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哈佛大学毕业演讲

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范文一:何江哈佛大学毕业演讲 投稿:卢捫捬

The Spider’s Bite

蜘蛛咬伤轶事

When I was in middle school, a poisonous spider bit my right hand. I ran to my mom for help—but instead of taking me to a doctor, my mom set my hand on fire.

在我读初中的时候,有一次,一只毒蜘蛛咬伤了我的右手。我问我妈妈该怎么办,妈妈并没有带我去看医生,而是决定用火疗的方法治疗我的伤口。

After wrapping my hand with several layers of cotton, then soaking it in wine, she put a chopstick into my mouth, and ignited the cotton. Heat quickly

penetrated the cotton and began to roast my hand. The searing pain made me want to scream, but the chopstick prevented it. All I could do was watch my hand burn - one minute, then two minutes –until mom put out the fire.

她在我的手上包了好几层棉花,棉花上喷撒了白酒,在我的嘴里放了一双筷子后,妈妈打火点燃了棉花。热量逐渐渗透过棉花,开始炙烤我的右手。灼烧的疼痛让我忍不住想喊叫,可嘴里的筷子却让我发不出声来。我只能看着我的手被火烧着,一分钟、两分钟,直到妈妈熄灭了火苗。

You see, the part of China I grew up in was a rural village, and at that time pre-industrial. When I was born, my village had no cars, no telephones, no electricity, not even running water. And we certainly didn’t have access to

modern medical resources. There was no doctor my mother could bring me to see about my spider bite.

你看,我在中国的农村长大,那个时候,我的村庄还是一个类似前工业时代的传统村落。在我出生时,我的村子里面没有汽车,没有电话,没有电,甚至也没有自来水。我们自然不能轻易获得先进的现代医疗资源。那个时候,我妈妈也找不到一个合适的医生可以来帮我处理蜘蛛咬过的伤口。

For those who study biology, you may have grasped the science behind my mom’s cure: heat deactivates proteins, and a spider’s venom is simply a form of protein. It’s cool how that folk remedy actually incorporates basic

biochemistry, isn’t it? But I am a PhD student in biochemistry at Harvard, I now know that better, less painful and less risky treatments existed. So I can’t help but ask myself, why I didn’t receive one at the time?

在座各位如果有生物背景的,你们或许已经理解到了我妈妈使用的治疗手段背后的基本原理:高热可以让蛋白质变性,而蜘蛛的毒液就是一种蛋白质。这样一种土方法实际上有它一定的理论依据,想来也是挺有意思的。但是,作为哈佛大学生物化学的博士,我现在知道在我初中那个时候,已经有更好的,没有那么痛苦的,风险也没那么大的治疗方法了。于是我忍不住会问自己,为什么我在当时没有能够享用到这些更为先进的治疗方法呢?

Fifteen years have passed since that incident. I am happy to report that my hand is fine. But this question lingers, and I continue to be troubled by the unequal distribution of scientific knowledge throughout the world.

被蜘蛛咬伤的事已经过去大概十五年了。我非常高兴地向在座的各位报告,我的手还是完好的。但是,我刚刚提到的这个问题这些年来一直在我的脑海徘徊,而我也时不时会因为先进科技知识在全球不同地区的不平等分布而感到困扰。 Fifteen years have passed since that incident. I am happy to report that my hand is fine. But this question lingers, and I continue to be troubled by the unequal distribution of scientific knowledge throughout the world. We have learned to edit the human genome and unlock many secrets of how cancer progresses. We can manipulate neuronal activity literally with the switch of a light. Each year brings more advances in biomedical research-exciting, transformative accomplishments.

现如今,我们人类已经学会怎么进行人类基因编辑了,也研究清楚了很多癌症发生发展的原因。我们甚至可以利用一束光来控制我们大脑内神经元的活动。每年生物医学的研究都会给我们带来不一样突破和进步,其中有不少令人振奋,也极具革命颠覆性的成果。

Yet, despite the knowledge we have amassed, we haven’t been so successful in deploying it to where it’s needed most. According to the World Bank, twelve percent of the world’s population lives on less than $2 a day. Malnutrition kills

more than 3 million children annually. Three hundred million people are afflicted by malaria globally. All over the world, we constantly see these problems of poverty, illness, and lack of resources impeding the flow of

scientific information. Lifesaving knowledge we take for granted in the modern world is often unavailable in these underdeveloped regions. And in far too many places, people are still essentially trying to cure a spider bite with fire. 然而,尽管我们人类在科研上已经有了无数的建树,但怎样把这些最前沿的科学研究带到世界最需要该技术的地区,我们做得仍然不尽人意。世界银行的数据显示,世界上大约有12%的人口的生活水平仍然低于每天2美元。营养不良每年导致三百万儿童死亡。将近3亿人口仍然蒙受疟疾带来的痛苦。在世界各地,我们经常看到类似的由于贫穷、疾病和资源匮乏导致科学知识流动受阻。现代社会里习以为常的那些救生常识经常在这些欠发达或不发达地区未能得到普及。于是,在世界上仍有很多地区,人们只能依赖于用火疗这一简单粗暴的方式来治理蜘蛛咬伤事故。

While studying at Harvard, I saw how scientific knowledge can help others in simple, yet profound ways. The bird flu pandemic in the 2000s looked to my village like a spell cast by demons. Our folk medicine didn’t even have half-measures to offer. What’s more, farmers didn’t know the difference between common cold and flu; they didn’t understand that the flu was much more lethal than the common cold. Most people were also unaware that the virus could transmit across different species.

在哈佛读书期间,我切身体会到先进的科技知识能够既简单又深远地帮助到很多人。本世纪初的时候,禽流感在亚洲多个国家肆虐。那个时候,村庄里的农民听到禽流感就像听到恶魔施咒一样,对其特别的恐惧。乡村的土医疗方法对这样一个疾病也是束手无策。农民对于普通感冒和流感的区别并不是很清楚,他们并不懂得流感比普通感冒可能更加致命。而且,大部分人对于科学家所发现的流感病毒能够跨不同物种传播这一事实并不清楚。

So when I realized that simple hygiene practices like separating different animal species could contain the spread of the disease, and that I could help make this knowledge available to my village, that was my first ―Aha‖ moment

as a budding scientist. But it was more than that: it was also a vital inflection point in my own ethical development, my own self-understanding as a member of the global community.

于是,当我认识到将受感染的不同物种隔离开等简单的卫生举措可以减缓疾病传播时,当我能够为将这些知识传递到我的村庄贡献力量时,我的内心第一次有了一种作为未来科学家的使命感。但这种使命感不只停在知识层面,它也是我个人道德发展的重要转折点,我自我理解的作为国际社会一员的责任感。

Harvard dares us to dream big, to aspire to change the world. Here on this Commencement Day, we are probably thinking of grand destinations and big adventures that await us. As for me, I am also thinking of the farmers in my village. My experience here reminds me how important it is for researchers to communicate our knowledge to those who need it. Because by using the science we already have, we could probably bring my village and thousands like it into the world you and I take for granted every day. And that’s an impact every one of us can make!

哈佛的教育教会我们敢于拥有自己的梦想,勇于立志改变世界。在毕业典礼这样一个特别的日子,我们在座的毕业生都会畅想我们未来的伟大征程和冒险。对我而言,我在此刻不可避免还会想到我的家乡。成长的经历提醒我,作为一名科学家,积极地将我们所会的知识传递给那些急需这些知识的人是多么地重要。因为利用那些我们已经拥有的科技知识,我们能够轻而易举地帮助我的家乡,还有千千万万类似的村庄,让他们生活的世界变成一个我们现代社会看起来习以为常的地方,而这样一件事,是我们每一个毕业生都能够做的,也都能够做到的。 But the question is, will we make the effort or not?

但问题是,我们愿意来做这样的努力吗?

More than ever before, our society emphasizes science and innovation. But an equally important emphasis should be on distributing the knowledge we have to where it’s needed. Changing the world doesn’t mean that everyone has to find the next big thing. It can be as simple as becoming better communicators, and finding more creative ways to pass on the knowledge we have to people

like my mom and the farmers in their local community. Our society also needs to recognize that the equal distribution of knowledge is a pivotal step of human development, and work to bring this into reality.

比以往任何时候,我们的社会都更强调科学和创新。但我们的社会同样需要关注的一个重心是将知识传递到那些真正需要的地方。改变世界并不意味着每个人都要做一个大突破。改变世界可以非常简单,它可以是作为世界不同地区的沟通者,找出更多创造性的方法将知识传递给像我母亲或农民这样的群体。同时,改变世界也意味着我们的社会,作为一个整体,能够更清醒地认识到科技知识更加均衡的分布,是人类社会发展的一个关键环节,而我们也能够一起奋斗将此目标变成现实。

And if we do that, then perhaps a teenager in rural China who is bitten by a spider will not have to burn his hand, but will know to seek a doctor instead. 如果我们能够做到这些,或许,将来有一天,一个在农村被毒蜘蛛咬伤的少年或许不用火疗治疗伤口,而是去看医生接受更为先进的医疗。

范文二:哈佛大学毕业典礼演讲 投稿:陆澐澑

哈佛大学毕业典礼演讲
朱棣文 尊敬的 Faust 校长,哈佛集团的各位成员,监管理事会的各 位理事,各位老师,各位家长,各位朋友,以及最重要的各 位毕业生同学: 感谢你们,让我有机会同你们一起分享这个美妙的日 子。 我不太肯定,自己够得上哈佛大学毕业典礼演讲人这样 的殊荣。 去年登上这个讲台的是, 英国亿万身家的小说家 J.K. Rowling 女士,她最早是一个古典文学的学生。前年站在这 里的是比尔?盖茨先生,他是一个超级富翁、一个慈善家和 电脑天才。今年很遗憾,你们的演讲人是我,虽然我不是很 有钱,但是至少我是一个书呆子。 我很感激哈佛大学给我荣誉学位,这对我很重要,也许 比你们会想到的还要重要。要知道,在学术上,我是我们家 的异类。我的哥哥在麻省理工学院得到医学博士,在哈佛大 学得到哲学博士;我的弟弟在哈佛大学得到一个法律学位。 我本人得到诺贝尔奖的时候,我想我的妈妈会高兴。但是, 我错了。消息公布的那天早上,我给她打电话,她听了只说: “这是好消息,不过我想知道,你下次什么时候来看我?” 如今在我们兄弟当中,我最终也拿到了哈佛学位,我想这一 次,她会感到满意。

在哈佛大学毕业典礼上发表演说,还有一个难处,那就是你 们中有些人可能有意见,不喜欢我重复前人演讲中说过的 话。我要求你们谅解我,因为两个理由。 首先,为了产生影响力,很重要的方法就是重复传递同 样的信息。在科学中,第一个发现者是重要的,但是在得到 公认前,最后一个做出这个发现的人也许更重要。 其次,一个借鉴他人的作者,正走在一条前人开辟的最 佳道路上。哈佛大学毕业生、诗人爱默生曾经写下: “我最 好的一些思想,都是从古人那里偷来的。 ”画家毕加索宣称 “优秀的艺术家借鉴,伟大的艺术家偷窃。 ”那么为什么毕 业典礼的演说者,就不适用同样的标准呢? 我还要指出一点,向哈佛毕业生发表演说,对我来说是 有讽刺意味的,因为如果当年我斗胆向哈佛大学递交入学申 请,一定会被拒绝。我的妻子 Jean 当过斯坦福大学的招生 主任,她向我保证,如果当年我申请斯坦福大学,她会拒绝 我。我把这篇演讲的草稿给她过目,她强烈反对我使用“拒 绝”这个词,她从来不拒绝任何申请者。在拒绝信中,她总 是写: “我们无法提供你入学机会。 ”我分不清两者到底有何 差别。不过,那些大热门学校的招生主任总是很现实的,堪 称“拒绝他人的主任” 。很显然,我需要好好学学怎么来推 销自己。 毕业典礼演讲都遵循古典奏鸣曲的结构,我的演讲也不

例外。刚才
是第一乐章——轻快的闲谈。接下来的第二乐章 是送上门的忠告。 这样的忠告很少有价值, 几乎注定被忘记, 永远不会被实践。但是,就像王尔德说的: “对于忠告,你 所能做的,就是把它送给别人,因为它对你没有任何用处。 ” 所以,下面就是我的忠告。第一,取得成就的时候,不要忘 记前人。要感谢你的父母和支持你的朋友,要感谢那些启发 过你的教授,尤其要感谢那些上不好课的教授,因为他们迫 使你自学。从整体看,自学能力是优秀的文科教育中必不可 少的,将成为你成功的关键。你还要去拥抱你的同学,感谢 他们同你进行过的许多次彻夜长谈,这为你的教育带来了无 法衡量的价值。当然,你还要感谢哈佛大学。不过即使你忘 了这一点,校友会也会来提醒你。第二,在你们未来的人生 中,做一个慷慨大方的人。在任何谈判中,都把最后一点点 利益留给对方。不要把桌上的钱都拿走。在合作中,不要把 荣誉留给自己。成功合作的任何一方,都应获得全部荣誉的 90%。 电影《Harvey》中,Jimmy Stewart 扮演的角色 Elwood P. Dowd,就完全理解这一点。他说: “多年前,母亲曾经对 我说, ‘Elwood,活在这个世界上,你要么做一个聪明人, 要么做一个好人。”我做聪明人,已经做了好多年了。…… ’ 但是,我推荐你们做好人。你们可以引用我这句话。 我的第三个忠告是,当你开始生活的新阶段时,请跟随

你的爱好。如果你没有爱好,就去找,找不到就不罢休。生 命太短暂,所以不能空手走过,你必须对某样东西倾注你的 深情。我在你们这个年龄,是超级的一根筋,我的目标就是 非成为物理学家不可。本科毕业后,我在加州大学伯克利分 校又待了 8 年,读完了研究生,做完了博士后,然后去贝尔 实验室待了 9 年。在这些年中,我关注的中心和职业上的全 部乐趣,都来自物理学。 我还有最后一个忠告,就是说兴趣爱好固然重要,但是 你不应该只考虑兴趣爱好。当你白发苍苍、垂垂老矣、回首 人生时,你需要为自己做过的事感到自豪。物质生活和你实 现的占有欲,都不会产生自豪。只有那些受你影响、被你改 变过的人和事,才会让你产生自豪。 在贝尔实验室待了 9 年后,我决定离开这个温暖舒适的 象牙塔,走进我眼中的“真实世界”——大学。我对贝尔实 验室的看法,可以引用 Mary Poppins 的话, “实际上十全十 美” 。但是,我想离开那种仅仅是科学论文的生活。我要去 教书,培育我自己在科学上的后代。 我在斯坦福大学有一个好友兼杰出同事 Ted Geballe。 他也是从伯克利分校去了贝尔实验室,几年前又离开贝尔实
验室去了斯坦福大学。他对我们的动机做出了最佳描述: “在大学工作,最大的优点就是学生。他们生机勃勃, 充满热情,思想自由,还没被生活的重压改变。虽然他们自

己没有意识到,但是他们是这个社会中你能找到的最佳受 众。如果生命中只有一段时间是思想自由和充满创造力,那 么那段时间就是你在读大学。进校时,学生们对课本上的一 字一句毫不怀疑,渐渐地,他们发现课本和教授并不是无所 不知的,于是他们开始独立思考。从那时起,就是我开始向 他们学习了。 ” 我教过的学生、带过的博士后、合作过的年轻同事,都 非常优秀。他们中有 30 多人,现在已经是教授了。他们所 在的研究机构有不少是全世界第一流的,其中就包括哈佛大 学。我从他们身上学到了很多东西。即使现在,我偶尔还会 周末上网,向现在还从事生物物理学研究的学生请教。 我怀着回报社会的想法, 开始了教学生涯。 我的一生中, 得到的多于我付出的,所以我要回报社会。这就引出了这次 演讲的最后一个乐章。首先我要讲一个了不起的科学发现, 以及由此带来的新挑战。它是一个战斗的号令,到了做出改 变的时候了。 过去几十年中,我们的气候一直在发生变化。气候变化 并不是现在才有的,过去 60 万年中就发生了 6 次冰河期。 但是,现在的测量表明气候变化加速了。北极冰盖在 9 月份 的大小,只相当于 50 年前的一半。1870 年起,人们开始测 量海平面上升的速度,现在的速度是那时的 5 倍。一个重大 的科学发现就这样产生了。科学第一次在人类历史上,预测

出我们的行为对 50~100 年后的世界有何影响。这些变化的 原因是,从工业革命开始,人类排放到大气中的二氧化碳增 加了。这使得地球的平均气温上升了 0.8 摄氏度。即使我们 立刻停止所有温室气体的排放,气温仍然将比过去上升大约 1 度。因为在气温达到均衡前,海水温度的上升将持续几十 年。 如果全世界保持现在的经济模式不变,联合国政府间气 候变化专门委员会(IPCC)预测,本世纪末将有 50%的可能, 气温至少上升 5 度。 这听起来好像不多, 但是让我来提醒你, 上一次的冰河期,地球的气温也仅仅只下降了 6 度。那时, 俄亥俄州和费城以下的大部分美国和加拿大的土地,都终年 被冰川覆盖。气温上升 5 度的地球,将是一个非常不同的地 球。由于变化来得太快,包括人类在内的许多生物,都将很 难适应。比如,有人告诉我,在更温暖的环境中,昆虫的个 头将变大。我不知道现在身旁嗡嗡叫的这只大苍蝇,是不是 就是前兆。 我们还面临另一个幽灵,那就是非线性的
“气候引爆 点” ,这会带来许多严重得多的变化。 “气候引爆点”的一个 例子就是永久冻土层的融化。永久冻土层经过千万年的累积 形成,其中包含了巨量的冻僵的有机物。如果冻土融化,微 生物就将广泛繁殖,使得冻土层中的有机物快速腐烂。冷冻 后的生物和冷冻前的生物,它们在生物学特性上的差异,我

们都很熟悉。在冷库中,冷冻食品在经过长时间保存后,依 然可以食用。但是,一旦解冻,食品很快就腐烂了。一个腐 烂的永久冻土层,将释放出多少甲烷和二氧化碳?即使只有 一部分的碳被释放出来,可能也比我们从工业革命开始释放 出来的所有温室气体还要多。这种事情一旦发生,局势就失 控了。 气候问题是我们的经济发展在无意中带来的后果。我们 太依赖化石能源,冬天取暖,夏天制冷,夜间照明,长途旅 行,环球观光。能源是经济繁荣的基础,我们不可能放弃经 济繁荣。美国人口占全世界的 3%,但是我们消耗全世界 25% 的能源。与此形成对照,全世界还有 16 亿人没有电,数亿 人依靠燃烧树枝和动物粪便来煮饭。发展中国家的人民享受 不到我们的生活,但是他们都看在眼里,他们渴望拥有我们 拥有的东西。 这就是新的挑战。全世界作为一个整体,我们到底愿意 付出多少,来缓和气候变化?这种变化在 100 年前,根本没 人想到过。 代际责任深深植根于所有文化中。 家长努力工作, 为了让他们的孩子有更好的生活。气候变化将影响整个世 界,但是我们的天性使得我们只关心个人家庭的福利。我们 能不能把全世界看作一个整体?能不能为未来的人们承担 起责任? 虽然我忧心忡忡,但是还是对未来抱乐观态度,这个问

题将会得到解决。我同意出任劳伦斯?伯克利国家实验室主 任,部分原因是我想招募一些世界上最好的科学家,来研究 气候变化的对策。我在那里干了 4 年半,是这个实验室 78 年的历史中,任期最短的主任,但是当我离任时,在伯克利 实验室和伯克利分校,一些非常激动人心的能源研究机构已 经建立起来了。 能够成为奥巴马施政团队的一员,我感到极其荣幸。如 果有一个时机,可以引导美国和全世界走上可持续能源的道 路,那么这个时机就是现在。总统已经发出信息,未来并非 在劫难逃,而是乐观的,我们依然有机会。我也抱有这种乐 观主义。我们面前的任务令人生畏,但是我们能够并且将会 成功。 我们已经有了一些答案,可以立竿见影地节约能源和提 高能源使用效率。它们不是挂在枝头的水果,而是已经成熟 掉在地上了,就看我们愿不愿意捡起来。比如,我们有办法 将楼宇的耗电
减少 80%, 增加的投资在 15 年内就可以收回来。 楼宇的耗电占我们能源消费的 40%,节能楼宇的推广将使我 们二氧化碳的释放减少三分之一。 我们正在加速美国这座巨大的创新机器,这将是下一次 美国大繁荣的基础。 我们将大量投资有效利用太阳能、 风能、 核能的新方法,大量投资能够捕获和隔离电厂废气中的二氧 化碳的方法。先进的生物燃料和电力汽车将使得我们不再那

么依赖外国的石油。 在未来的几十年中,我们几乎肯定会面对更高的油价和 更严厉的二氧化碳排放政策。这是一场新的工业革命,美国 有机会充当领导者。 伟大的冰球选手 Wayne Gretzky 被问到, 他如何在冰上跑位,回答说: “我滑向球下一步的位置,而 不是它现在的位置。 ”美国也应该这样做。 奥巴马政府正在为美国的繁荣和可持续能源,打下新的 基础。但是我们还有很多不知道的地方。这就需要你们的参 与。在本次演讲中,我请求在座各位哈佛毕业生加入我们。 你们是我们未来的智力领袖,请花时间加深理解目前的危险 局势, 然后采取相应的行动。 你们是未来的科学家和工程师, 我要求你们给我们更好的技术方案。你们是未来的经济学家 和政治学家,我要求你们创造更好的政策选择。你们是未来 的企业家,我要求你们将可持续发展作为你们业务中不可分 割的一部分。 最后,你们是人道主义者,我要求你们为了人道主义说 话。 气候变化带来的最残酷的讽刺之一, 就是最受伤害的人, 恰恰就是最无辜的人——那些世界上最穷的人们和那些还 没有出生的人。 这个最后乐章的完结部是引用两个人道主义者的话。 第一段引语来自马丁·路德·金。这是 1967 年他对越 南战争结束的评论,但是看上去非常适合用来评论今天的气

候危机。 “我呼吁全世界的人们团结一心,抛弃种族、肤色、阶 级、国籍的隔阂;我呼吁包罗一切、无条件的对全人类的爱。 你会因此遭受误解和误读,信奉尼采哲学的世人会认定你是 一个软弱和胆怯的懦夫。但是,这是人类存在下去的绝对必 需。……我的朋友,眼前的事实就是,明天就是今天。此刻, 我们面临最紧急的情况。在变幻莫测的生活和历史之中,有 一样东西叫做悔之晚矣。 ” 第二段引语来自威廉·福克纳。1950 年 12 月 10 月,他 在诺贝尔奖获奖晚宴上发表演说,谈到了世界在核战争的阴 影之下,人道主义者应该扮演什么样的角色。 “我相信人类不会仅仅存在,他还将胜利。人类是不朽 的,这不是因为万物当中仅仅他拥有发言权,而是因为他有 一个灵魂,一种有同情心、牺牲精神和忍耐力的精神。诗人、 作家
的责任就是书写这种精神。他们有权力升华人类的心 灵,使人类回忆起过去曾经使他无比光荣的东西——勇气、 荣誉、希望、自尊、同情、怜悯和牺牲。 ” 各位同学,你们在我们的未来中扮演举足轻重的角色。 当你们追求个人的志向时,我希望你们也会发扬奉献精神, 积极发声,在大大小小各个方面帮助改进这个世界。这会给 你们带来最大的满足感。 最后,请接受我最热烈的祝贺。希望你们成功,也希望

你们保护和拯救我们这个星球,为了你们的孩子,以及未来 所有的孩子。


范文三:JKRowling哈佛毕业演讲 投稿:袁欭欮

J.K. Rowling, author of the best-selling Harry Potter book series, delivers her Commencement Address, “The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination,” at the Annual Meeting of the Harvard Alumni Association.

Text as delivered follows.

Copyright of JK Rowling, June 2008

President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, members of the faculty, proud parents, and, above all, graduates.

The first thing I would like to say is „thank you.‟ Not only has Harvard given me an extraordinary honour, but the weeks of fear and nausea I have endured at the thought of giving this commencement address have made me lose weight. A win-win situation! Now all I have to do is take deep breaths, squint at the red banners and convince myself that I am at the world‟s largest Gryffindor reunion.

Delivering a commencement address is a great responsibility; or so I thought until I cast my mind back to my own graduation. The commencement speaker that day was the distinguished British philosopher Baroness Mary Warnock. Reflecting on her speech has helped me enormously in writing this one, because it turns out that I can‟t remember a single word she said. This liberating discovery enables me to proceed without any fear that I might inadvertently influence you to abandon promising careers in business, the law or politics for the giddy delights of becoming a gay wizard.

You see? If all you remember in years to come is the „gay wizard‟ joke, I‟ve come out ahead of Baroness Mary Warnock. Achievable goals: the first step to self improvement. Actually, I have wracked my mind and heart for what I ought to say to you today. I have asked myself what I wish I had known at my own graduation, and what important lessons I have learned in the 21 years that have expired between that day and this.

I have come up with two answers. On this wonderful day when we are gathered together to celebrate your academic success, I have decided to talk to you about the benefits of failure. And as you stand on the threshold of what is sometimes called „real life‟, I want to extol the crucial importance of imagination.

These may seem quixotic or paradoxical choices, but please bear with me.

Looking back at the 21-year-old that I was at graduation, is a slightly uncomfortable experience for the 42-year-old that she has become. Half my lifetime ago, I was striking an uneasy balance between the ambition I had for myself, and what those closest to me expected of me.

I was convinced that the only thing I wanted to do, ever, was to write novels. However, my parents, both of whom came from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that would never pay a mortgage, or secure a pension. I know that the irony strikes with the force of a cartoon anvil, now.

So they hoped that I would take a vocational degree; I wanted to study English Literature.

A compromise was reached that in retrospect satisfied nobody, and I went up to study Modern Languages. Hardly had my parents‟ car rounded the corner at the end of the road than I ditched German and scuttled off down the Classics corridor.

I cannot remember telling my parents that I was studying Classics; they might well have

found out for the first time on graduation day. Of all the subjects on this planet, I think they would have been hard put to name one less useful than Greek mythology when it came to securing the keys to an executive bathroom.

I would like to make it clear, in parenthesis, that I do not blame my parents for their point of view. There is an expiry date on blaming your parents for steering you in the wrong direction; the moment you are old enough to take the wheel, responsibility lies with you. What is more, I cannot criticise my parents for hoping that I would never experience poverty. They had been poor themselves, and I have since been poor, and I quite agree with them that it is not an ennobling experience. Poverty entails fear, and stress, and sometimes depression; it means a thousand petty humiliations and hardships. Climbing out of poverty by your own efforts, that is indeed something on which to pride yourself, but poverty itself is romanticised only by fools.

What I feared most for myself at your age was not poverty, but failure.

At your age, in spite of a distinct lack of motivation at university, where I had spent far too long in the coffee bar writing stories, and far too little time at lectures, I had a knack for passing examinations, and that, for years, had been the measure of success in my life and that of my peers.

I am not dull enough to suppose that because you are young, gifted and well-educated; you have never known hardship or heartbreak. Talent and intelligence never yet inoculated anyone against the caprice of the Fates, and I do not for a moment suppose that everyone here has enjoyed an existence of unruffled privilege and contentment.

However, the fact that you are graduating from Harvard suggests that you are not very well-acquainted with failure. You might be driven by a fear of failure quite as much as a desire for success. Indeed, your conception of failure might not be too far from the average person‟s idea of success, so high have you already flown.

Ultimately, we all have to decide for ourselves what constitutes failure, but the world is quite eager to give you a set of criteria if you let it. So I think it fair to say that by any conventional measure, a mere seven years after my graduation day, I had failed on an epic scale. An exceptionally short-lived marriage had imploded, and I was jobless, a lone parent, and as poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless. The fears that my parents had had for me, and that I had had for myself, had both come to pass, and by every usual standard, I was the biggest failure I knew.

Now, I am not going to stand here and tell you that failure is fun. That period of my life was a dark one, and I had no idea that there was going to be what the press has since represented as a kind of fairy tale resolution. I had no idea then how far the tunnel extended, and for a long time, any light at the end of it was a hope rather than a reality. So why do I talk about the benefits of failure? Simply because failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy into finishing the only work that mattered to me. Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one arena I believed I truly belonged. I was set free, because my greatest fear had been realised, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter and a big idea. And so rock bottom became the solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life.

You might never fail on the scale I did, but some failure in life is inevitable. It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all – in which case, you fail by default.

Failure gave me an inner security that I had never attained by passing examinations. Failure taught me things about myself that I could have learned no other way. I discovered that I had a strong will, and more discipline than I had suspected; I also found out that I had friends whose value was truly above the price of rubies.

The knowledge that you have emerged wiser and stronger from setbacks means that you are, ever after, secure in your ability to survive. You will never truly know yourself, or the strength of your relationships, until both have been tested by adversity. Such knowledge is a true gift, for all that it is painfully won, and it has been worth more than any qualification I ever earned.

So given a Time Turner, I would tell my 21-year-old self that personal happiness lies in knowing that life is not a check-list of acquisition or achievement. Your qualifications, your CV, are not your life, though you will meet many people of my age and older who confuse the two. Life is difficult, and complicated, and beyond anyone‟s total control, and the humility to know that will enable you to survive its vicissitudes.

Now you might think that I chose my second theme, the importance of imagination, because of the part it played in rebuilding my life, but that is not wholly so. Though I personally will defend the value of bedtime stories to my last gasp, I have learned to value imagination in a much broader sense. Imagination is not only the uniquely human capacity to envision that which is not, and therefore the fount of all invention and innovation. In its arguably most transformative and revelatory capacity, it is the power that enables us to empathise with humans whose experiences we have never shared.

One of the greatest formative experiences of my life preceded Harry Potter, though it informed much of what I subsequently wrote in those books. This revelation came in the form of one of my earliest day jobs. Though I was sloping off to write stories during my lunch hours, I paid the rent in my early 20s by working at the African research department at Amnesty International‟s headquarters in London.

There in my little office I read hastily scribbled letters smuggled out of totalitarian regimes by men and women who were risking imprisonment to inform the outside world of what was happening to them. I saw photographs of those who had disappeared without trace, sent to Amnesty by their desperate families and friends. I read the testimony of torture victims and saw pictures of their injuries. I opened handwritten, eye-witness accounts of summary trials and executions, of kidnappings and rapes.

Many of my co-workers were ex-political prisoners, people who had been displaced from their homes, or fled into exile, because they had the temerity to speak against their governments. Visitors to our offices included those who had come to give information, or to try and find out what had happened to those they had left behind.

I shall never forget the African torture victim, a young man no older than I was at the time, who had become mentally ill after all he had endured in his homeland. He trembled uncontrollably as he spoke into a video camera about the brutality inflicted upon him. He was a foot taller than I was, and seemed as fragile as a child. I was given the job of escorting him back to the Underground Station afterwards, and this man whose life had

been shattered by cruelty took my hand with exquisite courtesy, and wished me future happiness.

And as long as I live I shall remember walking along an empty corridor and suddenly hearing, from behind a closed door, a scream of pain and horror such as I have never heard since. The door opened, and the researcher poked out her head and told me to run and make a hot drink for the young man sitting with her. She had just had to give him the news that in retaliation for his own outspokenness against his country‟s regime, his mother had been seized and executed.

Every day of my working week in my early 20s I was reminded how incredibly fortunate I was, to live in a country with a democratically elected government, where legal representation and a public trial were the rights of everyone.

Every day, I saw more evidence about the evils humankind will inflict on their fellow humans, to gain or maintain power. I began to have nightmares, literal nightmares, about some of the things I saw, heard, and read.

And yet I also learned more about human goodness at Amnesty International than I had ever known before.

Amnesty mobilises thousands of people who have never been tortured or imprisoned for their beliefs to act on behalf of those who have. The power of human empathy, leading to collective action, saves lives, and frees prisoners. Ordinary people, whose personal well-being and security are assured, join together in huge numbers to save people they do not know, and will never meet. My small participation in that process was one of the most humbling and inspiring experiences of my life.

Unlike any other creature on this planet, humans can learn and understand, without having experienced. They can think themselves into other people‟s places.

Of course, this is a power, like my brand of fictional magic, that is morally neutral. One might use such an ability to manipulate, or control, just as much as to understand or sympathise.

And many prefer not to exercise their imaginations at all. They choose to remain comfortably within the bounds of their own experience, never troubling to wonder how it would feel to have been born other than they are. They can refuse to hear screams or to peer inside cages; they can close their minds and hearts to any suffering that does not touch them personally; they can refuse to know.

I might be tempted to envy people who can live that way, except that I do not think they have any fewer nightmares than I do. Choosing to live in narrow spaces leads to a form of mental agoraphobia, and that brings its own terrors. I think the wilfully unimaginative see more monsters. They are often more afraid.

What is more, those who choose not to empathise enable real monsters. For without ever committing an act of outright evil ourselves, we collude with it, through our own apathy. One of the many things I learned at the end of that Classics corridor down which I ventured at the age of 18, in search of something I could not then define, was this, written by the Greek author Plutarch: What we achieve inwardly will change outer reality.

That is an astonishing statement and yet proven a thousand times every day of our lives. It expresses, in part, our inescapable connection with the outside world, the fact that we touch other people‟s lives simply by existing.

But how much more are you, Harvard graduates of 2008, likely to touch other people‟s lives? Your intelligence, your capacity for hard work, the education you have earned and received, give you unique status, and unique responsibilities. Even your nationality sets you apart. The great majority of you belong to the world‟s only remaining superpower. The way you vote, the way you live, the way you protest, the pressure you bring to bear on your government, has an impact way beyond your borders. That is your privilege, and your burden.

If you choose to use your status and influence to raise your voice on behalf of those who have no voice; if you choose to identify not only with the powerful, but with the powerless; if you retain the ability to imagine yourself into the lives of those who do not have your advantages, then it will not only be your proud families who celebrate your existence, but thousands and millions of people whose reality you have helped change. We do not need magic to change the world, we carry all the power we need inside ourselves already: we have the power to imagine better.

I am nearly finished. I have one last hope for you, which is something that I already had at 21. The friends with whom I sat on graduation day have been my friends for life. They are my children‟s godparents, the people to whom I‟ve been able to turn in times of trouble, people who have been kind enough not to sue me when I took their names for Death Eaters. At our graduation we were bound by enormous affection, by our shared experience of a time that could never come again, and, of course, by the knowledge that we held certain photographic evidence that would be exceptionally valuable if any of us ran for Prime Minister.

So today, I wish you nothing better than similar friendships. And tomorrow, I hope that even if you remember not a single word of mine, you remember those of Seneca, another of those old Romans I met when I fled down the Classics corridor, in retreat from career ladders, in search of ancient wisdom:

As is a tale, so is life: not how long it is, but how good it is, is what matters.

I wish you all very good lives.

Thank you very much.

范文四:哈佛大学校长毕业典礼演讲及中文大意 投稿:曹贡财

哈佛大学校长Summers,在 2006年6月8日第355届毕业典礼上发表告别演讲,“鼓励学生用理性改变世界”。下面是演讲原稿及其中文大意。

2006 Commencement Address

Harvard University President Lawrence H. Summers

Cambridge, Mass.

June 8, 2006

Today, I speak from this podium a final time as your president. As I depart, I want to thank all of you - students, faculty, alumni and staff - with whom I have been privileged to work over these past years. Some of us have had our disagreements, but I know that which unites us transcends that which divides us. I leave with a full heart, grateful for the opportunity I have had to lead this remarkable institution.

Since I delivered my Inaugural address, 56 months ago, I have learned an enormous amount -about higher education, about leadership, and also, about myself. Some things look different to me than they did five years ago. And yet the convictions I expressed as I entered Harvard's presidency I feel with even more urgency these five years later. It is the urgency, and the possibility, of all Harvard can accomplish in the next years that I want to focus on this afternoon.

The world that today's Harvard's graduates are entering is a profoundly different one than the world administrators like me, the faculty, and all but the most recent alumni of Harvard entered.

It is a world where opportunities have never been greater for those who know how to teach children to read, or those who know how to distribute financial risk; never greater for those who understand the cell and the pixel; never greater for those who can master, and navigate between, legal codes, faith traditions, computer platforms, political viewpoints.

It is also a world where some are left further and further behind - those who are not educated, those trapped in poverty and violence, those for whom equal opportunity is just a hollow phrase.

Scientific and technological advances are enabling us to comprehend the furthest reaches of the cosmos, the most basic constituents of matter, and the miracle of life. They offer the prospect of liberating people from drudgery on an unprecedented scale and of eliminating dreaded diseases.

At the same time, today, the actions, and inaction, of human beings imperil not only life on the planet, but the very life of the planet.

Globalization is making the world smaller, faster and richer. One-third of human beings now live in places where the standards of living may increase 30 fold in a single human lifespan - a transformation that dwarfs what we call the Industrial Revolution. Still, 9/11, avian flu, Darfur, and Iran remind us that a smaller, faster world is not necessarily a safer world.

Our world is bursting with knowledge - but desperately in need of wisdom. Now, when sound bites are getting shorter, when instant messages crowd out essays, and when individual lives grow more frenzied, college graduates capable of deep reflection are what our world needs.

For all these reasons I believed - and I believe even more strongly today - in the unique and irreplaceable mission of universities.

Universities are where the wisdom we cannot afford to lose is preserved from generation to generation. Among all human institutions, universities can look beyond present norms to future possibilities, can look through current considerations to emergent opportunities.

And among universities, Harvard stands out. With its great tradition, its iconic reputation, its remarkable network of 300,000 alumni, its unmatched capacity to attract brilliant students and faculty, its scope for physical expansion in Allston and its formidable financial resources, Harvard has never had as much potential as it does now. Thanks to your generosity and the endowment's strong performance, our resources have increased in just the last three years by nearly seven billion dollars. This is more than the total endowment of all but four other universities in the world.

And yet, great and proud institutions, like great and proud nations at their peak, must surmount a very real risk: that the very strength of their traditions will lead to caution, to an inward focus on prerogative and to a complacency that lets the world pass them by.

And so I say to you that our University today is at an inflection point in its history. At such a moment, there is temptation to elevate comfort and consensus over progress and clear direction, but this would be a mistake. The University's matchless resources - human, physical, financial - demand that we seize this moment with vision and boldness. To do otherwise would be a lost opportunity, not only for Harvard but also for humanity. We can spur great deeds that history will mark decades and even centuries from now. If Harvard can find the courage to change itself, it can change the world.

Opportunity

All over the world, and in every corner of America, Harvard's prestige, and wealth, inspires awe. For some, the name Harvard is synonymous with privilege.

In fact, Harvard is a place of great and transforming opportunity. This week we read of a Bronx postman's son whose life was changed by his years of study in this Yard. This man is now to lead one of America's great financial firms. I know that scores of you from every alumni class gathered here have similar stories. When I became president of Harvard, I resolved that, on my watch, we would have more such stories of opportunity to tell.

Thus, in the last five years we have eliminated the necessity of contribution towards tuition for families earning below $60,000 per year. We have seen an increase by a third in the number of

eligible lower- and middle-income students attending Harvard, and even more importantly, we have seen other institutions follow our lead.

Still, when the gap between the life prospects of the children of wealthy parents and those of middle class and poor parents is widening, we have only made a beginning. I look forward to the day when Harvard sets a standard by eliminating any financial burden for lower and middle class families and when students from these backgrounds are fully represented in every Harvard class.

There is more to equal opportunity. Should not every young person have the opportunity to choose a career that, while it may not be lucrative, serves our world - whether it is performing basic research, counseling the troubled, teaching in urban schools, struggling to bring peace to nations, preserving the public health? A university like ours cannot change the distribution of financial rewards in our society. But we can press on to find more financial aid, more ways to support those who commit themselves to service.

We have, in the last years, begun to treat financial aid as a university-wide responsibility, creating new fellowships and increasing the resources available for students who pursue public service. But there is much more to do. I look forward to the day when Harvard sets a standard by insuring that every student with the ability and the drive to study here can pursue a career of service to society without fearing the debt that they will incur.

Science

Ponder this. Within the next 25 years, it is more likely than not that genomics will have led us towards a cure for many cancers; that stem cell research will transform treatment of diabetes, that basic research will make possible a vaccine for Alzheimer's, and that we will have means to control AIDS and malaria.

Draw a circle with a five-mile radius from this point and you encompass the greatest concentration of biomedical talent on earth, and, almost as remarkable, the undeveloped urban real estate capable of making Harvard the world's epicenter of biomedical progress.

Recognizing the potential, we have in the last five years created a Stem Cell Institute to fill the gap left by federal policy and so ensure that this research area - with its promise for diabetes, Parkinson's and much else - is fully explored.

We have launched the Broad Institute for Genomics in collaboration with MIT, and embarked on planning and construction of more than 20 football fields' worth of laboratory space to be devoted to interdisciplinary science in Cambridge and Allston. We have expressed our commitment to scientific education in new undergraduate courses that cut across scientific disciplines, and that focus, too, on the economic, social, and ethical aspects of scientific discovery. And we are on the verge of creating, at last, a new school for engineering and applied science.

All this represents a significant, and rapid, expansion of Harvard's prior investment in science. But there is much, more for Harvard to do. We owe to the next generation, and to our own, every effort we can make.

I look forward to the time when because of Harvard's bold investments and its magnetic power, Boston is to this century what Florence was to the 15th - not the richest or most powerful, but the city that through its contribution to human thought shone the brightest light into posterity. I look forward to the lives we will save.

The World

America today misunderstands the world and is misunderstood in the world in ways without precedent since World War II. A great university like ours has a profoundly important role to play in promoting international understanding.

I know that my own professional path was set by the summer during graduate school I spent in Indonesia. There is no substitute for living abroad if one is to understand another country or even, I dare say, one's own. The number of Harvard College students studying or working abroad has sharply increased over the past few years: now nearly two-thirds of a Harvard class - 1,100 students - will work or study abroad this year.

I look forward to the day when Harvard sets a standard for future leaders of our country by assuring that all students have meaningful international experiences before they graduate.

There is much more to be done, too, in truly integrating Harvard with the world. Students from abroad coming here to study return home changed people, and those they meet here are changed by them. Remember a few years ago the rescue of a doomed Russian submarine crew? This rescue was only made possible by a contact between a Russian admiral and an American admiral - two who never would have communicated if they had not met in a Kennedy School joint military program.

New research offices in major cities on every continent, our agreement with Google for the potential digitization of our entire library collection, our ongoing experiments in distance education - these demonstrate that Harvard can educate far beyond the boundaries of its campus.

A century ago, our Extension School opened these gates to the greater Boston community. I look forward to the day when Harvard fully uses information technology to extend its reach into the entire world.

The College

At the very center of the University lies Harvard College, where, every year, 1,650 of the most impressive students on earth begin their undergraduate educations. In my Inaugural address I called for a comprehensive review and reform of the Harvard College curriculum, for the curriculum had not been addressed in over a generation.

We can take satisfaction that now we do offer freshman seminars for all, and that there now exist faculty-led seminars in many concentrations. We have increased student choice and flexibility within general education and within concentrations, we have begun a much-needed overhaul of our advising system, and we have begun to bring practice in the arts - the creation of music, of visual art, of film and of writing - fully into the Harvard curriculum. I was honored to approve the appointments that have allowed the faculty to grow so rapidly in recent years, and I was especially excited to promote to tenure from within some of the College's most superb teachers.

And yet, we are still short of realizing the truly great curriculum our students are waiting for.

I believe that to realize this curriculum, the Faculty of the College will need to put individual prerogatives behind larger priorities and to embrace new structures and norms of teaching and learning. To provide the closer student-faculty contact our students deserve, faculty will need to take a greater role in leading discussions, in responding to student writing, in advising student concentrators.

They will need to provide the broad introductions to large bodies of knowledge the students are right to demand. They will need to think with vision, and with generosity, across disciplinary borders and their particular purviews to craft a compelling description of just what, in the 21st century, it means to be an educated person. I look forward to the day when Harvard is not just the greatest research university in the world, but is also recognized for providing the best undergraduate education in the world - the day when once again what we do here in this Yard defines the ideal of liberal education.

Conclusion

Yes, I have these last years been a man in hurry. My urgency boils down to this:

For an institution like ours to make the great contributions the world rightly expects of us, we cannot rest complacent on this, the more comfortable side of innovation; on this, the more familiar side of the lectern; or, even, on this, the reassuringly red brick side of the river.

Harvard must - we must - cross over:

Cross over from old disciplines to new;

Cross over from old structures of governance to new;

Cross over from outdated lectures to new active modes of learning,

Cross over from the confines of Harvard Square and put down new, ambitious stakes, in Allston and beyond.

We owe it to those who come after us to become for this city, this region, this nation and this world a center of human improvement.

Our long preeminence must become a spur, not a bar, to our constant transformation.

I am honored to have served as your president during the early days of what I hope - and believe - will be Harvard's greatest epoch. I have loved my work here, and I am sad to leave it. There was much more I wanted, felt inspired, to do. I know, as you do, that there are many within this community who have the wisdom, the love of Harvard, the spirit of service, and the energy that will be necessary to mount the collective efforts that this moment in history demands.

I bid you farewell with faith that even after 370 years, with the courage to change, Harvard's greatest contributions lie in its future.

今天,我将以校长的身份,最后一次在这个讲台上演讲。即将离任前,我要感谢诸位学生、教师、校友和员工,而且非常荣幸在过去的5年里能与你们共事。我们中的一些人意见不尽相同, 但是,我知道,我们的共识远远超越分歧。

在我看来,现在于5年前不同了。今天的哈佛毕业生正在进入的世界和管理人员当年所进入的世界相比已是大相径庭了。

现今世界,机遇对于这些人来说是空前的:他们知道如何教子女阅读;他们知道如何组合投资;他们懂得计算机科学基本存储单元和像素概念;他们能掌握各种法典、传统信仰、计算机平台、政治观点并在其中游刃有余。

同时,现今世界,一些人越来越落后于时代。这些人没受过教育、深陷于贫穷和暴力、平等机遇对他们而言,仅是一句空话。

科技进步正在使我们能够探索宇宙的边陲、物质最基本的成分及生命的奇迹。

与此同时,今天,人类所做的及没能做到的事情,不仅危害到这个星球上的生命,也危害到该星球的寿命。

全球化正在使地球变得愈来愈小、愈来愈快和愈来愈富有。尽管如此,9/11、禽流感及伊朗提醒我们,更小更快的世界决不意味着其更安全。

我们正处于一个知识爆炸的世界之中,不过,迫切需要智慧。现在,在(新闻采访的)原声摘要播出变得愈来愈短,即时信息淘汰了杂记文,个人生活变得如痴如狂之际,这个世界还是需要能够深思的大学生。

考虑到这些理由,我过去信仰,而今天甚至更加强烈地信仰大学独特的、无可取代的使命。 大学是人类把不可或缺的智慧世代流传的殿堂。就人类所有公共机构而言,仅仅大学,能够超越当前的准则,注意到未来的可能性;能通过目前的判断,注意到突发的机遇。

哈佛在大学中间,鹤立鸡群。凭其伟大的传统、因袭声誉及其非凡的300000校友网,哈佛的潜力前所未有。

可是,就像伟大和自豪的国家在其鼎盛时期一样,它们必须克服一个完全不能掉以轻心的危险因素:它们传统的绝对强势将会导致谨小慎微、追求内部特权及自满,这将使它们不能与时俱进。

今天,哈佛正处于其历史的转折点。此时此刻的自然倾向是,把贪图舒适和随波逐流留凌驾于进步和方向性之上,但,这可能是错误的。大学无与伦比的资源——人、财、物——要求我们远见卓识和勇敢地抓住这个时机,否则,将会坐失良机。我们能推动将会被历史永世铭记的伟大的事业。如果哈佛能找到勇气来改变自己,它就能改变世界。

范文五:罗琳在哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲J 投稿:董瓰瓱

罗琳在哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲J·K·

作者: 阮一峰

日期: 2008年6月17日

一、

今年6月5日是哈佛大学的毕业典礼,请来的演讲嘉宾是《哈利波特》的作者J.K.罗琳女士。

她的演讲题目是《失败的好处和想象的重要性》(The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination)。我读了一遍讲稿,觉得很好,很感染人。

她几乎没有谈到哈里波特,而是说了年轻时的一些经历。虽然J·K·罗琳现在很有钱,是英国仅次于女皇的最富有的女人,但是她曾经有一段非常艰辛的日子,30岁了,还差点流落街头。她主要谈的是,自己从这段经历中学到的东西。

去年的演讲嘉宾是比尔·盖茨,我翻译了他的演讲,影响挺大。今年,我只翻译了一部分,有兴趣的朋友可以在网上找到全部原文和视频。

二、

她首先回忆了自己大学毕业的情景:

I was convinced that the only thing I wanted to do, ever, was to write novels. However, my parents, both of whom came from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that could never pay a mortgage, or secure a pension.

当时,我只想去写小说。但是,我的父母出身贫寒,没有受过大学教育。他们认为,我那些不安分的想象力只是一种怪癖,根本不能用来还房贷,或者挣来养老金。

They had hoped that I would take a vocational degree; I wanted to study English Literature. A compromise was reached that in retrospect satisfied nobody, and I went up to study Modern Languages. Hardly had my parents’ car rounded the corner at the end of the road than I ditched German and scuttled off down the Classics corridor.

他们希望我再去读个专业学位,而我想去攻读英国文学。最后,达成了一个双方都不甚满意的妥协:

我改学外语。可是等到父母一走开,我立刻报名学习古典文学。

I cannot remember telling my parents that I was studying Classics; they might well have found out for the first time on graduation day. Of all subjects on this planet, I think they would have been hard put to name one less useful than Greek mythology when it came to securing the keys to an executive bathroom.

我不记得将这事告诉了父母。他们可能是在毕业典礼那一天才发现的。我想,在全世界的所有专业中,他们也许认为,不会有比研究希腊神话更没用的专业了,根本无法换来一间独立的宽敞卫生间。

I would like to make it clear, in parenthesis, that I do not blame my parents for their point of view. ... I cannot criticise my parents for hoping that I would never experience poverty. They had been poor themselves, and I have since been poor, and I quite agree with them that it is not an ennobling experience. Poverty entails fear, and stress, and sometimes depression; it means a thousand petty humiliations and hardships. Climbing out of poverty by your own efforts, that is indeed something on which to pride yourself, but poverty itself is romanticised only by fools.

我要申明,我并不责怪父母。„„他们只是希望我不要过穷日子,我不能批评他们。他们自己很穷,我后来一度也很穷,所以我很理解他们,贫穷是一种悲惨的经历。它带来恐惧、压力、有时还有抑郁。它意味着许许多多的羞辱和艰辛。靠自己的努力摆脱贫穷,确实让人自豪,但是只有傻瓜才会将贫穷本身浪漫化。

接着,她谈到了自己那些最悲惨的日子:

A mere seven years after my graduation day, I had failed on an epic scale.

我毕业后只过了7年,就失败得一塌糊涂。

An exceptionally short-lived marriage had imploded, and I was jobless, a lone parent, and as poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless. The fears my parents had had for me, and that I had had for myself, had both come to pass, and by every usual standard, I was the biggest failure I knew.

短命的婚姻闪电般地破裂,我还失业了,成了一个艰难的单身母亲。除了流浪汉,我是当代英国最穷的人之一,真的一无所有。我父母对我的担忧,我对自己的担忧,都变成了现实。用平常人的标准,我是我所知道的最失败的人。

That period of my life was a dark one. I had no idea how far the tunnel extended, and for a long time, any light at the end of it was a hope rather than a reality.

那段日子是我生命中的黑暗岁月。我不知道还要在黑暗中走多久,很长一段时间中,我有的只是希

望,而不是现实。

但是,J.K. 罗琳认为,没有那段日子的失败,就不会有后来的她。

So why do I talk about the benefits of failure? Simply because failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy into finishing the only work that mattered to me.

为什么我说失败是有好处的?因为失败将那些非本质的东西都剥离了。我不再伪装自己,我找到了真正的我,我将自己所有的精力,投入完成对我最重要的唯一一项工作。

Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one arena I believed I truly belonged.

要是我以前在其他地方成功了,那么我也许永远不会有这样的决心,投身于这个我自信真正属于我的领域。

I was set free, because my greatest fear had already been realised, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter and a big idea. And so rock bottom became the solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life.

我自由了,因为我最大的恐惧已经成为现实,而我却还依然活着,依然有一个深爱着的女儿,我还有一台旧打字机和一个大大的梦想。我生命中最低的低点,成为我重建生活的坚实基础。

Failure gave me an inner security that I had never attained by passing examinations. Failure taught me things about myself that I could have learned no other way. I discovered that I had a strong will, and more discipline than I had suspected; I also found out that I had friends whose value was truly above rubies.

失败使我的内心产生一种安全感,以前通过考试也没有的安全感。失败让我看清自己,以前我从没认识到自己是这样的。我发现,我比自己以为的,有更强的意志和决心。我还发现,我有一些比宝石更珍贵的朋友。

You will never truly know yourself, or the strength of your relationships, until both have been tested by adversity. Such knowledge is a true gift, for all that it is painfully won, and it has been worth more to me than any qualification I ever earned.

只有到逆境来临的那一天,你才会真正了解你自己,了解你结识的人。这种了解是真正的财富,虽然是用痛苦换来的,但是它比我以前得到的任何证书都有用。

在演说的下半部分,她还谈了毕业后在大*赦*国*际(Amnesty International)伦敦总部的第一份工作。这部分内容也很精彩,不过我就不翻译了,大家可以去看原文。

三、

我要重点谈的,是演说的结尾部分。

一般来说,在演讲结束时,嘉宾将对毕业生提出期望。我们可以看到,在这种场合,几乎所有嘉宾,都没有说“祝愿同学们取得个人成功”,而是说“希望同学们努力去减轻人类的苦难”。

比尔·盖茨去年说:

Should Harvard encourage its faculty to take on the world's worst inequities? Should Harvard students learn about the depth of global poverty … the prevalence of world hunger … the scarcity of clean water …the girls kept out of school … the children who die from diseases we can cure?

哈佛是否鼓励她的老师去研究解决世界上最严重的不平等?哈佛的学生是否从全球那些极端的贫穷中学到了什么„„世界性的饥荒„„清洁的水资源的缺乏„„无法上学的女童„„死于非恶性疾病的儿童„„哈佛的学生有没有从中学到东西?

Should the world's most privileged people learn about the lives of the world's least privileged?

那些世界上过着最优越生活的人们,有没有从那些最困难的人们身上学到东西?

These are not rhetorical questions – you will answer with your policies.

这些问题并非语言上的修辞。你必须用自己的行动来回答它们。

When you consider what those of us here in this Yard have been given – in talent, privilege, and opportunity – there is almost no limit to what the world has a right to expect from us.

想一想吧,我们在这个院子里的这些人,被给予过什么——天赋、特权、机遇——那么可以这样说,全世界的人们几乎有无限的权力,期待我们做出贡献。

J.K.罗琳今年说:

the fact that you are graduating from Harvard suggests that you are not very well-acquainted with failure. You might be driven by a fear of failure quite as much as a desire for success. Indeed, your conception of failure might not be too far from the average person’s idea of success, so high have you already flown

academically.

你们是哈佛毕业生的这个事实,说明你们并不很了解失败。你们也许极其渴望成功,所以非常害怕失败。说实话,你们眼中的失败,很可能就是普通人眼中的成功,毕竟你们在学业上已经很成功了。

But how much more are you, Harvard graduates of 2008, likely to touch other people’s lives? Your intelligence, your capacity for hard work, the education you have earned and received, give you unique status, and unique responsibilities.…… That is your privilege, and your burden.

但是,所有各位哈佛大学2008届毕业生,你们对其他人的生活了解多少?你们的智慧、你们的能力、你们所受的教育,给了你们独一无二的优势,也给了你们独一无二的责任。„„你们的优势就是你们的责任。

If you choose to use your status and influence to raise your voice on behalf of those who have no voice; if you choose to identify not only with the powerful, but with the powerless; if you retain the ability to imagine yourself into the lives of those who do not have your advantages, then it will not only be your proud families who celebrate your existence, but thousands and millions of people whose reality you have helped transform for the better.

你们要用自己的地位和影响,为那些被忽略的人们说话;你们不仅要看到那些有权有势者,也要看到那些无权无势者;你们要学会设想,那些条件不如你们的人们是如何生活的;那样的话,不仅你们的亲人们将为你们感到自豪,而且千千万万的人们将因为你们的帮助而生活得更好。

We do not need magic to change the world, we carry all the power we need inside ourselves already: we have the power to imagine better.

我们不需要改变世界的魔法,我们自己的体内就有这样的力量:那就是我们一直在梦想,让这个世界变得更美好。

(完)

范文六:何江在哈佛大学2016毕业典礼上的演讲 投稿:吕慲慳

何江在哈佛大学2016毕业典礼上的演讲(中英版)

我读初中的时候,有一次,一只毒蜘蛛咬伤了我的右手。我问我妈妈该怎么处理---我妈妈并没有带我去看医生,她而是决定用火疗的方法治疗我的伤口。 她在我的手上包了好几层棉花,棉花上喷撒了白酒,在我的嘴里放了一双筷子,然后打火点燃了棉花。热量逐渐渗透过棉花,开始炙烤我的右手。灼烧的疼痛让我忍不住想喊叫,可嘴里的筷子却让我发不出声来。我只能看着我的手被火烧着,一分钟,两分钟,直到妈妈熄灭了火苗。

你看,我在中国的农村长大,在那个时候,我的村庄还是一个类似前工业时代的传统村落。在我出生的时候,我的村子里面没有汽车,没有电话,没有电,甚至也没有自来水。我们自然不能轻易的获得先进的现代医疗资源。那个时候也没有一个合适的医生可以来帮我处理蜘蛛咬伤的伤口。

在座的如果有生物背景的人,你们或许已经理解到了我妈妈使用的这个简单的治疗手段的基本原理:高热可以让蛋白质变性,而蜘蛛的毒液也是一种蛋白质。这样一种传统的土方法实际上有它一定的理论依据,想来也是挺有意思的。但是,作为哈佛大学生物化学的博士,我现在知道在我初中那个时候,已经有更好的,没有那么痛苦的,也没有那么有风险的治疗方法了。于是我便忍不住会问自己,为什么我在当时没有能够享用到这些更为先进的治疗方法呢?

蜘蛛咬伤的事故已经过去大概十五年了。我非常高兴的向在座的各位报告一下,我的手还是完好的。但是,我刚刚提到的这个问题这些年来一直停在我的脑海中,而我也时不时会因为先进科技知识在世界上不同地区的不平等分布而困扰。现如今,我们人类已经学会怎么进行人类基因编辑了,也研究清楚了很多个癌症发生发展的原因。我们甚至可以利用一束光来控制我们大脑内神经元的活动。每年生物医学的研究都会给我们带来不一样突破和进步——其中有不少令人振奋,也极具革命颠覆性的成果。

然而,尽管我们人类已经在科研上有了无数的建树,在怎样把这些最前沿的科学研究带到世界最需要该技术的地区这件事情上,我们有时做的差强人意。世

界银行的数据显示,世界上大约有12%的人口每天的生活水平仍然低于2美元。营养不良每年导致三百万儿童死亡。将近3亿人口仍然受到疟疾的干扰。在世界各地,我们经常看到类似的由贫穷,疾病和自然匮乏导致的科学知识传播的受阻。现代社会里习以为常的那些救生常识经常在这些欠发达或不发达地区未能普及。于是,在世界上仍有很多地区,人们只能依赖于用火疗这一简单粗暴的方式来治理蜘蛛咬伤事故。

在哈佛读书期间,我有切身体会到先进的科技知识能够既简单又深远的帮助到社会上很多的人。本世纪初的时候,禽流感在亚洲多个国家肆虐。那个时候,村庄里的农民听到禽流感就像听到恶魔施咒一样,对其特别的恐惧。乡村的土医疗方法对这样一个疾病也是束手无策。农民对于普通感冒和流感的区别并不是很清楚,他们并不懂得流感比普通感冒可能更加致命。而且,大部分人对于科学家所发现的流感病毒能够跨不同物种传播这一事实并不清楚。

于是,在我意识到这些知识背景,及简单的将受感染的不同物种隔离开来以减缓疾病传播,并决定将这些知识传递到我的村庄时,我的心里第一次有了一种作为未来科学家的使命感。但这种使命感不只停在知识层面,它也是我个人道德发展的重要转折点,我自我理解的作为国际社会一员的责任感。

哈佛的教育教会我们学生敢于拥有自己的梦想,勇于立志改变世界。在毕业典礼这样一个特别的日子,我们在座的毕业生都会畅想我们未来的伟大征程和冒险。对我而言,我在此刻不可避免的还会想到我的家乡。我成长的经历教会了我作为一个科学家,积极的将我们所会的知识传递给那些急需这些知识的人是多么的重要。因为利用那些我们已经拥有的科技知识,我们能够轻而易举的帮助我的家乡,还有千千万万类似的村庄,让他们生活的世界变成一个我们现代社会看起来习以为常的场所,而这样一件事,是我们每一个毕业生都能够做的,也力所能及能够做到的。

但问题是,我们愿意来做这样的努力吗?

比以往任何时候都多,我们的社会强调科学和创新。但我们社会同样需要注意的一个重心是分配知识到那些真正需要的地方。改变世界并不意味着每个人都要做一个大突破。改变世界可以非常简单。它可以简单得变成作为世界不同地区的沟通者,并找出更多创造性的方法将知识传递给像我母亲或农民这样

的群体。同时,改变世界也意味着我们的社会,作为一个整体,能够更清醒的认识到科技知识的更加均衡的分布,是人类社会发展的一个关键环节,而我们也能够一起奋斗将此目标变成现实。

如果我们能够做到这些,或许,将来有一天,一个在农村被毒蜘蛛咬伤的少年或许不用火疗这样粗暴的方法来治疗伤口,而是去看医生得到更为先进的医疗护理。

The Spider’s Bite

When I was in middle school, a poisonous spider bit my right hand. I ran to my mom for help—but instead of taking me to a doctor, my mom set my hand on fire.

After wrapping my hand withseveral layers of cotton, then soaking it in wine, she put a chopstick into my mouth,and ignited the cotton. Heat quickly penetrated the cotton and began to roast my hand. The searing pain made me want to scream, but the chopstick prevented it. All I could do was watch my hand burn - one minute, then two minutes –until mom put out the fire.

You see, the part of China I grew up in was a rural village, and at that time pre-industrial. When I was born, my village had no cars, no telephones, no electricity, not even running water. And we certainly didn’t have access to

modern medical resources. There was no doctor my mother could bring me to see about my spider bite.

For those who study biology, you may have grasped the science behind my mom’s cure: heat deactivates proteins, and a spider’s venom is simply a form of protein. It’s coolhow that folk remedy actually incorporates basic

biochemistry, isn’t it? But I am a PhD student in biochemistry at Harvard, I now know that better, less painful and less risky treatments existed. So I can’t help but ask myself, why I didn’t receive oneat the time?

Fifteen years have passed since that incident. I am happy to report that my hand is fine. But this question lingers, and I continue to be troubled by the unequal distribution of scientific knowledge throughout the world. We have learned to edit the human genome and unlock many secrets of how cancer progresses. We can manipulate neuronal activity literally with the switch of a light. Each year brings more advances in biomedical research-exciting, transformative accomplishments. Yet, despite the knowledge we have

amassed, we haven’t been so successful in deploying it to where it’s needed most. According to the World Bank, twelve percent of the world’s population lives on less than $2 a day. Malnutrition kills more than 3 million children

annually. Three hundred million peopleare afflicted by malaria globally. All over the world, we constantly see these problems of poverty, illness, and lack of resources impeding the flow of scientific information. Lifesaving knowledge we take for granted in the modern world is often unavailable in these

underdeveloped regions.And in far too many places, people are still essentially trying to cure a spider bite with fire.

While studying at Harvard, I saw how scientific knowledge can help others in simple, yet profound ways. The bird flu pandemic in the 2000s looked to my village like a spell cast by demons. Our folk medicine didn’t even have half-measures to offer. What’s more, farmers didn’t know the difference between common cold and flu; they didn’t understand that the flu was much more lethal than the common cold. Most people were also unaware that the virus could transmit across different species.

So when I realized that simple hygiene practices like separating different animal species could contain the spread of the disease, and that I could help make this knowledge available to my village, that was my first ―Aha‖ moment as a budding scientist. But it was more than that: it was also a vital inflection point in my own ethical development, my own self-understanding as a member of the global community.

Harvard dares us to dream big, to aspire to change the world. Here on this Commencement Day, we are probably thinking of grand destinations and big

adventures that await us. As for me, I am also thinking of the farmers in my village. My experiencehere reminds me how important it is for researchersto communicateour knowledge to those who need it. Because by using the sciencewe already have, we could probably bring my village and thousands like it into the world you and I take for granted every day. And that’s an impact every one of us can make!

But the question is, will we make the effort or not?

More than ever before,our society emphasizes science and innovation. But an equally important emphasis should be on distributing the knowledge we have to where it’s needed. Changing the world doesn’t mean thateveryone has to find the next big thing. It can be as simple as becoming better

communicators, and finding more creative ways to pass on the knowledge we have to people like my mom and the farmers in their local community. Our society also needs to recognize that the equal distribution of knowledge is a pivotal step of human development, and work to bring this into reality.

And if we do that, then perhaps a teenager in rural China who is bitten by a spider will not have to burn his hand, but will know to seek a doctor instead

范文七:比尔·盖茨哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲(三) 投稿:郭丰丱

比尔·盖茨哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲(三)
2007-8-3 8:24

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  During our discussions on this question, Melinda and I read an article about the millions of children who were dying every year in poor countries from diseases that we had long ago made harmless in this country. Measles, malaria, pneumonia, hepatitis B, yellow fever. One disease I had never even heard of, rotavirus, was killing half a million kids each year – none of them in the United States.

  在讨论过程中,Melinda和我读到了一篇文章,里面说在那些贫穷的国家,每年有数百万的儿童死于那些在美国早已不成问题的疾病。麻疹、疟疾、肺 炎、乙型肝炎、黄热病、还有一种以前我从未听说过的轮状病毒,这些疾病每年导致50万儿童死亡,但是在美国一例死亡病例也没有。

  We were shocked. We had just assumed that if millions of children were dying and they could be saved, the world would make it a priority to discover and deliver the medicines to save them. But it did not. For under a dollar, there were interventions that could save lives that just weren't being delivered.

  我们被震惊了。我们想,如果几百万儿童正在死亡线上挣扎,而且他们是可以被挽救的,那么世界理应将用药物拯救他们作为头等大事。但是事实并非如此。那些价格还不到一美元的救命的药剂,并没有送到他们的手中。

  If you believe that every life has equal value, it's revolting to learn that some lives are seen as worth saving and others are not. We said to ourselves: 够发出声音。

  We can make market forces work better for the poor if we can develop a more creative capitalism – if we can stretch the reach of market forces so that more people can make a profit, or at least make a living, serving people who are suffering from the worst inequities. We also can press governments around the world to spend taxpayer money in ways that better reflect the values of the people who pay the taxes.

  我们可以让市场更好地为穷人服务,如果我们能够设计出一种更有创新性的资本主义制度——如果我们可以改变市场,让更多的人可以获得利润,或者至少可 以维持生活——那么,这就可以帮到那些正在极端不平等的状况中受苦的人们。我们还可以向全世界的政府施压,要求他们将纳税人的钱,花到更符合纳税人价值观 的地方。

  If we can find approaches that meet the needs of the poor in ways that generate profits for business and votes for politicians, we will have found a sustainable way to reduce inequity in the world. This task is open-ended. It can never be finished. But a conscious effort to answer this challenge will change the world.

  如果我们能够找到这样一种方法,既可以帮到穷人,又可以为商人带来利润,为政治家带来选票,那么我们就找到了一种减少世界性不平等的可持续的发展道路。这个任务是无限的。它不可能被完全完成,但是任何自觉地解决这个问题的尝试,都将会改变这个世界。

  I am optimistic that we can do this, but I talk to skeptics who claim there is no hope. They say: 类的冷漠,而是世界实在太复杂。

  To turn caring into action, we need to see a problem, see a solution, and see the impact. But complexity blocks all three steps.

  为了将关心转变为行动,我们需要找到问题,发现解决办法的方法,评估后果。但是世界的复杂性使得所有这些步骤都难于做到。

  Even with the advent of the Internet and 24-hour news, it is still a complex enterprise to get people to truly see the problems. When an airplane crashes, officials immediately call a press conference. They promise to investigate, determine the cause, and prevent similar crashes in the future.

  即使有了互联网和24小时直播的新闻台,让人们真正发现问题所在,仍然十分困难。当一架飞机坠毁了,官员们会立刻召开新闻发布会,他们承诺进行调查、找到原因、防止将来再次发生类似事故。

  But if the officials were brutally honest, they would say:

范文八:哈佛大学毕业典礼演讲J.K罗琳 投稿:刘挻挼

2008年J.K.罗琳在哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲:失败的好处和想象力的重要性
The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination
Harvard University Commencement Address
J.K. Rowling
Tercentenary Theatre, June 5, 2008
失败的好处和想象力的重要性
哈佛大学毕业典礼
J.K. 罗琳
2008年6月5日
J K Rowling speaking at Harvard Commencement.
Video of J K Rowling's Commencement Address, “The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination,” at the Annual Meeting of the Harvard Alumni Association on June 5th 2008. In this powerful, moving, yet also funny speech Jo talks about her time working for Amnesty International, her personal experiences with failure and the power of the imagination to allow us to empathize with others.

President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers,
members of the faculty, proud parents, and, above all, graduates,

福斯特主席,哈佛公司和监察委员会的各位成员,
各位老师、家长、全体毕业生们:
The first thing I would like to say is ck. Achievable goals - the first step to self-improvement.
你们看,如果在若干年后你们还记得“快乐的魔法师”这个笑话,那就证明我已经超越了Baroness Mary Warnock。建立可实现的目标——这是提高自我的第一步。
Actually, I have wracked my mind and heart for what I ought to say to you today. I have asked myself what I wish I had known at my own graduation, and what important lessons I have learned in the 21 years that has expired between that day and this.
实际上,我为今天应该和大家谈些什么绞尽了脑汁。我问自己什么是我希望早在毕业典礼上就该了解的,而从那时起到现在的21年间,我又得到了什么重要的启示。
I have come up with two answers. On this wonderful day when we are gathered together to celebrate your academic success, I have decided to talk to you about the benefits of failure. And as you stand on the threshold of what is sometimes called 'real life', I want to extol the crucial importance of imagination.
我想到了两个答案。在这美好的一天,当我们一起庆祝你们取得学业成就的时刻,我希望告诉你们失败有什么样的益处;在你们即将迈向“现实生活”的道路之际,我还要褒扬想象力的重要性。
These may seem quixotic or paradoxical choices, but bear with me.
这些似乎是不切实际或自相矛盾的选择,但请先容我讲完。
Looking back at the 21-year-old that I was at graduation, is a slightly uncomfortable experience for the 42-year-old that she has become. Half my lifetime ago, I was striking an uneasy balance between the ambition I had for myself, and what those closest to me expected of me.
回顾21岁刚刚毕业时的自己,对于今天42岁的我来说,是一个稍微不太舒服的经历。可以说,我人生的前一部分,一直挣扎在自己的雄心和身边的人对我的期望之间。
I was convinced that the only thing I wanted to do, ever, was to write novels. However, my parents, both of whom came from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that could never pay a mortgage, or secure a pension.
我一直深信,自己唯一想做的事情,就是写小说。不过,我的父母,他们都来自贫穷的背景,没有任何一人上过大学,坚持认为我过度的想象力是一个令人惊讶的个人怪癖,根本不足以让我支付按揭,或者取得足够的养老金。
I know the irony strikes like with the force of a cartoon anvil now, but…
我现在明白反讽就像用卡通铁砧去打击你,但...
They had hoped that I would take a vocational degree; I wanted to study English Literature. A compromise was reached that in retrospect satisfied nobody, and I went up to study Modern Languages. Hardly had my parents' car rounded the corner at the end of the road than I ditched German and scu
ttled off down the Classics corridor.
他们希望我去拿个职业学位,而我想去攻读英国文学。最后,达成了一个双方都不甚满意的妥协:我改学现代语言。可是等到父母一走开,我立刻放弃了德语而报名学习古典文学。
I cannot remember telling my parents that I was studying Classics; they might well have found out for the first time on graduation day. Of all the subjects on this planet, I think they would have been hard put to name one less useful than Greek mythology when it came to securing the keys to an executive bathroom.
我不记得将这事告诉了父母,他们可能是在我毕业典礼那一天才发现的。我想,在全世界的所有专业中,他们也许认为,不会有比研究希腊神话更没用的专业了,根本无法换来一间独立宽敞的卫生间。
I would like to make it clear, in parenthesis, that I do not blame my parents for their point of view. There is an expiry date on blaming your parents for steering you in the wrong direction; the moment you are old enough to take the wheel, responsibility lies with you. What is more, I cannot criticise my parents for hoping that I would never experience poverty. They had been poor themselves, and I have since been poor, and I quite agree with them that it is not an ennobling experience. Poverty entails fear, and stress, and sometimes depression; it means a thousand petty humiliations and hardships. Climbing out of poverty by your own efforts, that is indeed something on which to pride yourself, but poverty itself is romanticised only by fools.
我想澄清一下:我不会因为父母的观点,而责怪他们。埋怨父母给你指错方向是有一个时间段的。当你成长到可以控制自我方向的时候,你就要自己承担责任了。尤其是,我不会因为父母希望我不要过穷日子,而责怪他们。他们一直很贫穷,我后来也一度很穷,所以我很理解他们。贫穷并不是一种高贵的经历,它带来恐惧、压力、有时还有绝望,它意味着许许多多的羞辱和艰辛。靠自己的努力摆脱贫穷,确实可以引以自豪,但贫穷本身只有对傻瓜而言才是浪漫的。
What I feared most for myself at your age was not poverty, but failure.
我在你们这个年龄,最害怕的不是贫穷,而是失败。
At your age, in spite of a distinct lack of motivation at university, where I had spent far too long in the coffee bar writing stories, and far too little time at lectures, I had a knack for passing examinations, and that, for years, had been the measure of success in my life and that of my peers.
我在您们这么大时,明显缺乏在大学学习的动力,我花了太久时间在咖啡吧写故事,而在课堂的时间却很少。我有一个通过考试的诀窍,并且数年间一直让我在大学生活和同龄人中不落人后。
I am not dull enough to suppose that because you are young, gifted
and well-educated, you have never known hardship or heartbreak. Talent and intelligence never yet inoculated anyone against the caprice of the Fates, and I do not for a moment suppose that everyone here has enjoyed an existence of unruffled privilege and contentment.
我不想愚蠢地假设,因为你们年轻、有天份,并且受过良好的教育,就从来没有遇到困难或心碎的时刻。拥有才华和智慧,从来不会使人对命运的反复无常有所准备;我也不会假设大家坐在这里冷静地满足于自身的优越感。
However, the fact that you are graduating from Harvard suggests that you are not very well-acquainted with failure. You might be driven by a fear of failure quite as much as a desire for success. Indeed, your conception of failure might not be too far from the average person's idea of success, so high have you already flown academically.
相反,你们是哈佛毕业生的这个事实,意味着你们并不很了解失败。你们也许极其渴望成功,所以非常害怕失败。说实话,你们眼中的失败,很可能就是普通人眼中的成功,毕竟你们在学业上已经达到很高的高度了。
Ultimately, we all have to decide for ourselves what constitutes failure, but the world is quite eager to give you a set of criteria if you let it. So I think it fair to say that by any conventional measure, a mere seven years after my graduation day, I had failed on an epic scale. An exceptionally short-lived marriage had imploded, and I was jobless, a lone parent, and as poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless. The fears my parents had had for me, and that I had had for myself, had both come to pass, and by every usual standard, I was the biggest failure I knew.
最终,我们所有人都必须自己决定什么算作失败,但如果你愿意,世界是相当渴望给你一套标准的。所以我承认命运的公平,从任何传统的标准看,在我毕业仅仅七年后的日子里,我的失败达到了史诗般空前的规模:短命的婚姻闪电般地破裂,我又失业成了一个艰难的单身母亲。除了流浪汉,我是当代英国最穷的人之一,真的一无所有。当年父母和我自己对未来的担忧,现在都变成了现实。按照惯常的标准来看,我也是我所知道的最失败的人。
Now, I am not going to stand here and tell you that failure is fun. That period of my life was a dark one, and I had no idea that there was going to be what the press has since represented as a kind of fairy tale resolution. I had no idea how far the tunnel extended, and for a long time, any light at the end of it was a hope rather than a reality.
现在,我不打算站在这里告诉你们,失败是有趣的。那段日子是我生命中的黑暗岁月,我不知道它是否代表童话故事里需要历经的磨难,更不知道自己还要在黑暗中走多久。很长一段时间里,前面
留给我的只是希望,而不是现实。
So why do I talk about the benefits of failure? Simply because failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy into finishing the only work that mattered to me. Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one arena I believed I truly belonged. I was set free, because my greatest fear had already been realised, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter and a big idea. And so rock bottom became the solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life.
那么为什么我要谈论失败的好处呢?因为失败意味着剥离掉那些不必要的东西。我因此不再伪装自己、远离自我,而重新开始把所有精力放在对我最重要的事情上。如果不是没有在其他领域成功过,我可能就不会找到,在一个我确信真正属于的舞台上取得成功的决心。我获得了自由,因为最害怕的虽然已经发生了,但我还活着,我仍然有一个我深爱的女儿,我还有一个旧打字机和一个很大的想法。所以困境的谷底,成为我重建生活的坚实基础。

范文九:J·K·罗琳在哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲 投稿:覃骫骬

一、

不知道大家是否还有印象,在去年的哈佛大学的毕业典礼上请来的演讲嘉宾是比尔·盖茨,而今年6月5日,请来的演讲嘉宾则换成了《哈利波特》的作者J.K.罗琳女士。

本次她的演讲题目是《失败的好处和想象的重要性》(The Fringe Benefits of Failure, and the Importance of Imagination)。我觉得这是一篇很能感染人的讲演稿,所以我觉得有必要和大家共同分享一下。

在讲演的过程当中,她几乎没有谈到哈里波特,而是说了年轻时的一些经历。虽然J·K·罗琳现在很有钱,是英国仅次于女皇的最富有的女人,但是她曾经有一段非常艰辛的日子,30岁了,还差点流落街头。她主要谈的是,自己从这段经历中学到的东西。

二、

她首先回忆了自己大学毕业的情景:

I was convinced that the only thing I wanted to do, ever, was to write novels. However, my parents, both of whom came from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that could never pay a mortgage, or secure a pension.

当时,我只想去写小说。但是,我的父母出身贫寒,没有受过大学教育。他们认为,我那些不安分的想象力只是一种怪癖,根本不能用来还房贷,或者挣来养老金。

They had hoped that I would take a vocational degree; I wanted to study English Literature. A compromise was reached that in retrospect satisfied nobody, and I went up to study Modern Languages. Hardly had my parents’ car rounded the corner at the end of the road than I ditched German and scuttled off down the Classics corridor.

他们希望我再去读个专业学位,而我想去攻读英国文学。最后,达成了一个双方都不甚满意的妥协:我改学外语。可是等到父母一走开,我立刻报名学习古典文学。

I cannot remember telling my parents that I was studying Classics; they might well have found out for the first time on graduation day. Of all subjects on this planet, I think they would have been hard put to name one less useful than Greek mythology when it came to securing the keys to an executive bathroom.

我不记得将这事告诉了父母。他们可能是在毕业典礼那一天才发现的。我想,在全世界的所有专业中,他们也许认为,不会有比研究希腊神话更没用的专业了,根本无法换来一间独立的宽敞卫生间。

I would like to make it clear, in parenthesis, that I do not blame my parents for their point of view. ... I cannot criticise my parents for hoping that I would never experience poverty. They had been poor themselves, and I have since been poor, and I quite agree with them that it is not an ennobling

experience. Poverty entails fear, and stress, and sometimes depression; it means a thousand petty humiliations and hardships. Climbing out of poverty by your own efforts, that is indeed something on which to pride yourself, but poverty itself is romanticised only by fools.

我要声明,我并不责怪父母。……他们只是希望我不要过穷日子,我不能批评他们。他们自己很穷,我后来一度也很穷,所以我很理解他们,贫穷是一种悲惨的经历。它带来恐惧、压力、有时还有抑郁。它意味着许许多多的羞辱和艰辛。靠自己的努力摆脱贫穷,确实让人自豪,但是只有傻瓜才会将贫穷本身浪漫化。

接着,她谈到了自己那些最悲惨的日子:

A mere seven years after my graduation day, I had failed on an epic scale.

我毕业后只过了7年,就失败得一塌糊涂。

An exceptionally short-lived marriage had imploded, and I was jobless, a lone parent, and as poor as it is possible to be in modern Britain, without being homeless. The fears my parents had had for me, and that I had had for myself, had both come to pass, and by every usual standard, I was the biggest failure I knew.

短命的婚姻闪电般地破裂,我还失业了,成了一个艰难的单身母亲。除了流浪汉,我是当代英国最穷的人之一,真的一无所有。我父母对我的担忧,我对自己的担忧,都变成了现实。用平常人的标准,我是我所知道的最失败的人。

That period of my life was a dark one. I had no idea how far the tunnel extended, and for a long time, any light at the end of it was a hope rather than a reality.

那段日子是我生命中的黑暗岁月。我不知道还要在黑暗中走多久,很长一段时间中,我有的只是希望,而不是现实。

但是,J.K. 罗琳认为,没有那段日子的失败,就不会有后来的她。

So why do I talk about the benefits of failure? Simply because failure meant a stripping away of the inessential. I stopped pretending to myself that I was anything other than what I was, and began to direct all my energy into finishing the only work that mattered to me.

为什么我说失败是有好处的?因为失败将那些非本质的东西都剥离了。我不再伪装自己,我找到了真正的我,我将自己所有的精力,投入完成对我最重要的唯一一项工作。

Had I really succeeded at anything else, I might never have found the determination to succeed in the one arena I believed I truly belonged.

要是我以前在其他地方成功了,那么我也许永远不会有这样的决心,投身于这个我自信真正属于我的领域。

I was set free, because my greatest fear had already been realised, and I was still alive, and I still had a daughter whom I adored, and I had an old typewriter and a big idea. And so rock bottom became the solid foundation on which I rebuilt my life.

我自由了,因为我最大的恐惧已经成为现实,而我却还依然活着,依然有一个深爱着的女儿,我还有一台旧打字机和一个大大的梦想。我生命中最低的低点,成为我重建生活的坚实基础。

Failure gave me an inner security that I had never attained by passing examinations. Failure taught me things about myself that I could have learned no other way. I discovered that I had a strong will, and more discipline than I had suspected; I also found out that I had friends whose value was truly above rubies.

失败使我的内心产生一种安全感,以前通过考试也没有的安全感。失败让我看清自己,以前我从没认识到自己是这样的。我发现,我比自己以为的,有更强的意志和决心。我还发现,我有一些比宝石更珍贵的朋友。

You will never truly know yourself, or the strength of your relationships, until both have been tested by adversity. Such knowledge is a true gift, for all that it is painfully won, and it has been worth more to me than any qualification I ever earned.

只有到逆境来临的那一天,你才会真正了解你自己,了解你结识的人。这种了解是真正的财富,虽然是用痛苦换来的,但是它比我以前得到的任何证书都有用。

在演说的下半部分,她还谈了毕业后在大*赦*国*际(Amnesty International)伦敦总部的第一份工作。这部分内容也很精彩,不过我要重点提到的是演说的结尾部分。

三、

一般来说,在演讲结束时,嘉宾将对毕业生提出期望。我们可以看到,在这种场合,几乎所有嘉宾,都没有说―祝愿同学们取得个人成功‖,而是说―希望同学们努力去减轻人类的苦难‖。

比尔·盖茨去年说:

Should Harvard encourage its faculty to take on the world's worst inequities? Should Harvard students learn about the depth of global poverty … the prevalence of world hunger … the scarcity of clean water …the girls kept out of school … the children who die from diseases we can cure?

哈佛是否鼓励她的老师去研究解决世界上最严重的不平等?哈佛的学生是否从全球那些极端的贫穷中学到了什么……世界性的饥荒……清洁的水资源的缺乏……无法上学的女童……死于非恶性疾病的儿童……哈佛的学生有没有从中学到东西?

Should the world's most privileged people learn about the lives of the world's least privileged?

那些世界上过着最优越生活的人们,有没有从那些最困难的人们身上学到东西?

These are not rhetorical questions – you will answer with your policies.

这些问题并非语言上的修辞。你必须用自己的行动来回答它们。

When you consider what those of us here in this Yard have been given – in talent, privilege, and opportunity – there is almost no limit to what the world has a right to expect from us.

想一想吧,我们在这个院子里的这些人,被给予过什么——天赋、特权、机遇——那么可以这样说,全世界的人们几乎有无限的权力,期待我们做出贡献。

J.K.罗琳今年说:

the fact that you are graduating from Harvard suggests that you are not very well-acquainted with failure. You might be driven by a fear of failure quite as much as a desire for success. Indeed, your conception of failure might not be too far from the average person’s idea of success, so high have you already flown academically.

你们是哈佛毕业生的这个事实,说明你们并不很了解失败。你们也许极其渴望成功,所以非常害怕失败。说实话,你们眼中的失败,很可能就是普通人眼中的成功,毕竟你们在学业上已经很成功了。

But how much more are you, Harvard graduates of 2008, likely to touch other people’s lives? Your intelligence, your capacity for hard work, the education you have earned and received, give you unique status, and unique responsibilities.…… That is your privilege, and your burden.

但是,所有各位哈佛大学2008届毕业生,你们对其他人的生活了解多少?你们的智慧、你们的能力、你们所受的教育,给了你们独一无二的优势,也给了你们独一无二的责任。……你们的优势就是你们的责任。

If you choose to use your status and influence to raise your voice on behalf of those who have no voice; if you choose to identify not only with the powerful, but with the powerless; if you retain the ability to imagine yourself into the lives of those who do not have your advantages, then it will not only be your proud families who celebrate your existence, but thousands and millions of people whose reality you have helped transform for the better.

你们要用自己的地位和影响,为那些被忽略的人们说话;你们不仅要看到那些有权有势者,也要看到那些无权无势者;你们要学会设想,那些条件不如你们的人们是如何生活的;那样的话,不仅你们的亲人们将为你们感到自豪,而且千千万万的人们将因为你们的帮助而生活得更好。

We do not need magic to change the world, we carry all the power we need inside ourselves already: we have the power to imagine better.

我们不需要改变世界的魔法,我们自己的体内就有这样的力量:那就是我们一直在梦想,让这个世界变得更美好。

范文十:比尔·盖茨哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲(二) 投稿:洪慀慁

比尔·盖茨哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲(二).txt36母爱是一缕阳光,让你的心灵即便在寒冷的冬天也能感受到温暖如春;母爱是一泓清泉,让你的情感即使蒙上岁月的风尘仍然清澈澄净。比尔·盖茨哈佛大学毕业典礼上的演讲(二)

2007-8-3 8:24

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演讲正文:

President Bok, former President Rudenstine, incoming President Faust, members of the Harvard Corporation and the Board of Overseers, members of the faculty, parents, and especially, the graduates:

尊敬的Bok校长,Rudenstine前校长,即将上任的Faust校长,哈佛集团的各位成员,监管理事会的各位理事,各位老师,各位家长,各位同学:

I've been waiting more than 30 years to say this:

有一句话我等了三十年,现在终于可以说了:“老爸,我总是跟你说,我会回来拿到我的学位的!”

I want to thank Harvard for this timely honor. I'll be changing my job next year „ and it will be nice to finally have a college degree on my resume.

我要感谢哈佛大学在这个时候给我这个荣誉。明年,我就要换工作了(注:指从微软公司退休)„„我终于可以在简历上写我有一个本科学位,这真是不错啊。

I applaud the graduates today for taking a much more direct route to your degrees. For my part, I'm just happy that the Crimson has called me

我为今天在座的各位同学感到高兴,你们拿到学位可比我简单多了。哈佛的校报称我是“哈佛大学历史上最成功的辍学生”。我想这大概使我有资格代表我这一类学生发言„„在所有的失败者里,我做得最好。

But I also want to be recognized as the guy who got Steve Ballmer to drop out of business school. I'm a bad influence. That's why I was invited to speak at your graduation. If I had spoken at your orientation, fewer of you might be here today.

但是,我还要提醒大家,我使得Steve Ballmer(注:微软总经理)也从哈佛商学院退

学了。因此,我是个有着恶劣影响力的人。这就是为什么我被邀请来在你们的毕业典礼上演讲。如果我在你们入学欢迎仪式上演讲,那么能够坚持到今天在这里毕业的人也许会少得多吧。

Harvard was just a phenomenal experience for me. Academic life was fascinating. I used to sit in on lots of classes I hadn't even signed up for. And dorm life was terrific. I lived up at Radcliffe, in Currier House. There were always lots of people in my dorm room late at night discussing things, because everyone knew I didn't worry about getting up in the morning. That's how I came to be the leader of the anti-social group. We clung to each other as a way of validating our rejection of all those social people.

对我来说,哈佛的求学经历是一段非凡的经历。校园生活很有趣,我常去旁听我没选修的课。哈佛的课外生活也很棒,我在Radcliffe过着逍遥自在的日子。每天我的寝室里总有很多人一直待到半夜,讨论着各种事情。因为每个人都知道我从不考虑第二天早起。这使得我变成了校园里那些不安分学生的头头,我们互相粘在一起,做出一种拒绝所有正常学生的姿态。

Radcliffe was a great place to live. There were more women up there, and most of the guys were science-math types. That combination offered me the best odds, if you know what I mean. This is where I learned the sad lesson that improving your odds doesn't guarantee success.

Radcliffe是个过日子的好地方。那里的女生比男生多,而且大多数男生都是理工科的。这种状况为我创造了最好的机会,如果你们明白我的意思。可惜的是,我正是在这里学到了人生中悲伤的一课:机会大,并不等于你就会成功。

One of my biggest memories of Harvard came in January 1975, when I made a call from Currier House to a company in Albuquerque that had begun making the world's first personal computers. I offered to sell them software.

我在哈佛最难忘的回忆之一,发生在1975年1月。那时,我从宿舍楼里给位于Albuquerque的一家公司打了一个电话,那家公司已经在着手制造世界上第一台个人电脑。我提出想向他们出售软件。

I worried that they would realize I was just a student in a dorm and hang up on me. Instead they said:

我很担心,他们会发觉我是一个住在宿舍的学生,从而挂断电话。但是他们却说:“我们还没准备好,一个月后你再来找我们吧。”这是个好消息,因为那时 软件还根本没有写出来呢。就是从那个时候起,我日以继夜地在这个小小的课外项目上工作,这导致了我学生生活

的结束,以及通往微软公司的不平凡的旅程的开 始。

What I remember above all about Harvard was being in the midst of so much energy and intelligence. It could be exhilarating, intimidating, sometimes even discouraging, but always challenging. It was an amazing privilege – and though I left early, I was transformed by my years at Harvard, the friendships I made, and the ideas I worked on.

不管怎样,我对哈佛的回忆主要都与充沛的精力和智力活动有关。哈佛的生活令人愉快,也令人感到有压力,有时甚至会感到泄气,但永远充满了挑战性。生 活在哈佛是一种吸引人的特殊待遇„„虽然我离开得比较早,但是我在这里的经历、在这里结识的朋友、在这里发展起来的一些想法,永远地改变了我。

But taking a serious look back „ I do have one big regret.

但是,如果现在严肃地回忆起来,我确实有一个真正的遗憾。

I left Harvard with no real awareness of the awful inequities in the world – the appalling disparities of health, and wealth, and opportunity that condemn millions of people to lives of despair.

我离开哈佛的时候,根本没有意识到这个世界是多么的不平等。人类在健康、财富和机遇上的不平等大得可怕,它们使得无数的人们被迫生活在绝望之中。

I learned a lot here at Harvard about new ideas in economics and politics. I got great exposure to the advances being made in the sciences.

我在哈佛学到了很多经济学和政治学的新思想。我也了解了很多科学上的新进展。

But humanity's greatest advances are not in its discoveries – but in how those discoveries are applied to reduce inequity. Whether through democracy, strong public education, quality health care, or broad economic opportunity – reducing inequity is the highest human achievement.

但是,人类最大的进步并不来自于这些发现,而是来自于那些有助于减少人类不平等的发现。不管通过何种手段——民主制度、健全的公共教育体系、高质量的医疗保健、还是广泛的经济机会——减少不平等始终是人类最大的成就。

I left campus knowing little about the millions of young people cheated out of educational opportunities here in this country. And I knew nothing about the millions of people living in unspeakable poverty and disease in developing countries.

我离开校园的时候,根本不知道在这个国家里,有几百万的年轻人无法获得接受教育的机会。我也不知道,发展中国家里有无数的人们生活在无法形容的贫穷和疾病之中。

It took me decades to find out.

我花了几十年才明白了这些事情。

You graduates came to Harvard at a different time. You know more about the world's inequities than the classes that came before. In your years here, I hope you've had a chance to think about how – in this age of accelerating technology – we can finally take on these inequities, and we can solve them.

在座的各位同学,你们是在与我不同的时代来到哈佛的。你们比以前的学生,更多地了解世界是怎样的不平等。在你们的哈佛求学过程中,我希望你们已经思考过一个问题,那就是在这个新技术加速发展的时代,我们怎样最终应对这种不平等,以及我们怎样来解决这个问题。

Imagine, just for the sake of discussion, that you had a few hours a week and a few dollars a month to donate to a cause – and you wanted to spend that time and money where it would have the greatest impact in saving and improving lives. Where would you spend it?

为了讨论的方便,请想象一下,假如你每个星期可以捐献一些时间、每个月可以捐献一些钱——你希望这些时间和金钱,可以用到对拯救生命和改善人类生活有最大作用的地方。你会选择什么地方?

For Melinda and for me, the challenge is the same: how can we do the most good for the greatest number with the resources we have.

对Melinda(注:盖茨的妻子)和我来说,这也是我们面临的问题:我们如何能将我们拥有的资源发挥出最大的作用。

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