者和重复者,而不是知识的构建者和传播者。从古代的私塾、科举制度到现代学校和考试评价,难脱窠臼。我先后跑过多个国家,发现我们的留学生很难适应西方的大学教育和研究生教育。在英语国家的课堂里,教师很少做lecture,也很少系统地介绍知识点或什么理论,而是把更多的时间交给学生做presentation和group discussion。而看书、做作业都是学生课前课后的事情。但我们的留学生常常埋怨:外国老师不好好教书,玩忽职守,太不严谨了!我们从大洋彼岸千辛万苦过来,就接受这样的垃圾教育!其实,主要原因是我们的学生在国内被“灌输”惯了,只有“输入”,没有“输出”,一下适应不了国外的自主性教学模式。

除了“自上而下”的“规定式”模式作祟以外,学生的不适应还和我们的语言学习环境有关。

在中国,我们是把英语作为外语来学的,没有英语国家的那种语言环境,因此我们必须在正式的课堂里有系统地学习英语。而在太正式的语言环境里是很难学到自然地道的语言的。就像老外学汉语,如果不接触中国人,也学不到地道的汉语一样。我们在英语课堂上学习的是一些规则,一些习惯用法(usages)。换句话说,老师或教材只教我们应该英语的知识,只教我们英语应该怎么说,但英语国家的人到底是不是这样用(use)的呢?就不一定了。

比如,在英国,在非正式场合,人们较少用Thank you,而多说Cheers。此外,汉语里的一个“不用谢”,英语的表达法就很多了。可用You are welcome. / No problem. / That’s OK./(It’s)my pleasure. 而That’s all right/ Not at all(现罕用)。人们用得较多的是Enjoy./ Cheers.(注意:“谢谢”,“不用谢”,“再见”都可用Cheers表示。)/ No worry./ Sure等。

记得我第一次去诺丁汉的一家Hipermarket,女售货员并没有用我“熟悉”的招呼语“What can I do for you?”或“Can I help you?”,而是说:Are you all right, darling? 我当时懵了。后来注意到,她对其他顾客也是这么说的!之后,在伦敦、布莱顿、伯明翰、萨里等城市也听到这类用法。看来,语言变化太快,而且有向“简洁”、“平实”、“随意”、“亲切”发展的趋势。 综上所述,中国人在“规定式”的极其正式的环境下学外语,绝对是一件苦差使!

二、学无定法,有效学习

1、两种教育模式的恰当使用

有朋友说,印度人及东南亚人发音都很难听,但和美国人交流完全没有障碍,尤其是印度人在美国硅谷软件工程师中占半壁江山。而我们中国人却一味地要发音漂亮好听,却不会交流。本末倒置!因此,发音只要流畅地道就行了。我认为,这位朋友未免走了极端,从“规定式”走向了纯粹的“描写式”了!“准确性”本来是中国英语的一个优势,更是外语课堂教学要求中的一个重要方面,就中学常规英语教育而言,更是超过“流利性”和“得体性”的第一要素。我国是把英语作为“外语”来学的国度,缺乏自然的、非正式的语言环境,所以,我们是在系统地“学习”一门外语。鉴于此,在中国外语课堂上必须讲“规则”,必须强调“准确性”。当然,要注意“规定式”和“描写式”的平衡,最终实现“准确性”,“流利性”和“得体性”并重。

2、强化“合作式学习”

学习不应该被看成是对于教师授予知识的被动接受,而是学习者以自身已有的知识和经验为基础主动的建构活动。也就是说,学生学习过程是在教师创设的情境下,借助已有的知识和经验,主动探索,积极交流,从而建立新的认知结构的过程。学习是学习者主动建构自己知识经验的过程,是通过新经验与原有知识经验的相互作用而不断充实、丰富和改造自己已有知识经验的过程。 合作式学习是指在教师的指导下,学生以小组(group)或团队(team)为单位组成学习集体,相互帮助,共同完成老师布置的学习任务,最后以小组总体及各成员表现为奖励依据的教学策略体系。高效的英语学习模式应是学生通过自己的兴趣、体验、经验、价值取向和实际的知识水平去积极主动地建构知识的活动过程。合作式学习模式恰恰强调了学习者的认知主体作用,即学生学习的主动性;同时又不忽视教师的指导作用和教师课堂教学的针对性与指导性。此外,合作式学习还注重培养学生学习的积极性和趣味性,重视学生学习的个体差异性和团体合作的互助互补性,尤其强调对学生学习创造性的开发与培养。 令人遗憾的是,小组活动是中国学生的弱项。我曾经让我的学生撰写有关中国外语课堂难以实施小组讨论的原因的毕业论文,发现有交流方面的问题、组织监控方面的问题,更有思维习惯行为习惯方面的问题。所以,我们必须呼吁:①纠正传统教学中教师讲授过多,学生语言操练过少的问题,提高学生课堂参与度;②扭转学生被动听课,缺乏积极主动思维的现象,培养学生的思维能力;③打破学生课内外独立学习的局限性,通过合作学习促进学生的沟通技能和合作意识;④突破学生课内学习的时空局限性,通过课外合作式学习拓展学习空间。

学生应积极参加合作式学习,踊跃参与小组活动。以合作为形式,批判为内容,开展批判性思维,提高自己的鉴赏能力,表述能力和合作能力。

三、全球风格,地方视角

语言是文化的载体,学英语,首先要学英语文化。以全球文化为主流风格,以地方文化为基本视角,实现跨文化语境下的“全球地方化”。

我国著名外语教育家、北京外国语大学许国璋教授曾这样告戒青年学子:“学习外语,从事语言学研究的人不要把自己圈在只读洋文的狭小天地里,一定要具备良好的国学基础。”他还指出:“光学几句干巴巴的英文不行......不要总是把阅读的目的放在提高英文上,阅读首先是吸收知识,吸收知识的过程中自然而然就吸收了语言。”他把没有深度的寒暄式对话形象地称之为“花瓶英语”。

在中国,“花瓶英语”屡见不鲜。即使是全国重点中学的北京景山学校的高中英语高材生与新加坡的小学生去英国参加英语夏令营,除了我们发音漂亮的花架子之外,却只能讲简单日常问候语,很难自如地表情达意。当交谈彼此感兴趣的话题时,言之无物,不知所云,而人家新加坡小学生尽管发音不好听,却能用很简单的词语描述夏令营的各种活动,表达自己参加每一项活动的喜、怒、哀、乐。而且他们同英国学生的跨文化交流很自如、很尽兴。

荷兰一位研究跨文化的著名学者把文化比喻成“洋葱”,有很多层。最外表的一层称象征物(Symbols),如服装、语言、建筑物等等,人的肉眼能够很容易看见;第二层是英雄人物性格(Heroes),在一种文化里,人们所崇拜英雄的性格多多少少代表了此文化里大多数人的性格,因此,了解英雄的性格,很大程度上也就了解英雄所在文化的民族性格;第三层是礼仪(Rituals),礼仪是每种文化里对待人和自然的独特表示方式,如中国文化中,主要场合吃饭时的位置安排,很有讲究,又比如日本人的鞠躬和进门脱鞋;最里面的一层是价值观(Values),指人们相信什么是真、善、美的抽象观念,也是文化中最深邃,最难理解的部分。

我在英国诺丁汉大学做访问学者期间,曾听说过这么一件事情:有一个十来岁的波多黎各少女在伦敦一所中学里读书。一天,校长怀疑她和另外几个姑娘吸烟,便把她们叫去,尽管这个姑娘一向表现不错,也没有做错事的证据,但校长还是认为她做贼心虚,勒令停学。他在报告中写道:“她躲躲闪闪,很可疑。她不敢正视我的眼睛,她不愿看着我。”校长查问时,她的确一直注视着地板,没有看校长的眼睛。而英美人有“不要相信不敢直视你的人”这样一句格言。好在有一位出生于拉丁美洲家庭的教师对波多黎各文化有所了解,他同这个姑娘的家长谈话后,对校长解释说:就波多黎各的习惯而言,好姑娘“不看成人的眼睛”这种行为“是尊敬和听话的表现。”所幸校长接受了这个解释,承认了错误,妥善处理了这件事情。

我们要尊重全球文化,也要尊重地方文化、民族文化。介绍一个新的英语单词glocalization(全球地方化),它是globalization和localization两个词的缩写。我们要强调全球化与地方化的平衡。麦当劳在世界各国的成功经营就是全球地方化的范例。迪斯尼乐园也不例外,当它从美国照办搬到欧洲,失败了,但在香港取得重大成功,因为很好地考虑到“全球地方化”的问题。据报

载,1910年澳大利亚通过一项政策,以改善土著儿童生活为由,规定当局可以随意从土著家庭中带走混血土著儿童,把他们集中在保育所等处。大约10万土著儿童被各州和联邦政府从父母亲身边带走。这些人后被称为“被偷走的一代”。2008年2月13日,澳大利亚总理陆克文代表政府就澳土著居民自白人登上澳大利亚大陆上百年来所蒙受的苦难作出了正式道歉。这是一个深刻的历史教训!

四、结束语

如果把英语比做一棵大树,听说读写译仅是大树的树干和叶子,而基本功是大树的根,一个大树要想活,必须有根才是本。没根的大树怎么也活不了,没有基本功的英语怎么学习也学不会。勉强学了点,也很快就忘记了。但如果同学们有国学基础,掌握“双语言”,“双文化”,在跨文化交际中既能“跨出去”,了解别国的文化;又能“跨回来”,宣传本国的文化。等基本功学会了再回头看听说读写译,就水到渠成,外语变成“母语”了。

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