法国文化介绍_范文大全

法国文化介绍

【范文精选】法国文化介绍

【范文大全】法国文化介绍

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【优秀范文】法国文化介绍

范文一:法语介绍中国饮食文化 投稿:孔葫葬

La cuisine chinoise est très réputée dans le monde. Elle comporte beaucoup de variations,dont huit sont traditionnellement reconnues comme "les grandes cuisines régionales" : LuCai, la cuisine du Shandong; Yuecai, la cuisine du Guangdong etc. Les goûts diffèrent selon ces régions en fonction des ressources naturelles, des conditions climatiques etc. Ainsi la cuisine du Sichuan est très piquante, alors que celle du Jiangsu est sucrée.

Les techniques de la cuisine chinoise sont nombreuses parce que les températures et modes de cuisson sont aussi importantes que les ingrédients qui entrent dans le plat. En tenant compte de la nature des ingrédients, on les cuit dans la friture, à la vapeur, ou les grille, mijote, braise ou simplement saute.

Un bon plat chinois harmonise non seulement les saveurs (sucré, salé, acide, amer et pimenté), mais aussi trouver un équilibre entre les couleurs et les odeurs. Un repas chinois, même celui quotidien, respecte bien les bonnes portions de protéines, légumes et féculents. Différents aux repas français, les repas chinois ne distinguent pas l'entrée, le plat et le dessert. Tous les plats, sucrés et salés, sont servis en même temps et partagés par tout le monde. Les chinois ne prennent pas vraiment un dessert à la fin du repas. En revanche, ils mangent des fruits frais au bout d'une demi-heure de digestion.

范文二:中国法律文化介绍 投稿:宋蹇蹈

论道家思想对现代法治的影响

摘要:道家思想对我们影响很大,它的法律思想对当代的法治社会有着巨大的影响,一个国家没有法律必定走向灭亡,只有法律才能真正支撑起、维护一个国家,法律史人类生活的准绳,只有它的存在才能构建和谐的社会。我们应该遵纪守法,树立正确的价值观,促进社会和谐。

关键字:道家思想现代法治法治社会法制

一、 道家的法律思想 道家思想始于老子,经春秋战国时期的发展,产生了黄老之学,魏晋时期又发展出玄学。黄礼登主要通过系统阐述春秋战国时期和黄老学派的道家论述,来展示道家的法律思想。“道家无为,又曰无不为。其实易行,其辞难知。其术以虚无为本,以因循为用。无成埶,无常形,故能究万物之情。不为物先,不为物后,故能为万物主。有法无法,因时为业,有度无度,因物与合。 老子的思想体系中,“道”是法律的本源和依据,而道是一种自然法则。从老子“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然”的法则位阶来看,人类社会的法律处于最低的层面,要受到道与天地之法的约束,“道生之,德蓄之,物形之,势成之。是以万物莫不尊道而贵德。道之尊,德之贵,夫莫之命而常自然。”法应体现德的精神,而德体现道的精神和品质:“生而不有,为而不恃,长而不宰,是谓玄德。”因为“大象无形,道隐无名”,因此,道法的形式应是非成文法,符合“行不言之教”的理念。老子主张法令应避免繁杂严苛,认为“多言

数穷”,“希言自然”,而且“法物滋彰,盗贼多有”,因此,他推崇“吾言甚易知,甚易行”的简约法律。老子主张法要适度,不能走极端,“是以圣人去甚、去奢、去泰”。

在形名关系上,老子认为“道常无名”,“道,可道,非常道;名,可名,非常名。无,名天地之始;有,名万物之母。”这里的“常”意为“恒定”。“非常道”、“非常名”揭示了法律固有的局限性,说明随着时空环境的变化,必须对法律进行必要的修定。因此,必须透过法条和法律概念看到其背后的实质与原则,不能教条地从其表面文字出发去阐释和运用法律规定。老子也认为,“始制有名。名亦既有,夫亦将知止。知止不殆。”这又说明了法律概念乃至法典产生的必然性。

二、 现代法治

现代法治包含如下基本含义:法治的基本特征是“法律至上“;法治的核心价值是“权力制约“和”保障自由“;法治实质上是一种新的社会组织机构。在建设社会主义法治国家的今天,探讨现代法治的一般含义具有重要意义。

法治在英文中是指:“Rule of law“,直译为法的统治。据现有的资料看,最早揭示法治含义的是古希腊哲学家亚里士多德。他在其《政治学》一书中指出:“法治应包含两重含义:已成立的法律获得普遍的服从,而大家所服从的法律又应该是良好的法律“,并认为:“法治应当优于一人之治”。显然,亚氏所揭示的“法治“内涵是与

人治相对而言的,所代表的是古典法治思想。现代意义上的“法治”,是西方资产阶级在与封建专制统治斗争的过程中建立起来的。现代法治吸收了古典法治思想的精髓,但现代法治与古典法治不同,它确立的背景不是古希腊狭小的城邦国家,而是疆域广阔的现代民族国家。在内涵上它更为丰富,拓展为用完善的法律保障民主、自由、平等、人权等。在功能上,它不仅仅是一种治国的工具,而是建立在现代市场经济基础上的一种基础信仰和社会组织形式。可见,法治作为一种实践活动,是不断发展的,作为一种治理国家管理社会的方法原则和组织形式,又是一个历史的、阶段的,具有多层含义的概念。正因为如此,对“法治”的认识、理解很难形成一个统一的意见。这种差异一方面来自各个阶级、各个阶层的不同价值观;另一方面也来自不同的法律6 6社会实践的过程。从亚里士多德以来,围绕“法治”概念的争论从未停止过。!787年在印度召开了“国际法学家会议”,通过了《德里宣言》。这个宣言集中了各国法学家对于“法治”的一般看法,权威性地总结了三条原则:一是根据“法治”原则,立法机关的职能在于创设和维护得以使每个人保持“人类尊严”的各种条件。二是法治原则不仅要对制止行政权力的滥用提供法律保障,而且要使行政能有效地维护法律秩序,借以保证人们具有充分的社会和经济生活条件。三是司法独立和律师自由是实施法律原则必不可少的条件。虽然《德里宣言》集中了对于“法治”的一般看法,但它并没有消除关于“法治”概念理解的差异。“法治”在《牛津法律大辞典》里被看作是“一个无比重要的,但未被定义,也不是随便就能定义的概念,

它意指所有的权威性机构、立法、行政、司法及其它机构都要服从于某些原则。如:正义的基本原则、道德原则、公平和合理诉讼程序的观念,它含有对个人至高无上的价值观念和尊严的尊重。在任何法律制度中,法治的内容是:对立法权的限制;反对滥用行政权力的保护措施;获得法律的忠告、帮助和保护的大量的和平等的机会。„„它不是强调政府要维护和执行法律及秩序;而是说政府本身要服从法律制度,而不能不顾法律或新制定适应本身利益的法律”[1]。与《牛津法律大辞典》具有同样权威的《布莱克法律辞典》对“法治”的解释是:“法治是由最高权威认可颁布的并且通常以准则或逻辑命题形式出现的,具有普遍适用性的法律原则。”“法治有时被称为法律的最高原则,它要求法官制定裁决(决定)时,只能依据现有的原则或法律而不得受随意性的干扰和阻碍”[2]。以上两部法律大辞典提供了两种不同的解释,代表了两种不同的观点,但也蕴含了一个相同的基本点,即两者在不同程度上都是把法治作为人治对立面的一种社会组织机构来看待的。不同的是,前者注重法律背后的价值分析,而后者注重的是法律本身的价值分析。然而,关于法治的理论不管有多少看法,这些看法之间存在多大的差异,法治作为一种现实的客观运动,从古至今其内涵日趋丰富,人们对其认识和把握的基本点日趋一致。这说明,法治是可以解释、可以操作的。

三、 法治社会建设构建和谐社会

法治社会是和人治社会相对而言的;它是指国家权力和社会关系按照明确的法律秩序运行,并且按照严格公正的司法程序协调人与人

之间的关系解决社会纠纷,在法律面前人人平等,而不是依照执政者的个人喜好以及亲疏关系来决定政治、经济和社会等方面的公共事务。一个成熟的法治社会,具备精神和制度两方面的因素,即具有法治的精神和反映法治精神的制度。简约而言,法治的精神方面主要是指整个社会对法律至上地位的普遍认同和坚决的支持,养成了自觉遵守法律法规,并且通过法律或司法程序解决政治、经济、社会和民事等方面的纠纷的习惯和意识。在法治民主的社会中,法律和行政法规等由规范的民主程序产生和制订出来,并且其司法和执行过程通过规范的秩序受到全社会的公开监督。

法律在社会系统中居于最高的地位并具有最高的权威,任何组织和个人都不能凌驾于法律之上。法治作为一种治国的基本规则,要求法律成为社会主体的普遍原则,不仅要求公民依法办事,更重要的在于制约和规范政治权力。所以,法治在政治上,是对公民权利的保障和对政治权力的规制,是民主的制度化、法律化。法律是否至上,特别是权力的运行有没有纳入法律设定的轨道,是区分法治与非法治的主要标志。要实现法治,立法机关就要依法立法,行政机关就要依法行政,司法机关就要依法审判,执政党就要依法执政。

法治强调的是“法律至上”的思想。法治思想的根源是民主,人民主权,是人民通过立法创造了法,法律旨在保护公民的自由。依法治国要求:一是对国家法不允许即为禁止,强调国家必须依法履行职能;二是对公民法不禁止即为允许,强调是保护公民的自由。法治强调法在调整各种关系中的正当性。

四、 法制与法治的区别

法制指一个国家的法及其法律制度,而法治却强调一个国家处于依法治理的一种状态。法制的内涵比法治要小的多。法制着重讲的是法的一系列规则、原则及与此相关的制度,而法治的内容就要丰富的多。一般讲,法治所体现的一种依法办事的良好社会状态至少应包括这样一些内容:一是这个国家要具备完善而良好的法;二是这种法要得以普遍而自觉的遵守;三是已建立健全完备的使这种法得以正确适用与遵守的国家权力机构体系,而且这种权力体系是以权力的互相制约、监督为前提条件的。法治就是在法及其司法体制健全的情况下,在完全地服从于和体现了社会的整体利益与群体意志的前提条件下,能最大限度而充分地发挥个人的意志与行为的自由的一种社会状态。在明确了法制与法治的基本含义之后,就会看出二者有许多区别。诸如法制所讲的法主要指静态的法的规则及其体系,而法治所讲的法除静态的法的规则及其体系之外,还包括动态的立法、司法、行政执法以及守法等活动;法制所讲的法律制度既可以是好的、民主的法律制度,也可以是不好的、专制的法律制度,而法治所讲的法律制度单指良好的、民主的、能使法得以正确适用和普通遵守的法律制度;法制社会中的法与民主的关系既可以是与民众的意志相统一、体现了民众意志的法,也可以是与民众相对立、是统治者统治民众的工具的法,而在法治社会中法完全体现的是主权在民、政治民主;法制社会中法对权力的规范和约束既可以是所有的人和一切国家机关,也可能是在法的约束和规范之外仍然存在着一个至高无上的权力独裁者或权力

机关,也就是说法制并不必然地排拆人治。而法治社会中法对权力的约束和规范却是完全的、绝对的,包括一切的权力机关和所有的个人,法治必然地排拆人治,法在法治社会中至高无上,除此之外不存在绝对的个人或权力机关的至上权威,而且所有的国家权力都予合理配置和划分,并相互制约。在经过上述简单分析之后,就很容易得出一个结论:在现代社会条件下,需要的是法治,而不是单纯的法制。法制可以存在于奴隶的、封建的、资本主义的和社会主义的任何的社会形态之中,而法治只能存在于民主政治的社会形态中。因此,我国现在所提倡和努力建立健全的是现代意义上的依法治国和法治国家。法治的科学性与合理性从她的理论基础之中可以得到一些说明。法治与人治截然对立,她强调社会中单个的所有的人的自由、独立与平等,反对迷信和个人崇拜。法治坚决反对社会中存在着无与伦比的智慧超群、道德高尚的圣人贤哲,强调群体的智慧和道德高于个人。既强调和尊重个体的自由、独立与价值,又以群体的意志对个体的行为加以有效限制为基础。显然,她远远优越于以个人专制独裁为根本特征的人治。法治的基本原则以良好的法的制定与遵守以及确保法的适用与遵守的完善的国家权力机关体系的存在为主要内容。要实现这一原则,达到法治的目标,尚需付出长期不懈的艰苦努力。然而,社会主义法治国家在我国的建立健全,却已是必然趋势。

范文三:法国饮食文化介绍法国餐饮文化 投稿:夏鮺鮻

法国饮食文化介绍 法国餐饮文化 世界三大美食之中,法国美食即占有一席之地。法国美食的特色在于使用新鲜的季节性材料,加上厨师个人的独特的调理,完成独一无二的艺术佳肴极品,无论视觉上、嗅觉上、味觉上、触感、交感神经上,都是无与伦比的境界,而在食物的品质服务水准用餐气氛上,更要求精致化的整体表现。

在国内,法国菜所代表的是精致浪漫高雅和昂贵,真正名贵的法式料理,吃一餐可能达一人7千元左右,价格全赖菜肴的种类而定,由于法国菜极重视原料素材的新鲜上等,所以国内法国餐厅多半采用空运现吃的方式,吸引了许多老饕慕名而来,也造成了法国菜的价格居高不下的盛况。

法国菜的特色是汁多味腴,而吃法国菜必须有精巧的餐具和如画的菜肴满足视觉;扑鼻的酒香满足嗅觉;入口的美味满足味觉;酒杯和刀叉在宁静安详的空间下交错,则是触觉和味觉的最高享受。这种五官并用的态度,发展出了深情且专注的品味。

近年来,法国菜不断的精益求精,并将以往的古典菜肴推向所谓的新菜烹调法(Nouvelle Cuisine),并相互运用,调制的方式讲究风味、天然性、技巧性、装饰和颜色的配合。法国菜因地理位置的不同,而含有许多地域性菜肴的特法国北部畜牧业盛行,各式奶油和乳酪让人食指大动。南部则盛产橄榄、海鲜、大蒜、蔬果和香料。

BURGUNDY伯根第地区

产有大量的红、白葡萄酒、过螺、鸡及芥茉酱。著名的菜肴是红烩鸡、红酒烩牛肉,伯根第烤田螺。

NORMANDY诺曼底地区

有大量的海鲜、牛油、鲜奶油及苹果。较知名的菜肴是诺曼底烩海鲜。另外在许多菜肴中加入苹果,成为此地区最大特色。

CLSACE堪萨斯地区

法国最具盛名的鹅肝酱即产自此区。较知名的菜肴是起司培根蛋挞,及酸菜什锦熏肉。 PROVENCE普凡西地区

因为邻近地中海及意大利,所以其菜肴较偏向意大利口味。在菜肴烹调制造过程中常用

多量的橄榄油、大蒜、蕃茄、鱼及各式香料。知名的菜肴是马赛式海鲜及普凡西田鸡腿等等。

法国菜在材料的选用较偏好牛肉、小牛肉、羊肉、家禽、海鲜、蔬菜、田螺、松露、鹅肝及鱼子酱;而在配料方面采用大量的酒、牛油、鲜奶油及各式香料;在烹调时,火侯占了非常重要的一环,如牛、羊肉通常烹调至六、七分熟即可;海鲜烹调时须熟度适当,不可过熟,尤其在酱料(Sauce)的制作上,更特别费功夫,其使用的材料很广泛,无论是高汤(Stock)、酒、鲜奶油、牛油或各式香料、水果等,都运用的非常灵活。

法国是世界上引以为傲的葡萄酒、香槟和白兰地的产地之一,因此,法国人对于酒在餐饮上的搭配使用非常讲究。如在饭前饮用较淡的开味酒;食用沙拉、汤及海鲜时,饮用白酒或玻瑰酒;食用肉类时饮用红酒;而饭后则饮用少许白兰地或甜酒类。另外,香槟酒惯用于庆典时较多,如结婚、生子、庆功等。

法国的起司(Cheese)也是非常有名,种类繁多。依型态分有新鲜而硬的、半硬的、硬的、蓝霉的和烟熏的五大类;通常食用起司时会附带面包、干果(例如核桃等)、葡萄等。另外,法国菜在享用时非常注重餐具的使用,无论是刀、叉、盘或是酒杯,因为这些均可衬托出法国菜高贵之气质。

法国近年来受经济不景气的冲击及年轻人饮食习惯的改变,传统昂贵而精致的美食(Gastronomie)整体的价格及水准上皆有日益下滑的趋势。越来越少的法国人愿意花天文数字般的价格只为了吃一餐。法国的两大权威美食评论宝典《米其林》(Michelin)以及《高特米优》(Gaultmillau)自年前开始倡导物美价廉的新饮食文化,很多过去高不可攀的餐厅都试着大幅降价以吸引更多的食客前往。

范文四:英国文化介绍 投稿:曹圹场

一、绅士gentlemen文化特点:

绅士风度的最大特征就是:conservation,,politeness,以及showing respect to females。

1英国的国歌还是“God save the queen/king”(神佑吾王/女王)。到今天,还一些有名望的人仍旧希望从女王那里得到爵jue位。英国律师戴假发,穿长袍的习俗也一直延留至今。一般英国人的居室内仍旧设有虚设的炉壁,这反映了英国人的保守心。

2礼貌、话不多、沉默是第二个特点:他们讨厌啰嗦话多的人。跟他们聊天的话题也是很讲究的:家庭、身份、年龄、工作甚至事业都被认为是他们的私人生活,别人无权干涉过问,否则,就违背了他们的礼貌原则。天气成为英国人永恒的话题。外出旅行,一般人都喜欢带份报纸,拿本书, “Silence is gold,”是他们永恒的主题。 3尊重女士也是绅士的一大特点。,“Ladies and gentlemen,”Lady放在前,如果两个陌生人见面,介绍人一般都是先向女士引见男士,向地位高的人引见地位低的人。在英国,男士为女士开门、让座位、拿行李是司空见惯的事。因为“Showing respect to females”本身就是英国人所崇尚的一种道德规范。

4服装穿着上的合适得体。一要符合自己的身份,二要适合所在的场合。

文明用语,礼貌待人,“请”、“您”、 “谢谢”、“对不起”、“再见”、这些文明用语表现一个人的教养和风度。

二、英国别墅shu(villa)特点

1是古朴pu、典dian雅ya,elegant,不仔细观察很难区分新旧别墅之间的差别,因为英国人的新房子很有历史感、沧cang桑sang感,新房子建得跟旧房子一样,特别有品位和观赏价值,而那种暴发户的外表光亮的房子,缺乏英国贵族绅士的风格和格调。

2 不追求光鲜亮丽,在乎的是实用和舒适。它的外墙常常使用粗砖zhuan brick、碎sui石或特有的粘nian土砖,而且大多是砖木结构。楼层大多数是真正的木地板,踩上去吱吱zhi响,,每家都会有真正的烟筒,而且大多装有真正的壁bi炉lufurnace,不过有些不是烧炭而是烧煤气

3是造型有特色,别致、奇特。英式别墅的屋顶造型特别多姿多彩,而几百年历史的老房子和新建的别墅,都特别注重屋顶的造型,而且同样是采用真正的砖瓦和木头的栋dong梁liang结构;很好的保留了传统的建筑方法和艺术。

英伦别墅风格具备对称、平衡heng和细部装饰shi精美等特点。英伦别墅强调门廊lang porch的装饰性,比较“讲究门面”。 主要表现:

A、英伦别墅风格正立面常有古典classical门廊;

B、英伦别墅风格廊檐yan下有长方形团排列,屋檐上有齿饰;

C、英伦别墅风格窗户上下成对,分割成许多小网格(9到12个),通常窗户也是5列,为中央对称;

D、英伦别墅风格大门常有长方形雕diao花组成排列图案an,门梁上有竖shu向排列的长方形花纹wen

E、英伦别墅风格窗帘的搭配需要有的特色,体现文艺复兴renaissance时期的厚重感。

三、英国下午茶制作方法和相关的文化 1来源origin:英国维多利亚时代公元1840年,英国贝德芙fu公爵jue夫人安娜anna女士,每到下午时刻会觉得无聊,想着现在距离晚餐Party还有段时间,又感觉肚子有点饿了,就请女仆pu servant

准备几片烤面包、奶油以及茶。

后来安娜女士邀请几位好友喝茶,吃精致的点心,享受下午时光,渐渐在英国贵族上流社会流行起来了,一直到今天,已经成为了一中下午茶文化,也成为正统的“英国红茶文化”,这也是所谓的《维wei多

利亚下午茶》的由来。

虽然下午茶现在已经简单化,但是茶正确的冲泡方式、喝茶的摆设要优雅、丰盛的茶点,这三点则被视为吃茶的传统而继续流传下来。 2传统的英式下午茶,会在三层篮上放满精美的茶点心,有三道精美的茶点:最下层,有熏xun鲑gui鱼、火腿、小黄瓜的美味的条形三明治;第二层有英式圆形松饼,搭配着果酱jiang或奶油;最上方一层放上让人很有食欲的时令水果塔。吃的时候,从下往上开始选择。

 英式下午茶的泡法

1第一种,醇chun酒冰茶——结合白兰地、苏格兰威wei士忌ji与数种纯酒调合而成,带有淡淡酒的香味,适合茶会或男士聚会品尝。

做法:6公克的醇酒茶粉fen。在雪克杯内加入七分满的冰块、0.5盎ang斯si(ounce)糖水、1盎斯威士忌酒、1盎斯蜂蜜以及200cc温开水,再放入茶粉充分混合。

罗亚奶茶——具有历史、口碑相当好的奶茶,以伯bo爵jue茶为底茶,搭配蜂蜜、奶粉调制,口感浓,老人小孩子都可以。

做法:将约8公克的伯爵茶叶放入茶壶中待用。在煮沸的380cc热水中,加入24公克奶精粉、6公克原味奶粉、0.5盎斯糖水及1盎斯蜂蜜煮开成奶水。将奶水倒入茶壶中,与茶叶一同泡二分半钟,将茶叶沥去即可。

范文五:韩国文化介绍 投稿:程裥裦

韩国文化介绍

工程管理1001班 韦茜 20102599

根据老师上课内容以及讲解,我对韩国文化有了更深刻的了解和兴趣,以下是我对韩国文化的一些介绍和了解。

一、韩国街舞文化

20世纪下叶,青年文化在美国社会土壤中生长繁衍,街舞运动作为表征美国青年文化的个体在80年代初孕育成熟。“它不仅仅是一种运动方式,同时,它还代表着现代人生活的方式、追求的方式和自我实现的方式。可以说,街舞的产生代表着现代“新新人类”的一种流行生活文化,而这种生活文化或者说身体文化,正随着现代人的观念变化而不断地演化和变异。街舞起源于美国,韩国人将美国街舞文化与本土文化相结合,衍化出具有韩国特色的深受大众欢迎的文化形式,创造了极具民族特色的街舞变体文化,日韩所衍化出的这种变体街舞文化对亚洲其他国家街舞文化的形成具有着强大的文化影响力。

韩国的街舞非常之盛行,从几岁的孩子到中年人都十分熟悉,而且已经深入大街小巷。如今,韩国的演艺圈事业如火如荼,有许多青少年以团队的形式出现,并且都擅长街舞。许多演艺公司选择年龄段在16到19岁之间的青春歌舞组合进行市场化设计、包装、推广,以美国街舞文化作为基础后盾。据我了解,韩国1993年出台“文化繁荣五年计划”政策,在流行歌舞文化发展的1996年逐渐付诸实现,CIDN、HOT等男性团体的推介成功,促使韩国在随后几年陆续推出了各种风格团体,1997年在完善男性团体风格种类的基础上,尝试推出各种风格的女性团体,1999年推出男女混合团体也获得了成功,团体成员大都在3~6人之间,正符合街舞运动团队化特点。

二、韩国建筑文化

传统的韩国艺术在美学概念、主题、技巧和形式上都与周边国家中国和日本相通。尽管有很多相似性,但韩国艺术以自己独有的方式发展。韩国艺术的力量在于其简洁性和自发性。韩国建筑就是这些特性的绝好表现。韩国人很容易将哲学和宗教原理融合在作品中,并将它们诠释成自己的建筑。

最有趣的是汗蒸房,汗蒸房是上世纪90年代中期出现的,是韩国“大众洗浴文化”和“房屋文化”完美结合而成的一种特有场所。汗蒸房经济实惠、干净舒适,完全可以作为投宿之地向外国自助游游客推介,堪称韩国代表性文化中的亮点。蒸房颠覆了传统空间排列体系的新概念空间。建筑学家承孝相是这样解释的:“传统概念上的都市空间是以„绝对公共空间→公共空间 →中性地带→私人空间→绝对私密空间‟的顺序排列的。例如„广场→街路→庭院→住宅→卧室‟,但是,汗蒸房的出现等于从广场一步跨到了卧室。

许多人会问、大众洗浴等类似文化的日本为什么没有汗蒸房呢?首尔设计奥林匹克总监解释说:“韩国的汗蒸房可以解释为,是残留了共同体意识的封建资本主义文化。所以汗蒸房在个人主义发达的日本没有发展,而在保留着对共同体情怀的韩国却能够发展起来。”就是说,我们穿着同样的衣服,一起看电视,一起洗浴,一起躺着睡觉,在这样的过程中不经意地共有着一种“篱笆文化”。这种私密空间和公共场所的珠联璧合打破了循序渐进的模式。”

三、韩国饮食文化

韩国人和日本人一样,习惯于席地而座,盘腿就餐。其传统饮食比较简单,主食为米饭,爱吃泡菜,泡菜的出口量据说是世界第一,种类之多我看也能拿冠军,因为每餐都有它堂而皇之地上桌,精致 盘碟中能摆出不少花样:白菜、萝卜、辣椒,还有我们叫不出名的,既开胃也好吃。他们餐桌上的素菜显然比我们多,因为靠海的缘故,海产素菜也相当多。 韩国传统饮食 韩国有各种饮食,由于韩国过去处于农耕社会。因此从古代开始主食就以米为主。最近,韩国饮食与各种蔬菜,肉类,鱼类共同组成。泡菜,海鲜酱,豆酱等各种

发酵保存食品,以营养价值和特别的味道而闻名。

韩国饮食中最有名的恐怕还是烧烤。“铁板烧”不仅用来烧菜,也用来炒面。最有意思的,是一种“石头烧烤”:用一堆鹅卵石放在铁架上电热升温,先摊放肉块,待到一定火候再用长剪将大块肉绞成小块,拼柔到滚滚的石头中去,不一会就响吱吱地冒出香气。据介绍,鹅卵石是进口的,既然能蓄热均温,使肉免于烤焦,又能去油去腥。

范文六:英国文化介绍 投稿:阎壸壹

适合年级:四年级 教学目标:

1、通过查看地图、搜集资料等方式,了解英国的地理位置、气候等国家概况。

2、通过课件、视频等,让学生了解英国的著名景点及英语表达。 3、通过一部分常用词汇,了解英国的地理和重要历史及其对世界的影响。

教学内容: 第一课时:

1、 It

is a great country with a long history. It is a traditional

English-speaking country. It is the first one which carried out the industrial revolution. It is a warm and drippy country and when you are there you will fell very comfortable. It is The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2、 播放英国旅游宣传片。Can you find the country on the world map?(查看地图,明确英国的位置) 课件呈现英国

认识国旗、国徽 3、课件展示英国组成

国花、国歌

4、介绍:Three political divisions on the island of Great Britain: England,

(1)England is in the southern part of Great Britain. It is the largest, most

populous section. The capital is London .

英格兰位于大不列颠岛南部,是最大,人口最稠密的地区。首府是伦敦。(伦敦风景图片)

(2)Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. It has three natural zones (the Highlands in the north; the Central lowlands; the south Uplands) Capital: Edinburgh

苏格兰位于大不列颠的北部。它有三大自然区:北部高地,中部低地及南部山陵。首府:爱丁堡。

(3) Wales is in the west of Great Britain. Capital: Cardiff

威尔士位于大不列颠的西部。首府:加的夫

(4) Northern Ireland is the fourth region of the UK. Capital: Belfast. 北爱

尔兰是英国第四个区域。首府:贝尔法斯特。

5、the people in U.K.

the English 英格兰人 3

the Scottish 苏格兰人 the Welsh 威尔士人 the Irish 爱尔兰人

The ancestors of the English are Anglo-Saxons.

6、欣赏歌曲《auld Lang sane》(魂断蓝桥主题歌,其中的waterloo bridge滑铁卢桥即伦敦桥)、学唱《友谊地久天长》 意图:借这首苏格兰民歌引入伦敦桥London bridge这一伦敦景点,为下课时做铺垫。

第二课时

文本:London, the capital of the country, is the country's political center. Buckingham members of the

Palace is the palace where the royal

family

live

and work

and many important activities are held on here.London is also famous for its tourism. The British Museum, is the world's oldest museum and it

is also the world's largest and most famous one. There are

many

collections that belonged to China very long time ago

displayed there. Some famous buildings such as the Big Ben, London Tower Bridge and Houses of Parliament are situated here. (通过视频学唱儿歌“London bridge is falling down”,了解伦敦桥的历史。) Another famous city you must have known is Cambridge.We all know

the poem called 《Saying Good-bye to Cambridge Again》 that wrote by Xu Zhimo. The beautiful bridge is located here. The famous University of Cambridge is also situated here and Newton and Darwin were studied in this school before.(视频“再别康桥诗朗诵”,让学生在诗

歌中体会、感受剑桥的美景及学术气息。) 以上部分配合图片向学生介绍。 6、Conclusion

这节课你学到了什么?

第三课时

文本:It has more than 3000 years history.

English is

also an old language in the world. We can hear some English word in our daily life. They are associated with its important days. Today we will learn some of them. 二、 学习词汇

1、 English 2、 AA制

AA是英文Acting Appointment的缩写。16~17世纪时的荷兰和威尼斯,是海上商品贸易和早期资源共享本主义的发迹之地。终日奔波的意大利、荷兰商人们已衍生出聚时交流信息、散时各付资费的习俗来。因为商人的流动性很强,一个人请别人的客,被请的人说不定这辈子再也碰不到了,为了大家不吃亏,彼此分摊便是最好的选择了。而荷兰人因其精明、凡事都要分清楚. 17世纪50~70年代的“Anglo-Dutch Wars”(英荷战争),不仅让荷兰人丢掉了“海上马车夫”的殊荣,而且,一系列非褒义性“Dutch”用语由

此融入英国词汇。由于英国人的偏见,荷兰人似乎是“抠门”的代名词,外出就餐如果“各付己帐”就可以说成是“It's a Dutch treat”(直译为“荷兰人请客”,treat在此指“招待、请客”)。逐渐形成了let's go dutch(让我们做荷兰人)的俗语。

3、Foggy city –链接《雾都孤儿》

工业革命后,大量污水排入泰晤士河,河水污染严重,臭气熏天,鱼类绝迹,成为“死亡之河”。伦敦居民戏称,掉进泰晤士河的人还没有淹死,就

已经被毒死了。

自20世纪60年代起,英国政府开始治理污染严重的泰晤士河,现在河水清澈、鱼翔浅底、两岸景色宜人。

过去,伦敦上空烟尘弥漫,雾日多,被称为“雾都”,经过能源的更新换代,空气洁净,雾天减少。

伦敦的郊区是工业区,郊区与市区之间有大面积的绿地相隔离,以保护环境。

4、spend money like water.(花钱如流水) 与英国岛国有关 5、日不落帝国

范文七:美国文化介绍 投稿:谢琚琛

(slides) NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND POLICY

The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) was signed into law on January 8, 2002 by President George W Bush.

1. Ensure every school has enough mordern equipment to meet the students or teachers’ need. (school buses, offices, classrooms, gyms, auditoriums, indoor basketball courts, teaching equipment, 24 hours’ air condition…)

2. Ensure every school has enough educators like teachers and assistants. For those special needs, schools offer special educators or assistants to help each child succeed.

3. Ensure every child has the same equal chance to succeed. According to the law, the government and school districts should make sure every child can go to school and succeed, even for those handicaped or disabled students.

4. Ensure the parents give the children enough support and send their kids to school by the age.

(slides)

For public schools, every kid can just go to school for free as long as he or she lives in that school district. Those kids whose parents are out of work or can’t afford their schooling can even get free meals at school. They even can get extra money from the school fundation. All the kids, even if they are handicaped or disabled, they still can go to the same school as others without any discrimination.

LA CROSSE SCHOOL DISTRICT

I was so lucky to have a chance to be in La Crosse as an exchange teacher. I really learned a lot during the whole school year. La Crosse is a small city in the State of Wisconsin in the United States. It has just around 50 thousand people living around there. But in Luoyang, we have more than 6 million. So it is such a small city.

The educational administration system in La Crosse is like this: (slides)

Citizens elect the board of education, the board hire the administrators to be in charge of the schools and offer service to the students, the board also hire the teachers or the other staff to work in the different schools. So the teachers can be in different schools, they even travel to teach in different schools sometimes.

The Board of Education is comprised of locally elected officials who establish policies to:

· Ensure quality, equitable, and innovative educational opportunities for all students.

· Ensure programs are designed to develop the student as a whole.

· Ensure resources are available to provide excellence in education.

· Ensure accountability (responsible)to the public.

Ensure effective communication and collaboration(coorperation) with the community.

The citizens in this school district elected the board of education. Every 3 years people elected 9 members to arrange the whole district standing for all the citizens in this area. They often meet together to consult or discuss what they need to do, all the meetings will be televised on TV to let the citizens know transparently. They hire all the administrators and teachers in this school district. Every time they meet problems, they will ask the citizen’s permit by polling. All the people in this district will vote for it. If it got passed, the board will carry out; if not, they can do nothing.

For example, just about 5 months ago, because of the bad economy in the united states, two boilers

in two schools expired the time, which means out of time and can’t be used any more. So the principals applied for new ones, but there is no permit to spend the money. So the board of education asked the citizens to vote for it, unfortunately it didn’t get passed. Eventually, they could not buy the new ones. The board of education had to cancel the school and send the students to another school for education. This is a kind of democracy, a little different from us here.

For the administrators in the school district, they are in charge of the everyday administration of different schools. They help all the students and the teachers to do their jobs by offering their good service. Every morning, all the principals go to the schools much earlier than others and stand in front of the school buildings to welcome all the students and teachers to come, which is quite different from us in China. (You know, when I first go to work, I didn’t get used to it. I wondered if there was anything wrong with me or something emergent happned. But little by little, I found it was a common thing because every morning, it happens. (校长的照片)

There are only 10 elementary Schools, 3 Middle Schools and just 2 high schools.

According to the data of the students’ enrollment in 2007, the number of all the students in preschool thru Grader 12 is 7140. in which Preschoolers are 409, kids in Kingdergarten thru grader 5 (like the kids in the elementry schools in China) are 2788, grader 6 thru 8 (like the junior students in China) are 1484 and the students of grader 9 thru 12 are 2393. This school district is the 16th largest one in the state of Wisconsin.

The sizes of the classes in La Crosse are like this:

Kingdergarten thru third graders, there are 15 students for each class.

4 grader thru 5 graders, they have 22 kids

6 thru 8 graders, they have 26

And 9th thru 12th graders are 27.

These numbers are much smaller than those in our country. So students each can easily get a chance to take part in the study with others, plus the teachers have the time to take care of every kid in the class.

Under the No Child Left Behind Policy in La Crosse school district, 12% of the kids get special education. And about 40 percent of the students get free or reduced meals in the school buildings.

And for the teachers in this district, there are 635 certified teachers. 459 teachers got the Master degree, which is about 72.28% of all the teachers. And also in this area, there are 3 learning specialists and 5 reading specialist working here too.

The average salary of the teachers in La Crosse School District is abou $50,000 for the whole school now. The new teachers with the teachers’ certification gets paid about 35,000 bucks while those higher professional teachers can get about 60,000-70,000 dollars one school year. Yes, it is much more than us. But the fact is that they need to pay about one third of the money for the tax, which is also much more than ours here too.

Just like somebody says: in America, there are 2 things they can’t avoid. One is death and the other one is TAX. Anybody in America can never miss the tax.

ththth

In the school buildings:

For the school schedule, you can take a look at the screen here:

Every morning on weekdays, students go to school at 7:30am like us. In some schools, students have resource time at 7:40am but in some other schools, students have the resource time after school.

During which students go to the teachers for help in study. Every day they have 7 periods like us too. But they don’t have the nap time at noon and everybody including the teachers have to have a quick lunch. If you look at the screen here, you will find the schools begin at 7:40am and end them at 3:20pm. The time between classes is very short, only 5 minutes. So you can see the kids run to different classes during the passing time. You know in the States, the teachers will stay in the same room waiting for the kids to come. Students don’t have a homeroom classroom like us in China. So they have to travel to different rooms for classes. (学生照片)

Maybe you are worrying about the time for Bathroom, Yes, I also think it is a problem. So often you will find, kids use the bath room when we are having the class. But they each need a pass, which means the teachers let them go, otherwise, the principals will stop them and give them punishment.

Most of the teachers in the United States have a lot of classes every day like 5 or 6 per day. If not, they can’t make enough money. Even so, some teachers will also take a second job after school. The teachers there work very hard at school, they go to school early and go home late busy with their teaching plans and homework. They even also take the paperwork back at home like us too.

In the united states, education focus on practical abilities and real experience. So the teachers not only teach them knowledge by the mordern equipment and advanced theory but also tell the kids to go to the libraries, readingrooms, factories, communities and even the government to do the reaserch. They also go to the museums to see and the nature to experience, which really helps them remember the knowledge and it’s unforgetable.

school district email address:

All the staff memembers of the whole school district each have an email address within the school district, they can easily send emails to anybody they want to communicate with each other and get announcements from the whole district. All the staff must check their emails every day at least once or twice in case they get important announcements from the administrators in or out of the school buildings. In this way, they don’t have to have a staff meeting often. Teachers can easily figure out what they are going to do.

Staff Development Day:

Every last Saturday of each month, teachers will get together to study the knowledge of teaching method, adult learning, and learning theory. Teachers discuss how to help the kids to achieve more. Teachers share their experience and ideas in teaching. This really help the teachers with their work at school. Every teacher has to attend it. The attendance of each teacher will be reported to the Superintendent of the school district.

SKYWORD SYSTEM

For the students, the education administration has a very serious evaluation system. All the information about each student’s study will be put into the EDUCATION NET called SKYWORD, including the students’ attendance, performance, actings, behavior at class homework, exams and even after school activities and so on. Teachers have to put in the data into the computer to evalue the students’ study every day. Once the information is put in, nobody can change it. And the SKYWORD system will be open to the parents, teachers and even the government. The university will also know the information of the students too. They will accept the students according to the information from the SKYWORD. Anybody can never cheat in this system.

So, Students take the SKYWORD evaluation seriously because it decides which university they can go, a good one or a common one. If they get higher points, they will be introduced to a better university. Also the students should always do good jobs every day if they want to get better grades, because in the Final evaluation, everyday behavior counts 80% while the final exams counts just 20%. So the every study is much more important than the final exam. It is also quite different from the things in our county.

One example is that once a student didn’t finish her homework, she even cried to ask for another chance to make up it and ask us not to put into the information at once. Some kids will also do extra work to get extra points too.

Students and parents can also access SKYWORD to know about their points. But they just know themselves not others.

Every school has a website, in which teachers put into their teaching plans, homework, announcements and stuff like that. Students can easily go there by the special access. They can easily get help from the teacher on that website. This is just like the NET between parents and teachers (家校通)。I think it really works. All the parents, students get the information they want anytime if they are on line. (I know in China, some lazy students often cheat their parents and teachers saying they don’t know the homework and don’t know how to do it. If we use the net like this, all the parents will absolutely know whatever they want to know and help us with their kids.)

Different kinds of education service

The students in the United States are so independent and they are afraid of the difficulties at all. They do thing like adults. This impressed me a lot.

For example, once the Federal Government wanted to set up a neuclear power plant to meet the electricity supply around La Crosse. The teacher asked them to do some reaserch and give a report to the teacher and the government. So the students work in groups on the delta of the three rivers-Mississippi river, La Crosse river and Black river. They studied the enviroment and the water resource there, they went to different libraries, factories, interviewed some governors and organized several pollings by the citizens. At last they worked out a reasonable reaserch report and the actions they must take. They volunteered to have demonstrations to show people how to protect their important living enviroment. Many people around there got impressed much and they vote against this idea. At last the propose didn’t get passed and the neuclear power station didn't turn into the reality.

In China, I don’t think the high school students can stop a government’s decision.

Under the NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND policy, every school tries to help every kid make progress in different ways.

They build the success center to help the kids to keep up with others in study.(slide)

They build the student service center to help the students and parents to explore their interests, career planning, training options, scholarships, testing and financial aid information. Like if the kids want to apply for the scholarship, they can go to the Student Service Center for help.

They have BULLY PREVENTION Association to stop others treating the kids badly. So if the kids got beaten by a big guy, they can go there for help.

For those kids who need special help, the school district and each school build a Special Education Center, they offer many special educational services for children from early childhood (age 3 years) to age 21 years. (slide)In the united states, many students got divorced parents or live with single parent. They have all kinds of difficulties in their life. So they are always welcome to meet the special educators

there.

They build Career Center to help the Seniors to make a future career plan. They help them to decide which university to go to and what will be their life job they are interested in.

They have Business Center to prepare students for business occupations and to teach students about business. They offer preparation for business occupations for the kids to own or operate their own business or be a worker in a business career.

After school activities

The students in the United States have a lot of free time, some of them will take extra classes while most of them take all kinds of after-school activities. They enjoy their life very much. They take part in all kinds of sports. They play football, volleyball, baseball, softball, basketball and so on.

They join all kinds of culture clubs: Chinese Club; French Club; Spanish club; Hmong Club and so on.

They have music clubs: show choirs; Jaz bands

other clubs: Enviroment protection clubs; dancing clubs

some practical and useful classes for special needs: industry; cooking

volunteering

In the United States, equality, respect and helping each other are in everybody’s heart. I have been to several universities, high schools, middle schools, elementry schools and kingdergartens., students equally get the education. In one school, even if there is only one disabled person, all the accessess are OK for him or her in a wheel chair. Even only one blind student can get a special teacher for him too. Even the student with mental disease can get equal service in school. I often met some common students volunteering to help the disabled students in their wheel chairs or scooters.

Many of the students in the schools are volunteers even in the kingdergartens. They volunteer to help others. They help organize the students to get on the school buses, they help the students have meals, they mentor the little kids with their study or in the after-school activities.

Donation is also popular in the States. People give away money or other stuff to help other people. Students donate and collect money for others.

I still remember the Fundraiser in La Crosse for the serious Wenchuan Earthquake relief. Students and strangers came to donate money for the people in Sichuan Province. Within 10 hours, we collect about 50 thousand dollars and transit to China Red Cross Organization.

Scholarships:

In the United States, many different companies, organizations, families, people give a lot of support to the students. They set all kinds of scholarships for the kids to succeed. For example, the Wal Mart company, the Honda car dealers, the La Crosse Red Crosse Association, some famous families and even some people give a lot of money to them.

范文八:国酒文化城介绍 投稿:钱誤誥

国酒文化城介绍

1993年初,以党委书记、厂长邹开良组成的领导班子开始构想建设“酒文化城”。设想得到了省政府领导同意,特别是省长陈士能的积极支持。厂组织知名酒师、白酒专家、历史学家、建筑学家、设计师、美术家等座谈讨论,征求意见,对构思方案进行评估论证。经过多次详细讨论,多方征求意见,聘请四川美术学院、贵州安顺市古建筑设计院、成都古建筑工程公司承担设计、土建及装修、展板陈列等具体工作。设计人员走访了全国很多建筑物及酒类博物馆,包括北京、西安的所有图书馆、博物馆,查找搜集有关资料。而后形成初步方案,经厂务会和有关专家进行十多次讨论评估论证,数十次修改。对每个馆、亭、台、楼阁、每根梁柱及色彩、每个酒的故事都进行认真切磋和审核。土建用料上作了多次反复研究。开初设计是采用砖木结构,经过论证,认为砖木结构的安全性、耐用性不理想,后来决定,所有屋架、柱、梁、屋顶全部采用钢筋混泥土浇铸。对几十米长的南丝绸之路大型浮雕,还采用千里之外的四川坚硬细腻、耐风化的著名石料,对展示板采用具有防火性能的材料,馆内安装防火设备以及干湿器,确保展品安全。方案成熟后,邹开良再一次向陈省长汇报,在命名上有陈列馆、博物馆、酒文化街等提法。陈省长说,这么大的规模不是“街”而是“城”

了。大家都同意陈省长的意见,就定下了名称为“国酒文化城”。

在建酒化城之初,有很大争议,特别是塑蒋介石、三位私人作坊老板像的争议最大,但企业领导思想解放,尊重历史,从历史角度展示茅台酒的发展历程,受到各级领导和各界人士的赞许。

该工程总设计由安顺地区规划设计院承担,四川新都古建公司负责施工,四川美术艺术学院负责布展设计。工程于1993年7月破土,1994年1月施工,1997年9月竣工,1998年5月总体工程验收。整个建筑占地30000多平立米,建筑面积12000平方米。建成有汉、唐、宋、元、明、清、现代7个展馆和文化街辅助建筑。

酒化城以大量的群雕、浮雕、匾、屏、文物、书法、图片等实物和精炼的文字,勾划出中国白酒文化从产生、发展到成熟的历史轨迹,绘制出一幅绚丽多彩的中国酒文化的历史画卷。在数千年的历史长河中,有中国古代皇宫内部争权夺利的刀光剑影、王室官宦的权谋机变、还有拼杀疆场的金戈铁马、外交场合的唇枪舌战;有长亭送别的离愁别恨、骚人墨客的慷慨高歌;还有中国白酒酿造工艺的精湛独特,饮酒作乐的市井百态„„资料充分展示茅台酒发展历史及独特工艺,超群品质和茅台酒厂的巨大变迁、历代茅台酒人的创造精神。从不同角度反映历代酒业的发展过程及酒与政

治、军事、经济、艺术、科技、宗教民俗等各个社会领域的密切关系,显示了酒文化巨大的政治、社会文化功能,展示了中国酒类生产的发展沿革、工艺过程,使人感到酒法酒规的严肃、史志文献的庄重、文学艺术的生动、技术指标的严谨等酒文化多姿的风采,反映人们在造酒、用酒、饮酒过程中表现的思维方式、民族性格、宗教信仰、伦理道德、精神情操等酒文化的核心内涵,从而领悟中国酒文化的博大精深。

进入酒门,右侧是花岗岩雕塑群,为形态各异的青帝、白帝、黄帝、赤帝、黑帝;抬头进入视线的是古朴巍峨汉馆,汉馆门前右侧是“国酒茅台与南丝绸之路”浮雕;进入汉馆大门,迎面是饮茅台枸酱赞为“甘美之”的汉武帝刘彻雕塑,馆内有鸿门宴、霸王别姬群雕,有东晋诗人陶渊明雕塑,有大口尊、双羊尊、四羊方尊仿青铜器;走进柳树成荫的池塘,步入长廊,便是富丽堂皇的唐馆,李白醉酒、醉译南蛮书、《将进酒》、《把酒问月》,室品茶饮酒;走进古典玲珑的宋馆,宋太祖杯酒释兵权;有“明月几时有,把酒问青天”的苏轼醉酒;有“醉里挑灯看剑”的辛弃疾按剑低吟。

酒文化城汉代馆

进入粗犷明快的元馆,播州军民宣抚使杨汉英特贡茅台烧酒,得到元世祖忽必烈划地嘉许,成为贵州最大的土司之一,从此茅台酒香飘御苑。精巧别致的明馆,宋应星《天工开物》和徐启光《农政全书》对我国古代酿酒术作了系统阐述,茅台酒酿造流程群雕反映出茅台酒酿造工艺已具雏形。华丽凝重的清馆,展现茅台镇 “酒冠黔人国,盐登赤虺河”的繁荣景象,茅台酒的独特工艺已经成型成熟,其时茅台烧房不下20家,成义烧房和荣太和烧房生产的“茅台烧”作为黔酒的代表而享誉南北。走入明晰流畅、洋溢着现代气息的现代馆,1915年茅台酒荣获“巴拿马万国博览会”金奖,引人注目,三家私人作坊老板华联辉、石荣霄、赖永初、茅台酒技艺传承人郑义兴、王绍彬、李兴发等人及红军在茅台三渡赤水河、毛泽东与蒋介石重庆谈判饮茅台酒等,一组组雕塑演示茅台酒随共和国步入辉煌的历程。城东面高处建揽

胜楼,脚下为茅台酒的传说群雕。

茅台酒文化城获1999年上海“大世界基尼斯之最”证书(NO:00762号)。2002年,被列入省传统教育基地。

从正式开馆后,接待了许多中央、省市、地各级领导、老红军、老将军、名人名家、港澳台胞、海外侨胞、国际友人等,据1999年至2005年底不完全统计,参观人数达12多万人次。

2005年,国家旅游局政策规划司和省旅游局对公司申报工业旅游示范点(含酒文化城)创建情况进行检查验收。2005年11月30日至12月1日,应公司邀请,中国博物馆学会常务副理事长、故宫博物馆副馆长李文儒,中国博物馆学会副理事长范示民、中国博物馆学会副秘书长隋缘等文博专家对酒文化城进行了考察、调研,查找酒文化城“提升为中国酒博物馆”还需要充实完善的地方,帮助公司申报将国酒文化城提升为中国酒文化博物馆。2005年7月,国酒文化城布展改造工程通过验收,布展改造工程对现代馆进行了增容。

2007年,文化城的几个主要景点进行绿化改造。当年,接待参观游客25657人,接待了中央军委副主席曹刚川、军事科学院院长郑申侠、甘肃省委书记陸浩、文化部副部长周和平、司法部副部长张苏军、中国驻外大使考察团、全国质量管理小组专家等。

2008年,文化城接待游客27487人次,完成公司接待

1037次,接待团队316次。其中重要接待有:最高人民法院副院长江必新、最高人民检察院副检察长胡克惠、军事科学院政委刘源中将、原兰州军区司令员李乾元上将、法国巴黎HEC商学院EMBA班学员等客人。

范文九:英文介绍法国 投稿:潘嘒嘓

首都巴黎是法国政治、经济、文化和交通中心,卢浮宫博物馆和巴黎圣母院誉满全球,香榭丽舍被誉为世界上最美丽的大街,其地上与地下交通四通八达、非常方便,每天客流量达1300万人。巴黎的标志建筑——埃菲尔铁塔像一个钢铁巨人高高地耸立在恬静的塞纳河畔。在法国最大港口和第二大城市马赛,你可以造访大仲马在小说《基督山伯爵》里描写过的监狱——奇伊夫堡。西南部城市波尔多酿酒历史悠久,其葡萄酒驰名于世。特等“波尔多红葡萄酒”列为世界葡萄酒“皇后”,一瓶百年陈酒在国际市场上可售3万多美元。位于地中海岸边的戛纳,是一座风景秀丽、气候宜人的小城,每年在此举办的戛纳电影节热闹非凡,其颁发的金棕榈奖被公认为电影界最高荣誉之一。法国的时装在世界上享有盛誉,选料丰富、优异,设计大胆,制作技术高超,使其一直引导世界时装潮流。在巴黎有2000家时装店,老板们的口号是:“时装不卖第二件”。而在大街上,几乎看不到两个妇女穿着一模一样的服装。法国人天性率真,浪漫,喜欢大自然,有一半以上的法国家庭饲养各种小动物,总数量在3000万只以上。

Its capital, Paris is France's political, economic, cultural and transportation

center, the Louvre Museum and Notre Dame de Paris, known around the world, known as the Champs-Elysees Avenue, the world's most beautiful, its ground and underground traffic extending in all directions, very convenient, daily traffic reached 13 million people. Paris landmarks - the Eiffel Tower like a steel giant stands tall on the Seine River in the quiet. In France's largest port and second largest city of Marseille, you can visit the Alexandre Dumas novel

Principal

Women dressed in identical clothing. French nature straightforward, romantic, nature-loving, more than half of French households keep a variety of small animals, the total number of 30 million or more.

范文十:法国英文介绍 投稿:苏暃暄

法国

巴黎

1. 高耸入云的埃菲尔铁塔,流光溢彩的街道,美丽的塞纳河,金碧辉煌的宫殿,浪漫的民族,源远流长的历史…这就是巴黎。

The high Eiffel Tower, the colorful streets, the beautiful river Seine, the glorious palaces, the romantic people, the old history … Paris is a great place to all people in the world.

2. 作为法国的首都,巴黎是一座古老而又现代的城市。这里发生了太多的历史事件,这里有那么多的地方让你流连忘返。

As the capital of France, Paris is a modern city with a long and rich history. So many events took place here and there are so many places for the visitors to have a trip.

3. 320米高的埃菲尔铁塔是巴黎的标志。它建于1889年。

The Eiffel Tower, which is 320 meters high, is the symbol of Paris. It was completed in 1889.

4. 法国是世界上游客流量最大的国家,拥有这么多美丽的景点和许多全球著名的地标建筑,比方说埃菲尔铁塔,每年有7500万来自世界各地的游客观光游玩。

France is the most Visited Countries in the World with 75 million international visitors per year, with so many beautiful places to visit and a number of globally famous landmarks such as the Eiffel tower.

巴黎圣母院

1. 巴黎圣母院坐落于巴黎市中心塞纳河中的西岱岛上,始建于1163年,是巴黎大主教莫里斯·德·苏利决定兴建的,整座教堂在1345年才全部建成,历时180多年。

Notre Dame de Paris located in the Seine in central Paris the Xidai island, built in 1163, the Archbishop of Paris, decided to build Desuli Morris, the whole church in 1345 was completely built and lasted 180 years.

2. 巴黎圣母院是一座典型的哥特式教堂,之所以闻名于世,主要因为它是欧洲建筑史上一个划时代的标志。

Notre Dame de Paris is typical of a Gothic church, the reason is world renowned, mainly because it is a European architectural history landmark sign.

3. 巴黎圣母院是一座石头建筑,在世界建筑史上,被誉为一级由巨大的石头组成的交响乐。虽然这是一幢宗教建筑,但它闪烁着法国人民的智慧,反映了人们对美好生活的追求与向往。 Notre Dame de Paris is a stone building in the history of architecture in the world, known as a great rock by the composition of symphony. Although it is a religious building, but it sparking the French people's wisdom, and the reflection of the people for a better life and the pursuit of yearning.

4. 作为荣光之地与神圣思想互相关联的证明──巴黎圣母院,至今已有750年的历史了,它是欧洲宗教建筑登峰造极之作。

As a testament to the correlation between glorious spaces and heavenly thoughts, the Notre Dame de Paris has stood for 750 years as the apex of European religious architecture.

卢浮宫

1.卢浮宫位于巴黎市中心的赛纳河右岸,是巴黎的心脏。

Le Louvre museum is located in downtown Paris right bank of shore Seine, is the heart of Paris.

2.卢浮宫是闻名世界的艺术殿堂,举世瞩目的艺术宝库之一。同时,卢浮宫也是法国历史上最悠久的王宫。

Le Louvre museum is the world's most famous palace of art, the greatest art treasures is to attract worldwide attention. At the same time, Le Louvre museum is France's oldest palace.

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