Civil engineering introduction papers
Abstract: the civil engineering is a huge discipline, but the main one is building, building whether in China or abroad, has a long history, long-term development process. The world is changing every day, but the building also along with the progress of science and development.
Mechanics findings, material of update, ever more scientific technology into the building.But before a room with a tile to cover the top of the house, now for comfort, different ideas, different scientific, promoted the development of civil engineering, making it more perfect.
[key words] : civil engineering; Architecture; Mechanics, Materials.
Civil engineering is build various projects collectively. It was meant to be and "military project" corresponding. In English the history of Civil Engineering, mechanical Engineering, electrical Engineering, chemical Engineering belong to to Engineering, because they all have MinYongXing. Later, as the project development of science and technology, mechanical, electrical, chemical has gradually formed independent
scientific, to Engineering became Civil Engineering of specialized nouns. So far, in English, to Engineering include water conservancy project, port Engineering, While in our country, water conservancy projects and port projects also become very close and civil engineering relatively
independent branch. Civil engineering construction of object, both refers to that built on the ground, underground water engineering facilities, also refers to applied materials equipment and conduct of the
investigation, design and construction, maintenance, repair and other professional technology.
Civil engineering is a kind of with people's food, clothing, shelter and transportation has close relation of the project. Among them with "live" relationship is directly. Because, to solve the "live" problem must build various types of buildings. To solve the "line, food and clothes" problem both direct side, but also a indirect side. "Line", must build railways, roads, Bridges, "Feed", must be well drilling water, water conservancy, farm irrigation, drainage water supply for the city, that is direct relation. Indirectly relationship is no matter what you do, manufacturing cars, ships, or spinning and weaving, clothing, or even production steel, launch satellites, conducting scientific research activities are inseparable from build various buildings, structures and build all kinds of project facilities.
Civil engineering with the progress of human society and development, yet has evolved into large-scale comprehensive discipline, it has out many branch, such as: architectural engineering, the railway engineering, road engineering, bridge engineering, special engineering structure, water
and wastewater engineering, port engineering, hydraulic engineering, environment engineering disciplines. 
Civil engineering as an important basic disciplines, and has its important attributes of: integrated, sociality, practicality, unity. Civil engineering for the development of national economy and the
improvement of people's life provides an important material and technical basis, for many industrial invigoration played a role in promoting, engineering construction is the formation of a fixed asset basic
production process, therefore, construction and real estate become in many countries and regions, economic powerhouses.
Construction project is housing planning, survey, design,
construction of the floorboard. Purpose is for human life and production provide places.
Houses will be like a man, it's like a man's life planning environment is responsible by the planners, Its layout and artistic processing, corresponding to the body shape looks and temperament, is responsible by the architect, Its structure is like a person's bones and life expectancy, the structural engineer is responsible, Its water, heating ventilation and electrical facilities such as the human organ and the nerve, is by the equipment engineer is responsible for. Also like nature intact shaped like people, in the city I district planning based on build houses, and is the construction unit, reconnaissance unit, design unit of various design engineers and construction units comprehensive coordination and cooperation process.
After all, but is structural stress body reaction force and the internal stress and how external force balance. Building to tackle, also must solve the problem is mechanical problems. We have to solve the problem of discipline called architectural mechanics. Architectural mechanics have can be divided into: statics, material mechanics and structural mechanics three mechanical system. Architectural mechanics is discussion and research building structure and component in load and other factors affecting the working condition of, also is the building of intensity, stiffness and stability. In load, bear load and load of structure and component can cause the surrounding objects in their function, and the object itself by the load effect and deformation, and there is the possibility of damage, but the structure itself has certain resistance to deformation and destruction of competence, and the bearing capacity of the structure size is and component of materials, cross section, and the structural properties of geometry size, working conditions and structure circumstance relevant. While these relationships can be improved by mechanics formula solved through calculation.
Building materials in building and has a pivotal role. Building material is with human society productivity and science and technology
improves gradually developed. In ancient times, the human lives, the line USES is the rocks and
Trees. The 4th century BC, 12 ~ has created a tile and brick, humans are only useful synthetic materials made of housing. The 17th century had cast iron and ShouTie later, until the eighteenth century had Portland cement, just make later reinforced concrete engineering get vigorous development. Now all sorts of high-strength structural materials, new decoration materials and waterproof material development, criterion and 20th century since mid organic polymer materials in civil engineering are closely related to the widely application. In all materials, the most main and most popular is steel, concrete, lumber, masonry. In recent years, by using two kinds of material advantage, will make them together, the combination of structure was developed. Now, architecture, engineering quality fit and unfit quality usually adopted materials quality,
performance and using reasonable or not have direct connection, in meet the same technical indicators and quality requirements, under the
precondition of choice of different material is different, use method of engineering cost has direct impact.
In construction process, building construction is and architectural mechanics, building materials also important links. Construction is to the mind of the designer, intention and idea into realistic process, from the ancient holeJuChao place to now skyscrapers, from rural to urban country road elevated road all need through "construction" means. A construction project, including many jobs such as dredging engineering, deep foundation pit bracing engineering, foundation engineering,
reinforced concrete structure engineering, structural lifting project, waterproofing, decorate projects, each type of project has its own rules, all need according to different construction object and construction environment conditions using relevant construction technology, in work-site.whenever while, need and the relevant hydropower and other equipment composition of a whole, each project between reasonable organizing and coordination, better play investment benefit. Civil engineering construction in the benefit, while also issued by the state in strict accordance with the relevant construction technology standard, thus further enhance China's construction level to ensure construction quality, reduce the cost for the project.
 LuoFuWu editor. Civil engineering (professional). Introduction to wuhan. Wuhan university of technology press. 2007
 WangFuChuan, palace rice expensive editor. Construction
engineering materials. Beijing. Science and technology literature press. 2002
 jiang see whales, zhiming editor. Civil engineering introduction of higher education press. Beijing.. 1992
M. Fraldi F. Guarracino
图2 莫尔σn—τn 平面坐标系中的Hoek–Brown变形准则
n 为正的半平面，从而有： 和
由于当前的工作范围是研究重力场下岩体坍塌，人们主要关注可容许的竖向速度场u， 假设该速度沿Y轴的方向，如图1所示。方程y=f(x) 表示在x-y笛卡尔参考坐标系中的坍塌岩体曲线上的任何一个单元。
Plain concrete is formed from a hardened mixture of cement ,water ,fine aggregate, coarse aggregate (crushed stone or gravel),air, and often other admixtures. The plastic mix is placed and consolidated in the formwork, then cured to facilitate the acceleration of the chemical hydration reaction lf the cement/water mix, resulting in hardened concrete. The finished product has high compressive strength, and low resistance to tension, such that its tensile strength is approximately one tenth lf its compressive strength. Consequently, tensile and shear reinforcement in the tensile regions of sections has to be provided to compensate for the weak tension regions in the reinforced concrete element.
It is this deviation in the composition of a reinforces concrete section from the homogeneity of standard wood or steel sections that requires a modified approach to the basic principles of structural design. The two components of the heterogeneous reinforced concrete section are to be so arranged and proportioned that optimal use is made of the materials involved. This is possible because concrete can easily be given any desired shape by placing and compacting the wet mixture of the constituent ingredients are properly proportioned, the finished product becomes strong, durable, and, in combination with the reinforcing bars, adaptable for use as main members of any structural system.
The techniques necessary for placing concrete depend on the type of member to be cast: that is, whether it is a column, a bean, a wall, a slab, a foundation. a mass columns, or an extension of previously placed and hardened concrete. For beams, columns, and walls, the forms should be well oiled after cleaning them, and the reinforcement should be cleared of rust and other harmful materials. In foundations, the earth should be compacted and thoroughly moistened to about 6 in. in depth to avoid absorption of the moisture present in the wet concrete. Concrete should always be placed in horizontal layers which are compacted by means of high frequency power-driven vibrators of either the immersion or external type, as the case requires, unless it is placed by pumping. It must be kept in mind, however, that over vibration can be harmful since it could cause segregation of the aggregate and bleeding of the concrete.
Hydration of the cement takes place in the presence of moisture at temperatures above 50°F. It is necessary to maintain such a condition in order that the chemical hydration reaction can take place. If drying is too rapid, surface cracking takes place.
This would result in reduction of concrete strength due to cracking as well as the failure to attain full chemical hydration.
It is clear that a large number of parameters have to be dealt with in proportioning a reinforced concrete element, such as geometrical width, depth, area of reinforcement, steel strain, concrete strain, steel stress, and so on. Consequently, trial and adjustment is necessary in the choice of concrete sections, with assumptions based on conditions at site, availability of the constituent materials, particular demands of the owners, architectural and headroom requirements, the applicable codes, and environmental reinforced concrete is often a site-constructed composite, in contrast to the standard mill-fabricated beam and column sections in steel structures.
A trial section has to be chosen for each critical location in a structural system. The trial section has to be analyzed to determine if its nominal resisting strength is adequate to carry the applied factored load. Since more than one trial is often necessary to arrive at the required section, the first design input step generates into a series of trial-and-adjustment analyses.
The trial-and –adjustment procedures for the choice of a concrete section lead to the convergence of analysis and design. Hence every design is an analysis once a trial section is chosen. The availability of handbooks, charts, and personal computers and programs supports this approach as a more efficient, compact, and speedy instructional method compared with the traditional approach of treating the analysis of reinforced concrete separately from pure design.
素混凝土是由水泥、水、细骨料、粗骨料（碎石或卵石）、空气，通常还有 其他外加剂等经过凝固硬化而成。将可塑的混凝土拌合物注入到模板内，并将其 捣实，然后进行养护，以加速水泥与水的水化反应，最后获得硬化的混凝土。其 最终制成品具有较高的抗压强度和较低的抗拉强度。其抗拉强度约为抗压强度的 十分之一。因此，截面的受拉区必须配置抗拉钢筋和抗剪钢筋以增加钢筋混凝土 构件中较弱的受拉区的强度
由于钢筋混凝土截面在均质性上与标准的木材或钢的截面存在着差异，因此， 需要对结构设计的基本原理进行修改。将钢筋混凝土这种非均质截面的两种组成 部分按一定比例适当布置，可以最好利用两种材料。这一要求是可以达到的。因 混凝土由配料搅拌成湿拌合物，经过振捣并凝固硬化，可以做成任何一种需要的 形状。如果拌制混凝土的各种材料配合比恰当，则混凝土制成品的强度较高，经 久耐用，配置钢筋后，可以作为任何结构体系的主要构件。
浇筑混凝土所需要的技术取决于即将浇筑的构件类型，诸如：柱、梁、墙、 板、基础，大体积混凝土水坝或者继续延长已浇筑完毕并且已经凝固的混凝土等 。对于梁、柱、墙等构件，当模板清理干净后应该其上涂油，钢筋表面的锈及其 他有害物质也应该被清除干净。浇筑基础前，应将坑底土夯实并用水浸湿6英寸， 以免土壤从新浇的混凝土中吸收水分。一般情况下。除使用混凝土泵浇筑外，混 凝土都应在水平方向分层浇筑，并使用插入式或表面式高频电动振捣器捣实。必 须记住过分的振捣将导致骨料离析和混凝土泌浆等现象，因而是有害的
水泥的水化作用发生在有水分存在，而且气温在50°F以上的条件下。为了保 证水泥的水化作用得以进行，必须具备上述条件。如果干燥过快则会出现表面裂 缝，这将有损于混凝土的强度，同时也会影响到水泥水化作用的充分进行。 设计钢筋混凝土构件时显然需要处理大量的参数，诸如宽度。、高度等几何 尺寸，配筋的面积，钢筋的应变和混凝土的应变，钢筋的应力等等。因此，在选 择混凝土截面时需要进行试算并作调整，根据施工现场条件、混凝土原材料的供 应情况、业主提出的特殊要求、对建筑和净空高度的要求、所用的设计规范以及 建筑物周围环境条件等最后确定截面。钢筋混凝土通常是现场浇筑的合成材料， 它与在工厂中制造的标准的钢结构梁、柱等不同，因此对于上面所提到的一系列 因素必须予以考虑。
对结构体系的各个部位均需选定试算截面并进行验算，以确实该截面的名义 强度是否足以承受所作用的计算荷载。由于经常需要进行多次验算，才能求出所 需的截面，因此设计时第一次采用的数值将导致一系列的试算与调整工作。 选择混凝土截面时，采用试算与调整过程可以使复核和设计结合在一起。因 此，当试算截面选定后，每次设计都是对截面进行复核。手册、图表和微型计算 机以及专用程序的使用，使这种设计方法更为简捷有效，而传统的方法则是把钢 筋混凝土的复核与单纯的设计分别进行处理。
钢筋混凝土框架结构是由楼板、梁、柱及基础四种承重构件组成的。由主梁、柱与基础构成平面框架，各平面框架再由连续梁连接起来形成空间结构体系。钢筋混凝土框架结构是一种由梁、柱组成的超静定结构体系,在地震、风荷载等作用下需设计成延性结构,以便很好地吸收和耗散能量,保证结构具有足够的抵抗变形能力,确保结构安全。高层建筑采用框架结构体系时，框架梁应纵横向布置，形成双向抗侧力构件，使之具有较强的空间整体性，以承受任意方向的侧向力。框架结构具有建筑平面布置灵活、造型活泼等优点，可以形成较大的使用空间，易于满足多功能的使用要求。在结构受力性能方面，框架结构属于柔性结构，自振周期较长，地震反应较小，经过合理的结构设计，可以具有较好的延性性能。其缺点就是整体侧向刚度较小,在强烈地震作用下侧向变形较大,容易使填充墙产生裂缝，并引起建筑装修、玻璃幕墙等非结构构件的破坏。不仅地震中危及人身安全和财产损失,而且震后的修复工作和费用也很大。框架结构的承载力较低，它的受力特点类似于竖向悬臂剪切梁，楼层越高，水平位移越慢，高层框架在纵横两个方向都承受很大的水平力，这时，现浇楼面也作为梁共同工作的构件，装配整体式楼面的作用则不考虑，框架结构的墙体是填充墙，起围护和分隔作用。纵横向框架混合承重方案 纵横向框架混合承重方案是沿纵横两个方向上均布置有框架梁,作为楼盖的主梁,楼面荷载由纵,横向框架梁共同承担.它具有较好的整体工作性能。不同等级混凝土邻接面的留设在钢筋混凝土结构中,高层建筑框架结构的梁柱节点比较复杂,由于荷载组合及内力计算的结果,要求同一层的竖向结构(柱、墙)混凝土强度等级高于水平结构(梁、板)的混凝土强度等级。钢筋混凝土框架结构,水平施工缝通常留于柱脚,柱顶若要留水平施工缝则应留于梁底。若同层的竖向构件和水平构件的混凝土同时浇捣,则柱顶不留施工缝。钢筋混凝土异形柱框架结构是近年来推广使用的一种新型结构体系，其抗震性能一直被人们所关注。研究异形柱框架结构的抗震性能及设计方法，有重要的理论意义和实用价值。 目前国内外研究者对异形柱构件抗震性能的试验研究较为深入，对异形柱框架结构的试验研究则相对较少；对异形柱框架结构基于力的设计方法的研究较多，对基于位移的抗震设计方法的研究则尚属空白，而后者代表了未来结构抗震设计的发展方向。
化设计,即是在结构整体内力分析完成后,根据梁柱各构件的控制内力进行截面优化设计,确定满足荷载效应水平要求的各结构构件的几何特征和配筋量的优化结果,由此导致原结构的几何特征和荷载特征发生变化, 优化结构在现荷载作用下内力分布特征发生变化,各构件控制截面上的控制内力也发生相应变化,据此再进行新一轮的优化设计。因此框架结构的分部优化设计实际上是一个迭代、渐进的寻优过程, 计算结果虽不总能等价于整体优化设计结果,但通常能给出工程实用的满意结果。钢筋混凝土框架结构的分部优化设计方法的具体步骤为:
 李文庆; 浅析钢筋混凝土框架结构设计[J]. 沿海企业与科技 2010年06期
高峰; 框架结构设计的探讨[J]. 今日科苑 2010年20期
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王可峰. 高层结构体系的选择, 山西建筑, 2009(15): 53-54
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《Seismic retrofit schemes for RC structures and local–global consequences》 G.E.Thermou（Greece） and A.S.Elnashai（USA） 2006.8
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Research progress of frame structure
With the development of economy, the improvement of people
Form of a framework, can form a large interior space, flexible architectural layout. Therefore, frame structure in the structural design of very wide application, for the internal force of the frame structure at present, the use of computer aided software for analysis and calculation, but at present some engineering design personnel excessively dependent results obtained by the computer, and the lack of independent analysis, problem solving ability, resulting in some drawings appear unnecessary, for after the accident to bury next hidden trouble. Each designer's experience is different, the understanding of the specification is different, so when dealing with a design problem, it will take a different approach. The reinforced concrete frame structure is composed of four kinds of bearing members, floor, beam, column and foundation.. By the main girder, column and foundation constitute plane frame, each plane frame is connected by continuous beam to form space structure system. Reinforced concrete frame structure is a composed of beams and columns of statically indeterminate structure, under the action of earthquake and wind load for design ductility structure, to a good absorption and dissipation energy to ensure structure has enough ability to resist deformation and ensure the safety of the structure. When the frame structure system is adopted, the frame beam should vertically and horizontally to form a bidirectional lateral force component, so that it has strong spatial integrity and can bear the lateral force in any direction.. The frame structure has the advantages of flexible building layout, lively shape and so on, it can form a large space, easy to meet the use requirements of multi-function. In the aspect of structure stress, the frame structure belongs to the flexible structure, the vibration period is longer, the seismic response is small, and the structure is reasonable, and can have good ductility.. The disadvantage is that the whole lateral stiffness is small, in the strong earthquake underside to the deformation, easy to fill wall crack and caused destruction of building decoration, glass curtain wall, such as non structural component. Not only can the earthquake endanger personal safety and property damage, but also the restoration after the earthquake and the cost is also great. The lower the bearing capacity of frame structure, its stress characteristics similar to vertical shear cantilever beam, the higher floors, horizontal displacement of the slower, high-rise frame in both horizontal and vertical direction are under a lot of horizontal force, at this time, we poured concrete floors also as beam interaction component, assembled monolithic floor effect is not considered, wall frame structure is filled wall, separated from the envelope and the role. Vertical and horizontal to the framework
of mixed loading program aspect to the framework of mixed loading scheme is along both horizontal and vertical direction are arranged frame beam, as the floor of the main beam, floor load is composed of a longitudinal, transverse frame beam shared. It has a better overall performance. Different grade concrete adjacent to the surface of the left in the reinforced concrete structure, the frame structure of tall buildings of beam column joints is more complex, as a result of calculation and load combination of internal forces, with a layer of the vertical structure of column and wall concrete strength grade is higher than that of the concrete strength grade level structure (beam, slab). Reinforced concrete frame structure, horizontal construction joints usually stay in the column, column to stay horizontal construction joints shall be left at the bottom of beam. If the same layer of the vertical component and the horizontal component of the concrete pouring is not at the same time, the construction joints left. The reinforced concrete special-shaped column frame structure is a new type of structure system used in recent years, and its seismic performance has been concerned by people.. The seismic performance and design method of the special-shaped column frame structures are of great significance and practical value.. The experimental study of domestic and foreign research on the special-shaped columns deeply, experimental study on frame structure with special-shaped columns is less; of special-shaped column frame structure based on the strength design method of more, based on the study of the aseismatic design method of displacement is blank, while the latter represents the development direction of future seismic design of structures.
The reinforced concrete frame structure is a statically indeterminate structure of multiple redundant constraints, the load effect not only with the size of the external load on, and the material characteristics of structural members, the geometric structure feature. Division of reinforced concrete frame structure optimization design, that is, after the completion of the internal force analysis of the whole structure, according to the control of internal force Liang Zhuge component of section optimization design, determined to meet the horizontal load effect of the structure of the geometric characteristics and reinforcement amount of optimization results, which leads to changes in the geometric and load characteristics of the original structure, structure optimization under the present load internal force distribution changes, the members of the control section of the control force also change accordingly, according to the optimization design of a new round of. The division of frame structure optimization design is actually an iterative and incremental search and, though calculation results are not always equivalent to the overall optimization design results, but usually can practical engineering are presented with satisfactory results. The concrete steps of the partial optimal design of reinforced concrete frame structures are:
(1) the initial selection: according to the structural plane and elevation layout and building design function. Analysis for structures subjected to vertical load and horizontal load and force transmission route, and to consider the construction
factors, merge the frame beam and column type, primary beam and column geometry;
(2) structural analysis: according to the actual geometry of the structure, the structure is calculated by vertical load and horizontal load, and the reinforced concrete structure is analyzed by the space internal force.. According to the results of structure analysis, the internal force of the same member is controlled by the same size, and the internal force of the design of each type of member is determined.;
(3) section optimization design: for every kind of beams and columns of control internal force optimized design, obtains the optimization under the constraints of structure geometric structure characteristics and reinforcement characteristics and to optimize the design of the, which constitute the significance of new optimization design of structure;
(4) convergence judgment: in the sense of engineering accuracy, a small number is chosen as the condition for the structural convergence of the test, and the convergence of the judgment is carried out.. If the optimized structure is basically in agreement with the original structure, it is considered that the optimization structure is convergent and can be transferred to the next feasible judgment, otherwise the reverse step II is re structure analysis and optimization design.;
(5) the feasibility of the judgment: the results of the optimization design of a internal force analysis, testing its availability. If the overall analysis can meet the engineering design requirements, then can be carried out according to this scheme reinforcement and structure processing, as the final optimization design results. Otherwise, according to the engineering experience and structure internal force analysis results of local adjustment, until the program can be used.
At present, the research on the structure of the concrete filled steel tube at home and abroad mostly focus on the mechanical behavior of the basic components, and the structure of the concrete filled steel tube is studied.. In this paper, the seismic behavior of CFST frame structures is studied, and has important engineering practice and theoretical guidance.. Experimental study on seismic behavior of concrete filled steel tube frame structures. Based on the existing codes, the design of the concrete filled steel tubular frame can form the failure mechanism of beam hinge under low cyclic loading.. Its deformation ability, bearing capacity, ductility, energy dissipation and other mechanical properties are all meet the seismic requirements. The effective ductility factor of the frame model is 7.54, which is far greater than the ductility factor of the general ductility frame.. Based on the research results of flexural rigidity of CFST column, the basic principle of D value method is applied, and the horizontal displacement of CFST frame structure is calculated, and the test results are in good agreement with the test values of .
In the development of civil engineering, engineering practice often first line in theory, engineering accidents often show the failure to foresee the new factor, triggering the new theory research and development. So far, many problems of engineering treatment, still rely on practical experience in a large extent .
Li Wenqing ; [J]. design of reinforced concrete frame structure of coastal enterprises and science and technology in 2010 06
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Civil engineering introduction papers英语原文 Abstract: the civil engineering is a huge discipline but the mainone is building building whether in China or abroad has a long historylong-term development process. The world is changing every day but thebuilding also along with the progress of science and development.Mechanics findings material of update ever more scientific technologyinto the building. But before a room with a tile to cover the top of thehouse now for comfort different ideas different scientific promotedthe development of civil engineering making it more perfect. key words : civil engineering Architecture Mechanics Materials. Civil engineering is build various projects collectively. It wasmeant to be and quotmilitary projectquot corresponding. In English the historyof Civil Engineering mechanical Engineering electrical Engineeringchemical Engineering belong to to Engineering because they all haveMinYongXing. Later as the project development of science and technologymechanical electrical chemical has gradually formed independentscientific to Engineering became Civil Engineering of specialized nouns.So far in English to Engineering include water conservancy project portEngineering While in our country water conservancy projects and portprojects also become very close and civil engineering relativelyindependent branch. Civil engineering construction of object both refersto that built on the ground underground water engineering facilitiesalso refers to applied materials equipment and conduct of theinvestigation design and construction maintenance repair and otherprofessional technology. Civil engineering is a kind of with peoples food clothing shelterand transportation has close relation of the project. Among them withquotlivequot relationship is directly. Because to solve the quotlivequot problem mustbuild various types of buildings. To solve the quotline food and clothesquotproblem both direct side but also a indirect side. quotLinequot must buildrailways roads Bridges quotFeedquot must be well drilling water waterconservancy farm irrigation drainage water supply for the city thatis direct relation. Indirectly relationship is no matter what you domanufacturing cars ships or spinning and weaving clothing or evenproduction steel launch satellites conducting scientific researchactivities are inseparable from build various buildings structures andbuild all kinds of project facilities. Civil engineering with the progress of human society and developmentyet has evolved into large-scale comprehensive discipline it has out manybranch such as: architectural engineering the railway engineering roadengineering bridge engineering special engineering structure waterand wastewater engineering port engineering hydraulic engineeringenvironment engineering disciplines. 1 Civil engineering as an important basic disciplines and has itsimportant attributes of: integrated sociality practicality unity.Civil engineering for the development of national
economy and theimprovement of peoples life provides an important material and technicalbasis for many industrial invigoration played a role in promotingengineering construction is the formation of a fixed asset basicproduction process therefore construction and real estate become inmany countries and regions economic powerhouses. Construction project is housing planning survey designconstruction of the floorboard. Purpose is for human life and productionprovide places. Houses will be like a man its like a mans life planning environmentis responsible by the planners Its layout and artistic processingcorresponding to the body shape looks and temperament is responsible bythe architect Its structure is like a persons bones and life expectancythe structural engineer is responsible Its water heating ventilationand electrical facilities such as the human organ and the nerve is bythe equipment engineer is responsible for. Also like nature intact shapedlike people in the city I district planning based on build houses andis the construction unit reconnaissance unit design unit of variousdesign engineers and construction units comprehensive coordination andcooperation process. After all but is structural stress body reaction force and theinternal stress and how external force balance. Building to tackle alsomust solve the problem is mechanical problems. We have to solve the problemof discipline called architectural mechanics. Architectural mechanicshave can be divided into: statics material mechanics and structuralmechanics three mechanical system. Architectural mechanics is discussionand research building structure and component in load and other factorsaffecting the working condition of also is the building of intensitystiffness and stability. In load bear load and load of structure andcomponent can cause the surrounding objects in their function and theobject itself by the load effect and deformation and there is thepossibility of damage but the structure itself has certain resistanceto deformation and destruction of competence and the bearing capacityof the structure size is and component of materials cross section andthe structural properties of geometry size working conditions andstructure circumstance relevant. While these relationships can beimproved by mechanics formula solved through calculation. Building materials in building and has a pivotal role. Buildingmaterial is with human society productivity and science and technologyimproves gradually developed. In ancient times the human lives the lineUSES is the rocks and Trees. The 4th century BC 12 has created a tile and brick humansare only useful synthetic materials made of housing. The 17th century hadcast iron and ShouTie later until the eighteenth century had Portlandcement just make later reinforced concrete engineering get vigorousdevelopment. Now all sorts of high-strength structural materials newdecoration materials and waterproof material development criterion and20th century since mid org
anic polymer materials in civil engineering areclosely related to the widely application. In all materials the most mainand most popular is steel concrete lumber masonry. In recent yearsby using two kinds of material advantage will make them together thecombination of structure was developed. Now architecture engineeringquality fit and unfit quality usually adopted materials qualityperformance and using reasonable or not have direct connection in meetthe same technical indicators and quality requirements under theprecondition of choice of different material is different use method ofengineering cost has direct impact. In construction process building construction is and architecturalmechanics building materials also important links. Construction is tothe mind of the designer intention and idea into realistic process fromthe ancient hole JuChao place to now skyscrapers from rural to urbancountry road elevated road all need through quotconstructionquot means. Aconstruction project including many jobs such as dredging engineeringdeep foundation pit bracing engineering foundation engineeringreinforced concrete structure engineering structural lifting projectwaterproofing decorate projects each type of project has its own rulesall need according to different construction object and constructionenvironment conditions using relevant construction technology inwork-site.whenever while need and the relevant hydropower and otherequipment composition of a whole each project between reasonableorganizing and coordination better play investment benefit. Civilengineering construction in the benefit while also issued by the statein strict accordance with the relevant construction technology standardthus further enhance Chinas construction level to ensure constructionquality reduce the cost for the project. Any building built on the surface of the earth all strata buildingweight eventually to stratum have to bear. Formation Support buildingthe rocks were referred to as foundation and the buildings on the groundand under the upper structure of self-respect and liable to load transferto the foundation of components or component called foundation.Foundation and the foundation and the superstructure is a building ofthree inseparable part. According to the function is different but inload under the action of them are related to each other is theinteraction of the whole. Foundation can be divided into naturalfoundation and artificial foundation basic according to the buried depthis divided into deep foundation and shallow foundation. foundation andfoundation is the guarantee of the quality of the buildings and normaluse close button where buildings foundation in building under loads ofboth must maintain overall stability and if the settlement of foundationproduce in building scope permitted inside and foundation itself shouldhave sufficient strength stiffness and durability also consider repairmethods and the necessary foundation soil retaining retaining water andreleva
nt measures. 3 As people living standard rise ceaselessly the people to their placeof building space has become not only from the number and put forwardhigher requirement from quality are put car higher demands that theenvironment is beautiful have certain comfort. This needs to decoratea building to be necessary. If architecture major engineering constitutesthe skeleton of the building then after adornment building has becomethe flesh-and-blood organism final with rich perfect appearance inpeoples in front the best architecture should fully embody all sortsof adornment material related properties with existing constructiontechnology the most effective gimmick to achieve conception mustexpress effect. Building outfit fix to consider the architectural spaceuse requirement protect the subject institutions from damage give aperson with beautifulenjoying satisfy the requirements of fireevacuation decorative materials and scheme of rationality constructiontechnology and economic feasibility etc. Housing constructiondevelopment and at the same time like housing construction as affectingpeople life of roads Bridges tunnels has made great progress. In general civil engineering is one of the oldest subjects it hasmade great achievements the future of the civil engineering will occupyin peoples life more important position. The environment worseningpopulation increase people to fight for survival to strive for a morecomfortable living environment and will pay more attention to civilengineering. In the near future some major projects extimated to buildinsert roller skyscrapers across the ocean Bridges more convenient traffic would not dream. The development ofscience and technology and the earth is deteriorating environment willbe prompted civil engineering to aerospace and Marine developmentprovide mankind broader space of living. In recent years engineeringmaterials mainly is reinforced concrete lumber and brick materials inthe future the traditional materials will be improved more suitable forsome new building materials market especially the chemistry materialswill promote the construction of towards a higher point. Meanwhile designmethod of precision design work of automation information andintelligent technology of introducing will be people have a morecomfortable living environment. The word and the development of thetheory and new materials the emergence of the application of computerhigh-tech introduction to wait to will make civil engineering have a newleap. This is a door needs calm and a great deal of patience and attentiveprofessional. Because hundreds of thousands even hundreds of thousandsof lines to building each place structure clearly reflected. Without agentle state of mind do what thing just floating on the surface to anya building structure to be engaged in business and could not have hada clear accurate and profound understanding of the nature is no good.In this business probably not burn the midnight oil of courage not toreach the goal
of spirit not to give up will only be companies eliminated. This is a responsible and caring industry. Should have a singleresponsible heart - I ones life in my hand thousands of life in my hand.Since the civil should choose dependably shoulder the responsibility. Finally this is a constant pursuit of perfect industry. Pyramidspectacular now: The Great Wall the majestic... But if no generationsof the pursuit of today we may also use the sort of the oldest way tobuild this same architecture. Design a building structure is numerousbut this is all experienced centuries of clarification throughcontinuous accumulation keep improving innovation obtained. And suchpursuit not confined in the past. Just think if the design of a buildingcan be like calculation one plus one equals two as simple and easy to graspthat was not for what Therefore a civil engineer is in constant of information. One of the most simple structure the least cost the biggestfunction. Choose civil choosing a steadfast diligence innovationpursuit of perfect path. Reference: 1 LuoFuWu editor. Civil engineering professional. Introductionto wuhan. Wuhan university of technology press. 2007 2 WangFuChuan palace rice expensive editor. Constructionengineering materials. Beijing. Science and technology literature press.2002 3 jiang see whales zhiming editor. Civil engineering introductionof higher education press. Beijing.. 1992 土木工程概论 译文 摘要：土木工程是个庞大的学科，但最主要的是建筑，建筑无论是在中国还是在国外，都有着悠久的历史，长期的发展历程。整个世界每天都在改变，而建筑也随科学的进步而发展。力学的发现，材料的更新，不断有更多的科学技术引入建筑中。以前只求一间有瓦盖顶的房屋，现在追求舒适，不同的思想，不同的科学，推动了土木工程的发展，使其更加完美。关键词：土木工程；建筑；力学；材料。 土木工程是建造各种工程的统称。它的原意是与“军事工程”相对应的。在英语中，历史上土木工程、机械工程、电气工程、化工工程都属于 CivilEngineering，因为它们都具有民用性。后来，随着工程科学技术的发展，机械、电气、化工都已逐渐形成独立的科学，Civil Engineering 就成为土木工程的专门名词。至今，在英语中，Civil Engineering 还包括水利工程、港口工程；而在我国，水利工程和港口工程也成为与土木工程十分密切的相对独立分支。土木工程既指建设的对象，即建造在地上，地下，水中的工程设施，也指应用的材料设备和进行的勘测，设计施工，保养，维修等专业技术。 土木工程是一种与人们的衣、食、住、行有着密切关系的工程。其中与“住”的关系是直接的。因为，要解决“住”的问题必须建造各种类型的建筑物。而解决“行、食衣”的问题既有直接的一面，也
有间接的一面。要“行”，必须建造铁路、道路、桥梁；要“食”，必须打井取水、兴修水利、进行农田灌溉、城市供水排水等，这是直接关系。而间接关系则不论做什么，制造汽车、轮船也好，纺纱、织布、制衣也好，乃至生产钢铁、发射卫星、开展科学研究活动都离不开建造各种建筑物、构筑物和修建各种工程设施。 土木工程随着人类社会的进步而发展，至今已经演变成为大型综合性的学科，它已经出许多分支，如：建筑工程，铁路工程，道路工程，桥梁工程，特种工程结构，给水排水工程，港口工程，水利工程，环境工程等学科。1 土木工程作为一个重要的基础学科，有其重要的属性：综合性，社会性，实践性，统一性。土木工程为国民经济的发展和人民生活的改善提供了重要 的物质技术基础，对众多产业的振兴发挥了促进作用，工程建设是形成固定资产的基本生产过程，因此，建筑业和房地产成为许多国家和地区的经济支柱之一。 建筑工程就是兴建房屋规划，勘测，设计，施工的总称。目的是为人类的生产和生活提供场所。 房屋好比一个人，它的规划就像人生活的环境，是由规划师负责的；它的布局和艺术处理相应于人的体形、容貌、气质，是由建筑师负责的；它的结构好比人的骨骼和寿命，是由结构工程师负责的；它的给排水、供热通风和电气等设施就如人的器官、神经，是由设备工程师负责的。也像自然界完好地塑造人一样，在城市我地区规划基础上建造房屋，是建设单位，勘察单位、设计单位的各种设计工程师和施工单位全面协调合作的过程。 结构说穿了，不过就是受力体的反力与内部应力如何与外力达到平衡。建筑首先要解决，也是必须要解决的问题就是受力的问题。我们把解决 这个问题的学科称为建筑力学。建筑力学有可以分为：静力学，材料力学和结构力学三大力学体系。
The principal construction materials of earlier times were wood and masonry brick,stone,or tile,and similar materals.The courses of layer were bound together with mortar or bitumen,a
tar-like substance or some other binding agent.The Greeks and R omans sometimes used iron rods or clamps to strength their buildings.The columns of the Parthenon in Athens,for example,have holes drilled in them for iron bars that have now rusted away.The Romans also used a natural cement called pozzolana,made from volcanic ash,that became as hard as stone under water.
Both steel and cement,the two most important construction materials of modern times,were introduced in the nineteenth century.Steel,basically an alloy of iron and a small amount of carbon,had been made up to that time by a laborious process that restricted it to such special uses as sword blades.After the invention of the Bessemer process in 1856,steel was available in large quantities at low prices.The enormous advantage of steel is its tensile strength;that is ,it does not lose its strength when it is under a calculated degree of tension,a force which,as we have seen,tends to pull apart many materials.New alloys have further increased the strength of steel and eliminated some of its problems.such as fatigue,which is a tendency for it to weaken as a result of continual changes in stress.
Modern cement,called Portland cement,was invented in 1824.It is a mixture of limestone and clay,which is heated an then ground into a powder.It is mixed at or near the construction site with sand,aggregate(small stones,crushed rock, or gravel),and water to make concrete.Different proportions of the ingredients produce concrete with different strength and weight.Concrete is very versatitle;it can be poured,pumped,or even sprayed into all kinds of shapes.And whereas steel has great tensile strength.concrete has great strength under compression.Thus,the two substances complement each other.
They also complement each other in another way:they have almost the same rate of contraction and expansion.They thereforce can work together in situations where both compression and tension are factors.Steel rods are embedded in concrete to make reinforced concrete in concrete bams or stuctures whtere tension will develop.Concrete and steel also form such a strong bond-the force that unites them-that the steel cannot slip within the concrete.Still another advantage is that steel does not rust in concrete.Acid corrodes steel,whereas concrete has an alkaline chemical reaction,the opposite of acid.
Prestressed concrete is an improved form of reinforcement.Steel rods are bent into the shapes to give them the necessary degree of tensile strength.They are then used to prestress concrete,usually by pretensioning or posttensioning method.Prestressed concrete has made it possible to develop buildings with unusual shapes,like some of the modern sports arenas,with large spaces unbroken by any obstructing supports.The uses for this relatively new structural method are constantly being developed.
The current tendency is to develop lighter materials.Aluminum,for example,weighs much less than steel but has many of the same properties.Aluminum beams have alrealy been used for bridge construction and for the framework of a few buildings.
Concrete structure temperature stress analysis
超长混凝土结构的温度应力分析与控制技术研究 陈军毅 ，浙江大学，结构工程，2006，硕士
【摘要】随着我国经济建设的迅速发展和建筑技术水平的提高,超长混凝土结构不断在大型公共建筑和工业建筑中出现。由于考虑到建筑上的美观性和结构上的整体性,这些建筑往往不设或少设温度伸缩缝,致使通长不设缝的结构长度远远超出了我国规范规定的伸缩缝限值。对于超长混凝土结构,温度应力是必须考虑的重要因素,也是引起这类结构裂缝的主要原因。所以对超长混凝土结构温度应力的分析并研究其有效的控制技术具有重要的意义。 本文首先总结了国内外关于超长混凝土结构温度应力的研究现状,并简要地介绍了温度应力的弹性力学理论,然后概述了应用大型通用有限元软件ANSYS分析超长混凝土结构温度应力的有限元理论。由于混凝土工程结构长期经受自然环境气温变化和日照辐射等的作用,加上混凝土材料较差的热传导性能,使得结构的温度场成为一个很复杂的不稳定温度场。本文着重探讨了结构各种温度荷载作用的效应。 本文的研究内容主要包括:分析了超长结构年温差作用效应,探讨了结构在年温差荷载作用下各构件的温度内力和温度变形特点,并对其影响因素作了参数化分析,重点分析了剪力墙构件的影响;结合某一典型超长框架——剪力墙结构,分析了超长结构的水平瞬时温差作用效应,对日照温度场及非线性温度分布的分解和等效作了一定探讨,通过比较均匀温度场及线性温度场下的结构效应,得到了温度梯度对结构内力和变形产生的影响;简要分析了结构的竖向瞬时温差作用效应 针对目前超长结构分析中往往假定整个结构均匀温降的合理性进行了分析,研究了结构在考虑梁温差滞后的温度作用效应,并对其影响因素作了参数化分析;分析了无粘结预应力技术在超长结构温度应力控制中的作用,结合一典型超长结构,分析了该结构在直线无粘结预应力筋作用下的变形和内力,并分析比较了不同预应力筋布筋形式下的结构效应,得出了合理布筋形式,即在柱上板区域集中布筋,并应对超长结构留设后浇带分段张拉预应力筋;最后结合一具体工程——杭州
With the improvement of China's economic construction and rapid development and the level of construction technology, the overlong concrete structure is emerging in large public buildings and industrial buildings. Due to architectural appearance and structure as a whole, these buildings often no or less temperature is adjustable seam, resulting in full-length seam structure length far beyond our specification adjustable seam limits. For the super long concrete structure, temperature stress is an important factor that must be considered, but also caused the main reason for this kind of
structure crack. So for super long concrete structure temperature should force analysis and study the effective control technology has important significance. In this paper, the total This paper briefly introduces the finite element theory of the temperature
stress of the concrete structures, which is a very complicated and unstable temperature field. The temperature field of concrete structures is a very complicated and unstable temperature field. The temperature field of the structure is analyzed, and the effect of temperature field is analyzed. The effects of temperature gradient on the structural internal force and deformation of the structure are discussed, and the effects of temperature gradient on the internal force and deformation of the structure are
analyzed. The effects of temperature gradient on the internal force and deformation of the structure are discussed, and the effects of temperature gradient on the structural internal force and deformation are discussed. This paper analyzes the rationality of the uniform temperature drop of the whole structure, studies the effect of temperature on the temperature difference between the structure and its influence factors, analyzes the deformation and internal force under the action of linear non bonded prestressed
tendons, analyzes the deformation and internal force, and gives the reasonable layout, that is, the area of the plate is concentrated, and the length of the paper is designed. Jianggan District national fitness center, the three floor temperature field monitoring data analysis and control of temperature field, the structure of the structure under the control of temperature and stress, the finite element method to analyze the concrete structure temperature stress is feasible. The national economy in the continuous development, people on the construction safety and aesthetics also has a new
understanding and requirements, some public buildings are gradually to the comfort, large-scale development, large public buildings and industrial buildings. Body
resistance and aesthetics consideration, our designers often in these buildings with no or less expansion joint. However, for the super long concrete structure, temperature stress is an important factor that must be considered, but also caused the main reason for cracks in these structures, so on the long mixed background and overview of force analysis of the concrete structure temperature stress and finite element software simulation is of great significance. The main contents of this paper are as follows: first, an overview of the super long concrete structure, expounds the overlong
concrete structure shrinkage theory, the theory of creep and temperature should be
basic theory of power. Then briefly introduce the field monitoring technology in super long concrete structure In this paper, the design and analysis of the temperature stress distribution characteristics of ultra long concrete structures are analyzed, and the influence of the temperature stress on the design and construction of the super long concrete structures is analyzed. The results are very useful for the design and
construction of the Ansys. This paper analyzes the effect of the structure of the concrete.
To figure out the distribution of temperature gradient along the girder height of steel-concrete composite box girder, combined with the mechanical characteristics of prestressed concrete composed box girder with corrugated steel webs, the calculation formulas of cross-sectional temperature stress along the span in a simply-supported beam bridge with composite section were derived under the conditions of static equilibrium and deformation compatibility of the beam element. The methods of calculating the maximum temperature stress value were discussed when the connectors are assumed rigid or flexible. Theoretical and numerical results indicate that the method proposed shows better precision for the calculation of temperature self-stress in both the top and the bottom surfaces of the box girder. Moreover, the regularity of temperature stress distribution at different locations along the girder span is that the largest axial force of the top or the bottom plate of the box girder is located in the midspan and spreads decreasingly until zero at both supported ends, and that the greatest longitudinal shear density in steel-concrete interface appears at both supported ends and then reduces gradually to zero in the midspan.Reliable computational prognoses of the structural integrity and serviceability throughout the lifetime of structures require the realistic consideration of the damage behaviour of the construction materials for various loading scenrios including static and cyclic loading, environmental loading processes such as moisture and heat transport, corrosion processes, freeze-thaw actions and possible interactions between these long- and short-term processes. Both, load-induced damage
mechanisms such as evolving microcracks and physically and chemically induced deterioration originate from mechanical, physical and chemical processes starting at lower scales of the microstructure of the materials. Investigating and understanding these processes acting at various scales is a prerequisite for the development of adequate and suitable material models suitable for life-time oriented simulations.
为了找出温度梯度沿钢筋混凝土组合箱梁梁高度的分布，结合预应力砼组合箱梁波形钢腹板的机械特性，横截面温度应力的计算公式沿跨度在复合段简支梁桥进行静平衡和梁单元的变形协调的条件下得到的。当连接器假定刚性或柔性的计算最大温度应力值的方法进行了讨论。理论和数值结果表明，对于自身温度胁迫中的顶部和所述箱梁的底面的计算方法提出节目更好的精度。此外，在沿梁跨度不同位置温度应力分布规律是，顶部或箱梁的底板的最大轴向力位于中跨和扩散渐减直到零双方都支持两端处，并且该在钢 - 混凝土接口最大纵向剪切密度出现双方都支持两端处，然后在整个结构的寿命所需要的现实考虑的建筑材料的破坏行为的逐渐减小到零的结构完整性和可维护性的计算预后关于各种装载包括静态和循环加载，环境负荷过程，如湿气和热量输送，腐蚀过程，冻融动作和这些长期和短期的进程之间的可能的相互作用。既，负载诱导损伤的机制，例如演进的微裂纹和物理和化学上从机械，物理和化学过程诱导劣化源于起始材料的微观结构的较低比例。调查和了解作用于各种规模的这些过程是适合生命周期导向模拟足够和合适的材料模型发展的前提。
1 Careers in Civil Engineering
Engineering is a profession, which means that an engineer must have a specialized university education. (工程是一个专业，这就是说一个工程师必须受过专业的大学教育) Many government jurisdictions also have licensing procedures which require engineering graduates to pass an examination, similar to the bar examination for a lawyer, before they can actively start on their careers. (许多政府行政区还有签发资格认可的程序，要求工科毕业生在充满自信地开始他们的职业生涯以前要通过一次考试，就象律师必须通过律师资格考试一样)
In the university, mathematics, physics, and chemistry are heavily emphasized throughout the engineering curriculum, but particularly in the first two or three years. (在大学里，特别是头二、三年，数学、物理、化学时被重点强调的工科课程) Mathematics is very important in all branches of engineering, so it is greatly stressed. (在所有工程分支中数学都非常重要，所以一向特别强调它) Today, mathematics includes courses in statistics, which deals with gathering, classifying, and using numerical data, or pieces of information. (现在数学课程包括统计学，它是一门研究数据、一些信息的收集、分类和使用的课程) An important aspect of statistical mathematics is probability, which deals with what may happen when there are different factors, or variables, that can change the results of a problem. (统计数学的一个重要部分是概率论，他是研究不同因子或变量对问题所产生的各种结果发生的可能性大小的学科) Before the construction of a bridge is undertaken for example,a statistical study is made of the amount of traffic the bridge will be expected to handle. (例如，在建设一座桥梁前，要对它可能承担的交通量进行一次统计研究) In the design of the bridge, variables such as water pressure on the foundation, impact, the effects of different wind forces, and many other factors must be considered. (在设计这座桥梁时，必须考虑到各个变量，如作用于基础上的水压、冲力、不同风力的影响以及许多其它因素)
Because a great deal of calculation is involved in solving these problems, computer programming is now included in almost all engineering curricula. (因为解决这些问题需要进行大量的计算，所以目前计算机程序编制已列入几乎所有工科的课程中) Computers, of course, can solve many problems involving calculations with greater speed and accuracy than a human being can. (诚然计算机能比人更快、更精确地解决许多需要计算的问题) But computers are useless they are given clear and accurate instructions and information-in other words, a good program. (但是除非给他们清楚而准确的指令和信息——换而言之，就是编制良好的程序，否则计算机就毫无用处) In spite of the heavy emphasis on technical subjects in the engineering curriculum, a current trend is to require students to take courses in the social science and the language arts. (尽管在工科的课程设置中重点应放在技术科目上，但是当前的一个趋势还是要求学生学习一些社会科学和
语言艺术方面的课程) The relationship between engineering and society is getting closer; it is sufficient, therefore, to say again that the work performed by an engineer affects society in many different and important ways that he or she should be aware of. (工程和社会之间的关系越来越密切，因此有充分理由再次提出，一个工程师的工作在所通晓的许多不同而且重要的方面影响着社会) An engineer also needs a sufficient command of language to be able to prepare reports that are clear and, in many cases, persuasive. (一个工程师还需要能自如地运用语言，能写出条理清楚并在许多情况下具有说服力的报告) An engineer engaged in research will need to able to write up his or her findings for scientific publications. (从事科学研究的工程师要能将他（她）的科研成果写成文章提供给科学刊物)
The last two years of an engineering program include subjects within the student’s field of specialization. (最后两年的工科教学计划包括学生所学专业领域内的课程) For the student who is preparing to become a civil engineer, these specialized courses may deal with such subjects as geodetic surveying, soil mechanics, or hydraulics. (对将要成为土木工程师的大学生来说，这些专业课程可能涉及到大地测量、土力学或水力学)
Active recruiting for engineers often begins before the student’s last year in the university. (现行的工程师招聘往往在大学生最后一年前就开始进行) Many different corporation and government agencies have competed for the services of engineers in recent years. (近年来，许多不同公司和政府机构竞相争取录用工程师) In the science-oriented society of today, people who have technical training are, of course, in demand. (在当今这个重视科学的社会，当然需要受过技术培训的人才) Young engineers may choose to go into environmental or sanitary engineering, for example, where environmental concerns have created many openings; or they may prefer choose construction firms that specialize in highway work,or they may to work with one of the government agencies that deal with water resource. (年轻的工程师可能选择从事环境或卫生工程，例如环境工程专业为他们提供了许多就业机会；他们也可能选择专门从事高速公路工程施工的工程公司，他们可能更愿意到与水资源有关的政府机构工作) Indeed, the choice is large and varied. (事实上，可供选择的机会是广泛的、多样的)
When the young engineer has finally started actual practice, the theoretical knowledge acquired in the university must be applied. (当年轻的工程师最终开始实际的业务工作时，肯定要用到大学里学到的理论知识) He or she will probably be assigned at the beginning to work with a team of engineers. (他（她）在开始时可能被派去和一个工程师小组一起工作) Thus, on-the-job training can be acquired that will demonstrate his or her ability to translate theory into practice to the supervisors. (这样，就能获得实际工作的锻炼，使主管人了解他（她）将理论应用于实践的能力)
The civil engineer may work in research, design, construction supervision, maintenance, or even in sales or management. (土木工程师可从事研究、设计、施工管理、维修甚至销售或经营
工作) Each of these areas involves different duties, different emphases, and different uses of engineer’s knowledge and experience. (这些领域的每一种工作都有不同的职责、不同的重点和工程师的知识和经验的不同应用)
Research is one of the most important aspects of scientific and engineering practice. (科学研究是科学和实践最重要的一个方面) A researcher usually works as a member of a team with other scientists and engineers. (一个科研工作者通常是和其它科学家和工程师一道工作，是小组的成员) He or she is often employed in a laboratory that is financed by government or industry. (他（她）往往在一个由政府或工业企业资助的实验室里工作) Areas of research connected with civil engineering include soil mechanics and soil stabilization techniques, and also the development and testing of new structural materials.( 与土木工程有关的研究领域包括土力学、土加固技术，以及新型结构材料的研制和试验)
Civil engineering projects are almost always unique; that is, each has own problems and design features. (土木工程设计几乎都具有独特性，那就是各有其特有的问题和设计特点) Therefore, careful study is given to each project even before design work begins. (因此，甚至设计工作还没有开始之前就要对每项工程进行仔细的研究) The study includes a survey both of topography and subsoil features of the proposed site. (这些研究包括对拟建项目场址地形和地基土特征进行勘测) It also includes a consideration of possible alternatives, such as a concrete gravity dam or an earth-fill embankment dam. (研究还包括要考虑各种可供选择的方案,例如是选用混凝土重力坝还是填土堤坝) The economic factors involved in each of the possible alternatives must also be weighed. (对每种可能方案的经济因素也必须权衡) Today, a study usually includes a consideration of the environmental impact of the project. (现在，一项研究工作通常还包括要考虑这个项目对环境的影响) Many engineers, usually working as a team that includes surveyors, specialists in soil mechanics, and experts in design and construction, are involved in making these feasibility studies. (在进行这些可行性研究时要由许多工程师来完成。他们往往是组成一个组一道工作，其中有测量人员、土力学专家、以及设计和施工方面的专家)
Many civil engineers, among them the top people in the field, work in design. (许多土木工程师从事设计工作，其中有些人是这个领域的佼佼者) As we have seen, civil engineers work on many different kinds of structures, so it is normal practice for an engineer to specialize in just one kind. In designing buildings, engineers often work as consultants to architectural or construction firms. (正如我们所看到的，土木工程师要承担许多不同种类构筑物的设计工作，所以一般情况下一个工程师只擅长某一种构筑物的设计。在设计房屋时，工程师常常被聘为建筑或施工公司的顾问) Dams, bridges, water supply systems, and other large projects ordinarily employ several engineers whose work is coordinated by a system engineer who is in charge of the entire project. (大坝、桥梁、供水系统和其他大型项目常常聘用一些工程师，他们的工作通常由一个负责整个项目的系统工程师来协调) In many cases, engineers from other disciplines are involved. (在很多情
况下，还需要其他专业的工程师) In a dam project, for example, electrical and mechanical engineers work on the design of the powerhouse and its equipment. (例如在一项大坝工程中，电力和机械工程师就要承担发电站和设备的设计工作) In other cases, civil engineers are assigned to work on a project in another field; in the space program, for instance, civil engineers were necessary in the design and construction of such structures as launching pads and rocket storage facilities. (在另外一些情况下，土木工程师也被派去参加其他领域中的工程，例如在航天工程中，就需要土木工程师去设计和建造诸如发射平台、导弹库这类构筑物)
Construction is a complicated process on almost all engineering projects. (对几乎所有的工程项目来说，施工都是一项复杂的过程) It involves scheduling the work and utilizing the equipment and the materials so that costs are kept as low as possible. (它涉及到进度安排、设备和材料选用，都要尽可能地降低成本) Safety factors must also be taken into account, since construction can be very dangerous. (安全因素也必须考虑，因此施工有可能非常危险) Many civil engineers therefore specialize in the construction phase. (因此，许多土木工程师专门从事施工方面的工作)
姓 名 xxxxxxx
学 号 xxxxxxxxxxx
院 系 土木工程与建筑系
专 业 土木工程
年 级 xxxxxxxxxxxxxx
2013年 6 月 18 日
The Development History and Future of Steel Structure
Abstract: More than 30 years, the modern building materials by using steel, glass, membrane materials and the corresponding structure, construction technology and construction process of building up the steel structure building, completely changed the previous architecture model, idea and method of architectural design will change. Steel is a high strength, high performance materials with very high value, recycling, scrap has value. Seismic performance of steel structure, flexible use, construction is not consume wood, steel template and water mass, also won't produce strong noise and air pollution.
Compared with other structure of concrete filled steel tube structure, having the advantages of high bearing capacity, ductility and seismic performance, material saving and convenient construction characteristics. For high-rise building, these characteristics are particularly
prominent, China in this field has been in a leading position.
Keyword: Development Steel Structure building material
摘要: 30余年来，利用钢格、玻璃、膜材等现代建筑材料及相应的结构、构造技术与施工工艺建筑起来的钢结构建筑，彻底改变了以往建筑造型的模式，建筑设计的理念与方法亦随之嬗变。 钢材是一种高强、高效能的材料，具很高的再循环价值，边角料也有价值。钢结构抗震性能好，使用灵活，施工时既不需要耗费大量的木材、钢模板和水，也不会产生强的噪音与空气污染。 钢管混凝土结构与其它结构相比，具有承载力高、塑性和抗震性能优越、节省材料和施工简便的特点。用于高层建筑中，这些特点尤为突出，中国在此领域已处于领先地位。
关键词: 发展 钢结构 建筑 材料
Introduction: Breakthrough progress of construction steel was started in nineteen sixties. More than 30 years, the modern building materials by using steel, glass, membrane materials and the corresponding structure, construction technology and construction process of building up the steel structure building, completely changed the previous architecture model, idea and method of architectural design will change. Today, technology integration and sustainable development
concept has win support among the people, by the steel structure technology as the basic means, focus on the material characteristics and technical performance of the architectural creation tendency has become the trend of the times.
Compared with foreign countries, the development of steel structure building in China is relatively backward, in China's steel production has ranked first in the world, steel structure building basic conditions mature premise, steel structure technology has not been effective promotion, are worth meditative. At present, the architectural design industry in our country is generally insufficient, understanding of steel structure construction idea is backward; not high enthusiasm for the steel structure system, management and No. These are serious obstacles to the steel structure in the further development of our country.
1.The development history, foreign steel structure building
Metal structure was first used in building houses can be traced back to eighteenth Century is not english. Because at that time the cotton mill frequent fires, so the iron in the framework of building structure. 100 years later, the United States of Chicago school has built a number of
steel skyscrapers, French engineer Eiffel built the famous tower, metal building has now entered the first glorious era. At that time, people built the metal structure of the single-family housing, some metal housing, still in good condition.
In more than half a century later, the rise of the reinforced concrete structure, metal lost its reputation and charm in the architectural field, mainly used for the construction of factories, such as hangars.
Steel structure building in the nineteen sixties begin again with new development. Construction steel to be a breakthrough, computers have also begun early application, all the structure systems of metal building is becoming more and more mature. 70 in the French Pompidou cultural center built, high-tech trend began to appear; to the 80, 90 time, Renault auto parts distribution center, Hongkong HSBC, the French Lyon Airport TGV railway station, Kansai International Airport, the steel structure to a new high degree. At the same time, the architects in the small project, the steel structure technology played most incisive, such as the design of FRANCE architecture studio student restaurant, Jules Varna, the United States of America ABC company manufacturing high residence. In particular, the western developed countries have put forward a project of metal building concept, pre engineered metal building refers to a building structure is divided into several modules is processed in factory, so that the design, manufacture
and installation of steel structure building to integration, which greatly reduces the cost of construction (structure 10 lower than traditional ~20%), shorten the construction period, the comprehensive advantages of steel structure are more obvious.
In the new structure, many countries have increased research efforts, now has been built over a span of 1000m ultra large dome and a height of more than 1000m up to 4000m of super tall building. Also there are a lot of large span and space steel structure, built in 1989, the Canadian Toronto sky dome, span 205m, can accommodate 70000 people, roof is closed to all closed with air conditioning stadium. Built in 1993, Japan Fukuoka indoor stadium, 222m in diameter, is opening space steel structure of contemporary world's largest. Development of membrane structures also attract people's attention, built in 1992 in the United States of America Atlanta Olympic Games Main Stadium
Due to the progress of science and technology development and the quality of the importance of steel, steel structure is affirmed by the advanced countries, in Europe, America, Japan, Taiwan, plant construction with steel structure. In some advanced city, buildings, bridges, large public works, but also the use of steel structure building. In recent 10 years, in the United States, about 70% of the non residential and two layers and the following buildings are used in light steel portal frame system.
2. China's steel structure building development
The application of steel structure in our country has a long history. Ad 60 years began to build an iron chain bridge, the most famous is the Dadu River in Luding Bridge, has fully demonstrated that China's ancient outstanding achievements in metal structures. After the founding of new China, steel structure construction has greatly developed, can be divided into three stages: one is the beginning of period (50 years ~60 in the early 1990s), two is the low tide period (~70 years in the late 60's), three is the development period (80 years). The 50's to 156 projects funded by the Soviet Union as the opportunity, has made outstanding achievements in construction. In 60 countries put in steel saving in the construction industry policy, the implementation process there have been some misunderstanding, limits the rational use of steel structure construction and development.
The introduction of light steel construction in eighty coastal areas, the domestic steel
structure workshop, games will be a large number of steel structure of gymnasium construction,
as well as many high-rise steel structure building is built the first climax of development of China's steel structure. But in 1994, more than 100 meters high Chinese high-rise buildings 152 buildings, of which only 9 buildings with steel structure or steel and concrete structure, while in a foreign country with such high buildings are generally preferred for steel structure. China's annual construction steel quantity only 1% were used for prefabricated steel structure, compared with the developed countries more than 80% of the amount, huge gap. Fortunately, the current development of China's steel structure building appeared prosperity never. Mainly in the:
High-rise, super high-rise buildings by Chinese and foreign cooperation to domestic start. China's famous high-rise, high-rise buildings are mostly is the result of cooperation between China and foreign countries, such as Shanghai Jinmao Tower, world financial center, Shenzhen imperial estate building, Beijing Jing-Guang center. Sino-foreign cooperative design for
mastering foreign advanced technology and talent training exercise plays a promoting role. Built in 1998, Dalian Ocean Building (201m, 51) marked the domestic steel structure high-rise
building started, built in 1999, Shenzhen SEG Plaza (291.6m, 72) is the world's highest building steel pipe concrete structure.
China's steel structure construction has reached a certain level, but in the aspects of material, process design method compared with the developed countries still exist many gaps, is still blank in some areas, such as large span and space structure.
3.Vigorously promote the technology of steel structure, to carry out a wide range of urgency of steel structure building design
The urgency of environmental problems, promote the persecution
The development of steel structure has brought a breakthrough in solving the problems of the environment. First of all, steel is a high strength, high performance materials with very high value, recycling, scrap has value. Secondly, the seismic performance of steel structure, flexible use, construction is not consume wood, steel template and water mass, also won't produce strong noise and air pollution. Again, the development of steel structure will lead to a series of lightweight wall materials development, and create the conditions for the development of green building materials. Of course, the steel structure which is compared with the brick masonry structure, is not to say that the steel structure building is no damage to the environment, is the use of resources, energy is relatively reasonable, the destruction of the environment is relatively
less. In the face of severe environmental problems, the development of steel structure building, instead of concrete and masonry building is an ideal choice.
Trace the development of construction steel structure of developed countries, combining the actual conditions of our country, it is not difficult to see that the development of steel structure in our country a bright future, but will have many characteristics different from developed countries. So promising, because the government has begun to attach great importance to the development of steel structure, the steel structure technology as a new technology is popularized in 1998, in 1999 established the national leading group for steel construction, headed by the Vice Minister of construction Ye Rutang as. At the same time, application of expert group composed of nine special subject research of steel structures in the field of architecture.
At present, the developed countries of the building steel consumption for its steel output of 45~55%, but our country building steel consumption accounted for only about 20% of the total output. The annual steel output of China has more than 1 tons, such as this ratio calculation, is China's construction steel has the development space of about 30000000 tons.
In recent years, with the pressure plate, etc. The use of lightweight roofing materials, light steel industrial plant has been rapid development. Its structure is mainly solid abdominal tapered portal frame.Affected by the structure of dynamic loads
Because steel has good toughness, and there are large hammer or other devices generate dynamic action of the plant, even small span roof, often made of steel. For high structural seismic capacity requirements, the use of steel is more suitable.
Multi-storey and high-rise buildings
Since the overall efficiency indicators steel excellent in recent years in many tall buildings has also been widely used. Its structure is mainly multi framework, which - supporting structure, frame tube, suspension, giant frameworks.
Towering structure includes a tower and mast structures, such as high-voltage transmission line tower, broadcasting, communications and television transmission tower and mast with rocket (satellite) launch tower and so on. So will have their own characteristics, because the conditions of our country is different
from the western developed countries, labor is relatively cheap, the country is not rich, receive
priority will steel structure low cost, technical content slightly lower. In the next period of time, steel concrete structure, steel structure will get fast development.
Compared with other structure of concrete filled steel tube structure, having the advantages of high bearing capacity, ductility and seismic performance, material saving and convenient construction characteristics. For high-rise building, these characteristics are particularly prominent, China in this field has been in a leading position.
Lightweight steel structure is widely used in large span single house, in the future will be applied in a large area of residential and small multi-storey public buildings. According to statistics, a few years after twentieth Century, China's urban housing construction to completed each year an area of 440000000 square meters, the total output value of 600000000000 yuan(about GDP9%) speed rapid development, housing industry has become a new growth point in the national economy at the turn of the century. Steel structure residential building system with its structural components, prefabricated light high degree, to facilitate the implementation of standardized, standardized design, construction machinery, fittings manufacturing factory, short construction period and other advantages, show its wide application and development prospect in the building materials market, was one of the main system to replace the existing small brick residential; small and medium construction is a large volume, the development of light steel structure for resources, energy shortage in China is still of great significance.
Standard Handbook for Civil Engineers (Handbook) by Jonathan Ricketts, M. Loftin and Frederick Merritt
Civil Engineering Handbook,by W.F.Chen
The Architect's Portable Handbook, by PAT GUTHRIE,McGraw-Hill Company.
1. 通过在 ANSYS 软件中对三组不同表观密度轻骨料的混凝土模型的有限元分析，结果显示混凝土表观密度增大时，混凝土整体抗压强度和弹性模量都有显示的提高，得出骨料表观密度对自密实轻骨料混凝土的力学性能有显著影响的结论。
2. 通过在 ANSYS 软件中对三组不同大小骨料的混凝土模型的有限元分析，结果显示骨料粒径增大时，混凝土的抗压强度和弹性模量下降很快，得出骨料粒径大小对自密实轻骨料混凝土的力学性能影响显著的结论。
3. 考虑到自密实轻骨料混凝土的核心问题是解决流动性与抗离析性能的统一，而这两点与水胶比都密切相关，因此水胶比的变化范围受到了严格限制。通过对 30 组不同配合比的自密实轻骨料混凝土模型的有限元分析，结算结果显示，水胶比变化不大的情况下，混凝土的抗压强度和弹性模量变化比较小，可得出水胶比对混凝土整体力学性能影响相对较弱。
Summary of this Chapter
This chapter analyzes the concrete compressive strength and elastic modulus are two important factors affecting the mechanical parameters, considering the aggregate performance of aggregate size, water cement ratio and constraints four cases, the following conclusions:
1. By apparent density for three different sets of lightweight aggregate concrete model for finite element analysis in ANSYS , It showed that the apparent density of concrete increases, the concrete compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of the whole show has improved, apparent density derived aggregate self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete mechanical properties have a significant impact on the conclusions.
2 . Through three groups of different sizes aggregate concrete finite element model analysis in ANSYS , it showed that aggregate size increases, the concrete compressive strength and elastic modulus decreased rapidly draw aggregate grain diameter size of the self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete mechanical properties significantly affected the conclusions.
3. Taking into account the self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete core problem is to solve mobility and anti-segregation performance unified, which are the water-cement ratio are closely related, so the water-cement ratio range of variation is severely limited. Through more than 30 different groups with self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete finite element analysis model, the settlement showed little change in the water-cement ratio in the case of concrete compressive strength and elastic modulus change is
relatively small, the water can be drawn cement ratio on the overall mechanical properties of concrete is relatively weak.
4. Through different ends of the concrete model constrained finite element analysis, come to different constraints, prism compressive strength and elastic modulus are not very different, indicating end friction has little effect on the overall mechanical properties, and Saint-dimensional Southern analysis of the principle of local effects consistent conclusions. As compared to the cement mortar matrix, aggregate strength and elastic modulus to be smaller, so it is weak concrete. Conclusion This article describes self-compacting lightweight aggregate concrete configuration process, aggregate selection is an important part.
This semester to learn the course of introduction to civil engineering has to have a preliminary understanding of civil engineering, the next thing I'd like to talk about my understanding of civil engineering.Regardless of past or present civil engineering plays an important part, and civil engineering has a long history, and even can be traced back to the Stone Age, so we are now learning civil engineering is quite necessary.
Civil engineering including scope is very broad, it includes building engineering, highway and urban road engineering, railway engineering, bridge engineering, tunnel engineering, airport engineering, etc., and canals, reservoir, DAMS and other water conservancy projects also include in civil engineering.Can say people cannot leave the civil engineering, to provide for
In ancient China to the world of architecture embodies the ancient working people's wisdom in our country, such as the Great Wall of our country, the dujiangyan irrigation project, the Summer Palace and so on, is the treasure of ancient architecture in our country, let us Chinese people feel proud.Whether in China or in other countries are many architectural wonders, we have to admire the ancient working people born of love.Such as the pyramids in Egypt, the Roman Colosseum, are of the human miracle in the history of architecture,
and so on.In modern civil engineering in the world and had the new change, it is also a change in the history of civil engineering materials, before construction to are built with stones, clay and other raw materials, and modern construction began to use the new materials such as cement, steel, these materials so that the strength of the stronger.Modern some famous buildings in the world such as the Eiffel Tower in France, countries of reinforced concrete Bridges, railways and other all use these different building materials.The modern people to further the concept of civil engineering, and people more and more high to the requirement of the building, so now the civil engineering has the following characteristics: (1) functional requirements diversification, (2) the construction of three-dimensional city, (3) traffic engineering large-scale rapidness (4) works.And to the natural disasters are now more and more attention, so people require all kinds of buildings can deal with some of the more serious natural disasters, reduce the wastage of the human and financial resources, I think this is now the characteristics of civil engineering.
Now let's talk about the specific content of the soil engineering, first all buildings must be material to complete, is the so-called one.From ancient since JinDou what building materials?Early civil engineering material is mainly brick, tile, sand, stone, ash, wood, etc., these are some of the original building materials, these materials are relatively cheap but there are also some disadvantages.The modern civil engineering materials mainly include steel, cement, concrete, etc.Steel has high strength, build the section size of small, quality of a material is solid, the advantages of good processing performance, now the steel material has been used in all kinds of buildings.Cement is also a modern new building materials, cement has many kinds, with general cement, cement, cement.The characteristics of cement because of its different kinds, such as quick setting rapid hardening Portland cement is mainly used in military engineering, airport runway, Bridges and other emergency repair
project.Cement also has the following advantages: can be obtained from the raw material, relatively low cost, good engineering using performance and has good compatibility with environment, this makes the cement in the current construction plays an important part.As to concrete, it is already the world's dosage the biggest, the most widely used in civil engineering materials, concrete has the following categories: cement concrete and special concrete and reinforced concrete, etc.Concrete has many advantages, and its abundant raw materials, low cost, simple production process, high compressive strength, good durability, etc.Modern high performance concrete, fiber concrete is a bit more prominent, it has the ultra high strength, low permeability, good structural performance, superior durability, significant economic effect, environmental protection, and many other advantages.Now also launched the concept of a green material, it also should be the people demand for high quality of life.
Civil engineering is the combination of a variety of engineering, has its foundation engineering, so what are the basic engineering civil engineering?As far as I know there are geotechnical engineering investigation, shallow foundation and deep foundation, uneven settlement and foundation treatment.Geotechnical engineering mainly include engineering geological surveying and mapping, the geotechnical engineering exploration method, in situ test, is to determine the geotechnical engineering exploration engineering geological problems, below the surface in deep geological data, the exploration of the main methods are: drilling, well test, trenching, hole and geophysical prospecting, drilling and most widely used.Engineering geological
surveying and mapping of the purpose is to find out the site and its adjacent area landform and geological conditions.Main methods have pictures into mapping method and field CeHuiFa, remote sensing technology has now has been widely used in engineering geological surveying and mapping.In situ testing is in geotechnical original position or basically in situ state testing of geotechnical properties and stress conditions.The main methods used are: load test, static cone penetration test, pressure test, vane shear test, standard penetration test and field test.Beside the pressure test is suitable for the clay, silt, sand, gravel soil and soft rock, etc.;The static cone penetration test is generally applied in the soft soil, cohesive soil and containing a small amount of gravel soil.The structure of shallow foundation with independent foundation, strip foundation, raft foundation and the box foundation.Deep foundation is located in the depths of the foundation bearing capacity is higher on the soil of buried depth is more than 5 m or more than of the width of the foundation base, such as pile foundation, the underground continuous wall, pier and open caisson, etc.Here I want to say about the characteristics of open caisson foundation embedment depth is very big, strong integrity, good stability, can bear larger vertical load and horizontal load, but also has its disadvantages, is the construction period is longer, the influence is bigger.I want to mainly talk about it for uneven settlement, the disposal methods in engineering practice, reduce the foundation differential settlement mainly use these methods: (1) in the center of the design is as far as possible when the upper load compression,
evenly distributed.(2) when you meet the height difference or foundation soft mutation to reasonable setting settlement joint.(3) increase the upper structure of uneven foundation of coordinating role.(4) reasonable arrangement of construction process and adopting reasonable construction method.Famous Leaning Tower of Pisa, Italy had rectifying project, make it become a feature of world architecture.
For the construction of the basic building blocks, I now know to have plate, beam, column, arch.Building is divided into single building, multistory buildings and large span buildings, high-rise buildings, high-rise buildings.Single-story brick structure is used in more and multilayer building adopts brick structure, frame structure;High-rise building super-tall building the main building structure forms are: frame structure, frame shear structure, shear wall structure, frame shear wall structure, simplified structure, etc.
I have been interested in transportation civil engineering, want to be a civil engineer, so now I want to talk about the understanding of civil engineering.
There are more and more Bridges, plays an irreplaceable role in the traffic.Bridges can be divided by bearing component force: just bridge girder bridge, arch bridge, bridge, cable-stayed bridge and suspension bridge, integrated system.Arch bridge has the advantage of great spanning capacity, good appearance, but difficult than girder bridge construction.Now mainspan the largest is the suspension bridge, can reach more than 1000 m.Now civil engineering plays a more and more important role, we, as a new generation of civil people, we should try to learn the professional knowledge, for the future will make greater contributions to the country.