范文一:美国总统大选(2) 投稿:余搧搨

The United States presidential election system

The United States is a presidential system of national and presidential elections are held every four years. The election is a complex and lengthy process. The main program of the election, includes primaries, the party holds a National Convention to determine the candidate of the presidential and vice presidential, voters elected the national president “electoral”,“electoral” established the Electoral College vote in presidential elections and was elected president of the official inauguration of several stages.

• From 23 to 30 August 2012 Republican National Convention, the Democratic National Convention in September 3 to 6, 3 October presidential candidate first debate, the vice presidential candidate debate Oct. 11, Oct. 16 day second candidate debate, the third presidential candidate debate on October 22, November 6 U.S. election polling day, Dec. 17 Electoral College elected president. January 6, 2013, the House and Senate announced the winner of the January 20 presidential inauguration.

• (1)The Primary election(预选) is the first stage ,usually starts from the beginning of the election year and ends at the mid-year. The form of a primary is universal suffrage (直选), a state of the two parties (Democratic Party and Republican Party) voters to the polls to vote “pledged delegates” who would attend the National Convention of the Party, and expressed support for a candidate of this Party. • (2)After the primaries, the two parties will always hold the National Convention of the Party respectively in July or August. The main task of the conference is to determine the final presidential candidate and vice presidential candidate of the Party and discuss the presidential campaign platform(政纲). Then,the presidential election campaign is officially kicked off. This process generally lasts for 8-9 weeks.

During this time, the presidential candidates of both parties will spend large amounts of money in all parts of the country with massive ads campaign, and they will also hold some campaign speeches, meet voters, give press conferences,as well as public debates. In order to gain the voters’ confidence to win votes, candidates will elaborate on the policy in favor of domestic and international affairs through various forms. • In the first debate, Obama was defeated by Romney

• Prevalence with the social networks, the election campaign fully into the era of digitization campaign, more tangible vote will be determined by the influence of the candidate in sites, such as Facebook, twitter, YouTube.

• Romney lovingly holding a supporter's children show people, unfortunately the baby burst into tears. •

President Obama and his wife try to make voters happy

Before the 2nd debate Obama for his campaign volunteers pizza

• The second debate

• US-China relations • Rise, prosperity and the rules of China not America's threat -which became part of their two people consensus

• (3)National voters elect on the following day of the first Monday of November of that year (2012 November 6th),which is known as the presidential election date. All American voters move head to the designated locations for voting and make a choice between the two presidential candidates (with a ballot to elect the state's presidential “electoral”).

• “Only you can silence yourself”,意 为“只有你能 使自己沉默”。 • chosen as the polling stations have certain conditions: good lighting, can enter the wheelchair, do not sell beer.

A (party) presidential candidate to win a majority in a state election , he has all of the state's presidential “electoral” votes. As the United States presidential election is the Electoral College (选举人团) system, the election day vote, is actually 538 electoral who on behalf of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. • (4)The real presidential election is held on first Monday after the second Wednesday in December. By then, the states and the District of Columbia elected “electoral” who will go to all the state capitals to vote. The candidates who win more than 270 votes will be elected as the president.

• (5)The presidential inauguration is the last procedure, only the elected president hand “Bible” (history except Theodore Roosevelt ) and sworn in January 20th of the following year, the United States presidential election will end.

• The election is not only to select the candidates, but actually an expression of the voters on what kind of quality national power holders must have, condition of the general appeal decided to national and social governance, should carry out what kind of policy framework.

范文二:美国总统大选 投稿:蔡蛥蛦


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han yku very mocuh


范文三:美国总统大选评论 投稿:吕騖騗

冬眠熊_李伟东:#冬眠熊_美国大选观察43#观选总结之一,不是奥巴马和罗姆尼在选举,他们是被选举(当然他们也有投票权),投票的是美国人民,他们在持续几个月的大选中渲泄了自己的情绪,数以万计的普通人直接向总统或候选人上 访,得到了倾听和承诺,因此他们不必四年一次拿起合法拥有的枪,而是去投票就可以了。昨天 22:11 来自腾讯微博全部转播和评论(38) 阅读(3534)








#冬眠熊_美国大选观察50#观选总结之八:民主制度虽然需要公民社会和基层自治来支撑,看起来离中国还很遥远,但因为民主是为了保障自由的,而追求自由是人类的天性,这一共同的追求是普世的和在进入中产社会时普遍的需求,因此是挡不住的。看似遥远,其实未来十年就可能开了头,象台湾一样再十年成熟之2012年11月8日 23:40 来自腾讯微博全部转播和评论(31)

范文四:美国总统大选的过程 投稿:孟靴靵








总统候选人的提名一般是在大会的第三天或是第四天进行。在全部州都提出候选人之后,就由大会代表通过个 别投票方式选举本党的总统候选人,得到多数票的候选人将最终获得本党总统候选人的提名。
















总统选举程序的最后一个阶段,就是由总统选举人在总统候选人之间投票正式选出总统。当各州选出其总统选举人之后,这些人便组成选举团,并且在选举年的12 月的第二个星期三之后的第一个星期一,在各州首府所在地分别投票,选举总统和副总统。




范文五:狗与美国总统大选 投稿:黎胕胖






  然而,关于狗的话题并没有停止。不久,美国保守派政治网站Daily Caller上出现了奥巴马自传《父亲的梦想》中的一句引文:“我曾经吃过狗肉。”奥巴马的自传经过竞选智囊团无数次精密的梳理斟酌,就是为了确保竞选万无一失,可没想到,还是被对手抓到了小辫子。






范文六:狗与美国总统大选 投稿:朱跙跚



  2007年,正值罗姆尼第一次参加总统选举期间,他的一位同僚向公众透露了一件事。1983年夏天,罗姆尼带着一家大小从波士顿出发,驾车前往加拿大度假。一路上,他把自己的宠物狗西亚姆斯关在笼子里绑在车顶。同僚认为,这无疑会为自己的上司铺平通往白宫的道路,因为这件事体现了罗姆尼“丝毫不带感情色彩处理危机的能力”。而克莱德在一篇题为《反罗姆尼之犬(Dogs against Romney)》的博客中却表达了不一样的观点。在他看来,这件事是罗姆尼冷酷无情的一种表现,他根本没有意识到,民众会对此作何感想。在对待狗的问题上,罗姆尼迟早会在选举中吃大亏。



  然而,关于狗的话题却并没有停止。不久,美国保守派政治网站Daily Caller上出现了奥巴马自传《父亲的梦想》中的一句引文——“我曾经吃过狗肉。”奥巴马的自传经过竞选智囊团无数次精密的梳理斟酌,就是为了确保竞选万无一失,可没想到,还是被对手抓到了小辫子。


  “吃狗肉”事件一出,奥巴马的反对者们马上嗅到了机会。他们建立了“挺罗姆尼之犬(Mutts for Mitt)”组织,口号是“至少他没有把我吃掉”,以此来对抗“反罗姆尼之犬”。网上流传出据说是奥巴马最喜爱的狗肉食谱,就连奥巴马的老对手麦凯恩也不甘寂寞,他在自己的twitter上面上传了儿子吉米的爱犬阿波罗的照片,然后写道:“很抱歉,总统先生,菜单上可没有它。”






范文七:美国总统大选选战开打 投稿:金炽炾



Game on


The campaign looks likely to sharpen America's divisions.


AMERICA'S primary elections are not yet formally over, but with the exit of Rick Santorum it is at last plain that Mitt Romney will be the

Republicans' nominee. After the bruising primaries, Mr Romney starts from behind. Barack Obama leads in the head-to-head polls. But there are still seven months to election day, and Mr Romney has a fair chance of victory in November. Less than half of America's voters approve of the way Mr Obama is doing his job. Six out of ten think the country is on the "wrong track". The recovery is still weak and 12.7m Americans are unemployed. America added only 120,000 jobs in March, below expectations and fewer than in previous months.


This fight is going to be nastier than the one in 2008. By instinct Mr Romney is a moderate, but the primaries tugged him sharply right, forcing him to boast that he was "severely conservative" by embracing policies, including deep cuts in social spending, that even the famous flip-flopper will now find it difficult to drop. After the primaries, candidates pivot towards the centre. But Mr Romney knows that to turn out a conservative base that does not love him he must mobilise their hatred of Mr Obama. In the meantime Mr Obama appears to believe that he cannot afford to present himself once more as a healer who will soar above party divisions. He is running a more partisan campaign this time round. An already polarised America therefore faces a deeply polarising election.



The second time, it's harder


In 2008 Mr Obama promised audacity, hope and "change we can believe in". His appeal sprang from who he was: a fresh young senator offering a new direction after the clapped-out administration of George Bush and a safer pair of hands than the 72-year-old John McCain. But incumbents cannot run on promise alone. This time he will be judged less on who he is and more on what he has done.


Considering the circumstances, he has not done badly. He can justly claim to have prevented a great recession from turning into a great depression. He rescued Detroit's carmakers and finished the job of stabilising the banks. Mr Romney says he made a bad situation worse, but if Mr Obama had not used billions of borrowed dollars to stimulate the sagging economy, even more Americans would be out of work today. By battering al-Qaeda and killing Osama bin Laden, he has disproved the notion that Democrats are soft on national security.


Still, "it could have been worse" has never been an inspiring re-election slogan. The recovery is still so tepid that Mr Obama cannot risk running on his record alone. He has therefore to cast the election as a choice, not a referendum on his performance. That requires him to make the choice as stark as possible. For months he has portrayed the Republicans as ruthless asset-strippers who care nothing about the middle class so long as they can promote the interests of the super-rich. How lucky for Mr Obama that the super-rich Mr Romney made his fortune in the cut-throat business

of private equity.


This is the electoral logic behind the speech last week in which Mr Obama claimed that the Republicans had embraced a form of "thinly veiled social Darwinism" that would deprive needy children of healthy food, slash cancer research, close down national parks and eliminate air-traffic control in swathes of the country. It sounds scary, and it contains more than a grain of truthbut in fact the Republicans have proposed none of these specific cuts. Mr Obama's dystopian predictions are based on his own extrapolations from the broad spending cuts proposed by the Republicans in Congress. 这就是上周奥巴马总统演讲中背后的竞选逻辑,演讲中他宣称共和党人支持一种"露骨的社会进化论",这一行为将夺去贫困儿童的健康食物,阻碍癌症研究,使国家公园关闭,同时取消美国许多地方的航空管制。这听起来很可怕,这当中包含的不止一丝真理--但是实际上共和党没有建议过削减上述特定开支。奥巴马总统这一反乌托邦式的预言基于他自己的推断,他的推断又来源于共和党在国会中提出的大范围削减开支的提案。

Mr Romney's retort is that the president is attacking policies nobody is proposing, "setting up straw men to distract from his record". Coming from the Republicans, this is rich. They have attacked a straw man since the day Mr Obama was inaugurated. They labelled his conventional Keynesian response to a deep recession "socialist". They called "Obamacare"

unAmerican, even though this market-based scheme to extend health cover to 30m uninsured Americans is almost identical to the one Mr Romney adopted as governor of Massachusetts.


Mr Romney also accuses Mr Obama of drowning the American dream in a sea of red ink. But on this issue there is plenty of blame to go round. Although Mr Obama has yet to come up with a serious plan to tame entitlements, he did try last summer to negotiate a "grand bargain" on the deficit. And when that failed, Congress voted for an automatic deficit-reducing spending cut (the "sequester") of $1.2 trillion over the next decade that

is supposed to kick in at the end of this year.


Elections that offer clear choices can be good things. Isn't that politics as usual? But American voters are in danger of being forced to choose in November between a Republican Party that is allergic to needed tax rises and a Democratic Party that lacks the courage to make the spending cuts required for America to live within its means. The prospect is for a shouting match that pushes the parties ever further apart and threatens to make the whole system of government seize up.

要是大选能让人做出明确的选择,那可是好事。这不正是和以往一样的政治吗?但是美国选民正面临这样一种风险,他们被迫在共和党和民主党中做出选择,前者对必不可少的税收提高过于敏感,而后者则缺乏勇气尽可能地削减可以让美国渡过难关的开支. 大选估计要演变成一场骂战,让两个党派分歧更加严重,同时两党彼此威胁要让政府停摆。

This is not politics as usual


Indeed, the system is already dangerously close to seizing up. The present Congress is the most polarised of modern times. The Republican landslide in the 2010 mid-terms swept a new breed of conservative zealot into office, destroying the middle ground and making legislating next to impossible. The Supreme Court is polarised, tooso much so that it might strike down Obamacare, the president's flagship achievement, on the deciding vote of a single judge.


In short, America is in dire need of the sort of comity Mr Obama promised in 2008. We are not red states and blue states, he said then, we are the United States. What a pity that he is changing tack this time, bashing the rich via gimmicks such as the "Buffett rule" (which is supposed to make millionaires like Mr Romney pay at least the same tax rate as their secretaries) and galvanising his base by brushing aside even the sensible part of the Republican argument that something radical must be done to curb entitlement spending. He may feel he has no choice. But it is a miserable portent for the future.



范文八:美国大选制度评论与2012美国总统大选预测 投稿:陶鋐鋑












这样的制度就可能出现在全国普选中累计得票多的总统候选人不能赢得总统选举的情况。美国历史上曾多次发生上述情况,一些总统候选人虽然在大选中获得的普选票少于竞争对手,但却因得到的选举人票多而当选.此外,选择总统选举人团所适用的胜者全得,不论胜选者赢得选票的差距为何,一州之所有选举人票都应归属于该州公民普选较高者,即所谓的胜者全得的制度, 这有效解决了总统选举时的票数分布分散的问题。“胜者全得”制度实际上是以各州选举的相对多数制为基础的








总之,美国选举人团制度符合美国联邦制的国情,更体现美国式民主的特色。而美国选举人团制度 的缺点是:

〈一〉 出现普选中累计得票多的总统候选人并不能赢得总统选举的情况。有违公平性与合理性。

〈二〉 大州的地位越发重要。这对于美国同为地方各州来说,产生了重要性的落差。

〈三〉 选举人团制度“阻碍大多数人的意志,扭曲总统选举,并存在制造宪法危机的可能。

〈四〉 产生了“不守信” 的选举人出现的可能性。这些不守信的选举人并无法



第一,选举使政权交接或延续和平地进行。选举是获得国家权力的唯一合法渠道 这就基本排除了因争夺国家权力而引起国家政治动荡、乃至内战的可能。


第三,选举是一次全民政治总动员。通过媒体展示出的竞选活动,将人们的注意力聚焦在选举上,促使人们关注、参与国家的政治生活,了解美国的民主制度和民主理念。 第四,选举是一次对美国内外政策的大讨论。两党之间、候选人之间就美国现行及将来应该实行的政策展开激烈的辩论,并通过媒体展示给公众,而投票就是选民对各方政策的表态,胜者的政策自然是得到了多数选民的赞同。








尽管有上述的几个原因,不过,笔者觉得2012年的奥巴马获得连任的可能性还是极大.二战之后美国的10位总统,只有3位是因为他们的能力或者说是在关键的一些决策上的判断缺失,导致了他们连任的失败。奥巴马在他过去四年的执政,不论在处理美国的经济上,还是在对外的政策,没有出现特别明显的硬伤,所以从这个基础上来看,奥巴马的胜算更大。奥巴马备受选民指责的是经济振兴措施乏善可陈。不过奥巴马支持者认为,美国目前的经济困境与小布什有很大关系。奥巴马阵营正试图把目前不利的经济因素转化成他的竞选优势。奥巴马和国会中的民主党议员们提出了一个又一个经济援助计划,每一项新计划都要靠向富人主要是百万富翁们增收新税来实现。共和党议员每次都会指责这些计划,但是他们却提不出具体方案。最新民调显示,奥巴马在总统候选人中再次领先来自共和党的主要竞选对手如罗姆尼,与前几次的民调结果相比,奥巴马领先幅度再次增大。这样的结果整体而言,与共和党候选人提出的模糊不清的经济政策有关 在职总统的优势在于在选举经费、知名度、选举经验和个人魅力等方面都处于有利地位,而这些因素对于选举成败影响甚大




来自共和党的竞选对手不可忽视。最近罗姆尼的支持率有所上升。虽然他的摩门教信仰备受争议,但他为人正直,没有任何丑闻。 奥巴马在2008年竞选雄心勃勃的口号式承诺,在其初次竞选中是利器,而在谋求连任时却成了包袱。


其次,国内经济问题是奥巴马连任最大的拦路虎 美国选民饱受失业、经济增长缓慢和居高不下的能源价格之苦,因而更重视经济问题。近来一系列疲软的美国经济数据又向奥巴马政府施加压力,尤其失业率再次上升,更是将成为共和党压制奥巴马的利器。


参考文献:<美国政治与政府> 许先国



范文九:从美国总统大选浅析其民主 投稿:黄晞晟

摘 要 美国是典型的资本主义国家,本文从美国总统大选来讨论其民主的实质。

  关键词 总统大选 民主 实质

  中图分类号:D521 文献标识码:A










范文十:史上最好看的美国总统大选 投稿:熊錧錨