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范文一:高中语文必修五第十三课1 投稿:谢漆漇

高中语文必修五第十三课 《祸兮福兮》导学案

学习目标:

1结合时代背景与关于老子的传说记载,初步了解老子及其辩证思想。 2通过精读课文积累文言知识(包括实词虚词和特殊句式)与成语。( 重点 难点)

3结合现实生活中的实例,充分理解本文的思想内容。

(难点)

教课时数:两课时

第一课时

课时目标

1成书的时代背景和历史意义

2积累文言实词虚词 古今异义词和词类活用(重点难点)

教学过程

一 导入

二 思

1通译教材 找出通假字 古今异义词 词类活用 。

2探讨词类活用的类型和规律(针对课文一一讲解)。

三 议

1根据所学的课文七个自然段分七个小组分别找出各段的通假字 古今异义词 词类活用

2联系以前所学知识找出一次多义的实词

四 展

小组派代表发言展示各组思考和讨论的问题

五 评

六 检

1 提问课后练习

七 作业 找出课文中的文言特殊句式

第二课时

课时目标

1总结课文出现的文言特殊句式(重点)

2 结合现实生活中的实例,充分理解本文的思想内容(难点) 教学过程

一 导入

二 思

节选自《道德经》的几段文字不仅包含丰富的文言知识,通过学习我们必须牢固的掌握,更重要的是老子所著《道德经》,是一部哲学著作,充满了朴素的唯物主义思想,它所反映的认识论极具丰富的社会经验。作为一个普通的读者,我尤为喜欢和崇尚老子提出的宇宙观、社会观和人生观,它教我认识生活、,美化心灵。

那么 我们想一想节选的这几段文字包含哪些哲学思想?

结合现实生活说一说这些哲学思想的社会意义

三 议

采用小组辩论赛的形式展开议论

四 展和评

祸兮福兮 事物都是相对而存在的

一切事物中都含有相反的动向

“道”的三种境界

相对存在和相反动向

量变和质变的辩证关系

“天道”和“人道”

弱之胜强 柔之胜刚

五 检

提升训练

其安易持,其未兆易谋。其脆易泮,其微易散。为之于未有,治之于未乱。合抱之木,生于毫末;九层之台,起于垒土;千里之行,始于足下。为者败之,执者失之。是以圣人无为,故无败,无执,故无失。民之从事,常于几成而败之。不慎终也。慎终如始,则无败事。

(老子)

积土成山,风雨兴焉;积水成渊,蛟龙生焉;积善成德,而神明自得,圣心备焉。故不积跬步,无以至千里;不积小流,无以成江海。骐骥一跃,不能十步;驽马十驾,功在不舍。锲而舍之,朽木不折;锲而不舍,金石可镂。蚓无爪牙之利,筋骨之强,上食埃土,下饮黄泉,用心一也;蟹六跪而二螯,非蛇鳝之穴无可寄托者,用心躁也。(荀子《劝学》)

1 翻译下面的句子

(1)民之从事,常于几成而败之。

(2)蟹六跪而二螯,非蛇鳝之穴无可寄托者,用心躁也。

2两段文字阐述了一个什么道理?

范文二:高中英语必修五课文 投稿:白褂褃

-必修5

Unit 2 The United Kingdom

Reading

PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY

People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. You can clarify this question if you study British history.

First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to

To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions. For example, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup!

England is the largest of the four countries, and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones. The zone nearest France is called the South of England, the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North. You find most of the population settled in the south, but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England. Although, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two! It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans. There you will find out more about British history and culture.

The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums, art collections, theatres, parks and buildings. It is the centre of national government and its administration. It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD, the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066. There has been four sets of invaders of England. The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads. The second, the Anglo-Saxons, left their language and their government. The third, the Vikings, influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England, and the fourth, the Normans, left castles and introduced new words for food.

If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these invaders. You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile.

Using Language

SIGHTSEEING IN LONDON

Worried about the time available, Zhang Pingyu had made a list of the sites she wanted to see in London. Her first delight was going to the Tower. It was built long ago by the Norman invaders of AD 1066. Fancy! This solid stone, square tower had remained standing for one thousand years.Although the buildings had expanded around it, it remained part of a royal palace and prison combined. To her great surprise, Zhang Pingyu found the Queen's jewels guarded by special royal soldiers who, on special occasions, still wore the four-hundred-year-old uniform of the time of Queen Elizabeth I.

There followed St Paul's Cathedral built after the terrible fire of London in 1666. It looked splendid when first built! Westminster Abbey, too, was very interesting. It contained statues in memory of dead poets and writers, such as Shakespeare. Then just as she came out of the abbey, Pingyu heard the famous sound of the clock, Big Ben, ringing out the hour. She finished the day by looking at the outside of Buckingham Palace, the Queen's house in London. Oh, she had so much to tell her friends!

The second day the girl visited Greenwich and saw its old ships and famous clock that sets the world time. What interested her most was the longitude line. It is an imaginary line dividing the eastern and western halves of the world and is very useful for navigation. It passes through Greenwich, so Pingyu had a photo taken standing on either side of the line.

The last day she visited Karl Marx's statue in Highgate Cemetery. It seemed strange that the man who had developed communism should have lived and died in London. Not only that, but he had worked in the famous reading room of the Library of the British Museum. Sadly the library had moved from its original place into another building and the old reading room was gone. But she was thrilled by so many wonderful treasures from different cultures displayed in the museum. When she saw many visitors enjoying looking at the beautiful old Chinese pots and other objects on show, she felt very proud of her country.

The next day Pingyu was leaving London for Windsor Castle.

Task2: Read the passage and answer these questions:

1. Who built the Tower of London? When was it built?

2. Who guarded the Queen’s jewels? What kind of clothes did they wear?

3. When was St Paul’s Cathedral built?

4. What did Westminster Abby contain?

5. Did she visit the Big Ben?

6. How did Zhang Pingyu finish the first day in London?

7. What could Pingyu see in Greenwich?

8. What interested her most in Greenwich? What kind of line is it?

9. Which places did she visit on the third day?

10. What seemed strange to her?

11. What made her thrilled?

Unit 3 Life in the future

Reading

FIRST IMPRESSIONS

Spacemall: liqiang299A@GreatAdventureSpaceStation.com 15/11/3008 (Earthtime)

Dear Mum and Dad,

I still cannot believe that I am taking up this prize that I won last year. I have to remind myself constantly that I am really in AD 3008. Worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. As a result, I suffered from “Time lag”. This is similar to the “jet lag” you get from flying, but it seems you keep getting flashbacks from your previous time period. So I was very nervous and uncertain at first. However, my friend and guide, Wang Ping, was very understanding and gave me some green tablets which helped a lot. Well-known for their expertise, his parents' company, called

I can still remember the moment when the space stewardess called us all to the capsule and we climbed in through a small opening. The seats were comfortable and after a calming drink, we felt sleepy and closed our eyes. The capsule began swinging gently sideways as we lay relaxed and dreaming. A few minutes later, the journey was completed and we had arrived. I was still on the earth but one thousand years in the future. What would I find?

At first my new surroundings were difficult to tolerate. The air seemed thin, as though its combination of gases had little oxygen left. Hit by a lack of fresh air, my head ached. Just as I tried to make the necessary adjustment to this new situation, Wang Ping appeared.

handed it to me and immediately hurried me through to a small room nearby for a rest. I felt better in no time. Soon I was back on my feet again and following him to collect a hovering carriage driven by computer. These carriages float above the ground and by bending or pressing down in your seat, you can move swiftly. Wang Ping fastened my safety belt and showed me how to use it. Soon I could fly as fast as him. However, I lost sight of Wang Ping when we reached what looked like a large market because of too many carriages flying by in all directions. He was swept up into the centre of them. Just at that moment I had a

Arriving at a strange-looking house, he showed me into a large, bright clean room. It had a green wall, a brown floor and soft lighting. Suddenly the wall moved - it was made of trees! I found later that their leaves provided the room with much-needed oxygen. Then Wang Ping flashed a switch on a computer screen, and a table and some chairs rose from under the floor as if by magic.

Li Qiang

Using Language

I HAVE SEEN AMAZING THINGS

My first visit was to a space station considered the most modem in space. Described as an enormous round plate, it spins slowly in space to imitate the pull of the earth's gravity. Inside was an exhibition of the most up-to-date inventions of the 31 st century. A guide (G) showed us around along a moveable path.

G: Good morning to all our visitors from 2008. First we're going to examine one of the latest forms of

communication among our space citizens. No more typists working on a typewriter or computer! No more postage or postcodes! Messages can now be sent using a

During the explanation I looked at the pair of small objects called

G: And now ladies and gentlemen, we are in the

Then the rubbish was sent to be buried or burned, am I fight? (We nodded.) Well, now there's a system where the waste is disposed of using the principles of ecology. A giant machine, always greedy for more, swallows all the waste available. The rubbish is turned into several grades of useful material, such as

recycled. A great idea, isn't' it?

I stared at the moving model of the waste machine, absorbed by its efficiency. But again we moved on.

G: Our third stop shows the changes that have happened to work practices. Manufacturing no longer takes

place on the earth but on space stations like this one. A group of engineers programme robots to perform tasks in space. The robots produce goods such as drugs, clothes, furniture, hovering carriages, etc. There is no waste, no pollution and no environmental damage! However, the companies have to train their representatives to live and work in space settlements. They have to monitor the robots and the production. When the goods are ready they're transported by industrial spaceship back to earth.

My mind began to wander. What job would I do? My motivation increased as I thought of the wonderful world of the future.

Unit 4 Making the news

Reading

MY FIRST WORK ASSIGNMENT

Never will Zhou Yang (ZY) forget his first assignment at the office of a popular English newspaper. His discussion with his new boss, Hu Xin (HX), was to strongly influence his life as a journalist.

HX: Welcome. We're delighted you're coming to work with us. Your first job here will be an assistant journalist.

Do you have any questions?

ZY: Can I go out on a story immediately?

HX: (laughing) That' s admirable, but I' m afraid it would be unusual ! Wait till you' re more experienced. First

we'll put you as an assistant to an experienced journalist. Later you can cover a story and submit the article yourself.

ZY: Wonderful. What do I need to take with me? I already have a notebook and camera.

HX: No need for a camera. You'll have a professional photographer with you to take photographs. You'll find

your colleagues very eager to assist you, so you may be able to concentrate on photography later if you' re interested.

ZY: Thank you. Not only am I interested in photography, but I took an amateur course at university to update

my skills.

HX: Good.

ZY: What do I need to remember when I go out to cover a story?

HX: You need to be curious. Only if you ask many different questions will you acquire all the information you

need to know. We say a good journalist must have a good

ZY: What should I keep in mind?

HX: Here comes my list of dos and don'ts: don't miss your deadline, don't be rode, don't talk too much, but

make sure you listen to the interviewee carefully.

ZY: Why is listening so important?

HX: Well, you have to listen for detailed facts. Meanwhile you have to prepare the next question depending on

what the person says.

ZY: But how can I listen carefully while taking notes?

HX: This is a trick of the trade, If the interviewee agrees, you can use a recorder to get the facts straight. It's also

useful if a person wants to challenge you. You have the evidence to support your story.

ZY: I see! Have you ever had a case where someone accused your journalists of getting the wrong end of the

stick?

HX: Yes, but it was a long time ago. This is how the story goes. A footballer was accused of taking money for

deliberately not scoring goals so as to let the other team win. We went to interview him. He denied taking money but we were sceptical. So we arranged an interview between the footballer and the man supposed to bribe him. When we saw them together we guessed from the footballer's body language that he was not telling the truth. So we wrote an article suggesting he was guilty. It was a dilemma because the footballer could have demanded damages if we were wrong. He tried to stop us publishing it but later we were proved right.

ZY: Wow! That was a real

too!

HX: Perhaps you will. You never know.

Using Language

GETTING THE

His first task was to write his story, but he had to do it carefully. Although he realized the man had been lying,

Zhou Yang knew he must not accuse him directly. He would have to be accurate. Concise too! He knew how to do that. Months of training had taught him to write with no wasted words or phrases. He sat down at his computer and began to work.

The first person who saw his article was a senior editor from his department. He checked the evidence, read the article and passed it on to the copy-editor. She began to edit the piece and design the main headline and smaller heading. “This will look very good on the page,” she said.

The news desk editor took the story and began to work on all the stories and photos until all the pages were set. All the information was then ready to be processed into film negatives. This was the first stage of the printing process. They needed four negatives, as several colours were going to be used on the story. Each of the main colours had one negative sheet and when they were combined they made a coloured page for the newspaper. After one last check the page was ready to be printed. Zhou Yang waited excitedly for the first copies to be ready.

Unit 5 First aid

Reading

FIRST AID FOR BURNS

The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ. You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays. The functions of your skin are also very complex: it keeps you warm or cool; it prevents your body from losing too much water; it is where you feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch. So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious. First aid is a very important first step in the treatment of bums.

Causes of burns

You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals.

Types of burns

There are three types of burns. Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on

which layers of the skin are burned.

◎ First degree burns These affect only the top layer of the skin. These burns are not serious and should feel better within a day or two. Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a mordent.

◎ Second degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin. These bums are serious and take a few weeks to heal. Examples include severe sunburn and bums caused by hot liquids.

◎ Third degree burns These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the skin. Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires. These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once.

Characteristics of burns

First degree burns

◎ dry, red and mildly swollen

◎ mildly painful

◎ turn white when pressed

Second degree burns

◎ rough, red and swollen

◎ blisters

◎ watery surface

◎ extremely painful

Third degree burns

◎ black and white and charred

◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen

◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of

injured area.

First aid treatment

1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn.

2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on third degree burns.

3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad. For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad.

4 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rob, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected.

5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on bums as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection. 6 If bums are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If bums are on the face, the victim should sit up.

7 If the injuries are second or third degree bums, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.

Using Language

HEROIC TEENAGER RECEIVES AWARD

Seventeen-year-old teenager, John Janson, was honoured at the Lifesaver Awards last night in Rivertown for giving lifesaving first aid on his neighbour after a shocking knife attack.

John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another.

John was studying in his room when he heard screaming. When he and his father rushed outside, a man ran from the scene. They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife. She was lying in her front garden bleeding very heavily. Her hands had almost been cut off.

It was John's quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade's life. He immediately asked a number of nearby people for bandages, but when nobody could put their hands on any, his father got some tea towels and tape from their house. John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms Slade's hands. He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived.

John had taken part in the Young Lifesaver Scheme at his high school. When congratulating John, Mr Alan Southerton, Director of the Young Lifesaver Scheme said,

Before receiving their awards last night, John and the nine other Life Savers attended a special reception yesterday hosted by the Prime Minister.

范文三:高中语文必修五 投稿:李藽藾

离骚 屈原

长太息以掩涕兮,哀民生之多艰。 余虽好修姱以鞿羁兮,謇朝谇而夕替。 既替余以蕙纕兮,又申之以揽茝。 亦余心之所善兮,虽九死其犹未悔。 怨灵修之浩荡兮,终不察夫民心。 众女嫉余之蛾眉兮,谣诼谓余以善淫。 固时俗之工巧兮,偭规矩而改错。 背绳墨以追曲兮,竞周容以为度。 忳郁邑余佗傺兮,吾独穷困乎此时也。 宁溘死以流亡兮,余不忍为此态也。 鸷鸟之不群兮,自前世而固然。 何方圜之能周兮,夫孰异道而相安? 屈心而抑志兮,忍尤而攘诟。 伏清白以死直兮,固前圣之所厚。

(译:我长声叹息而泪流满面啊,为老百姓多灾多难而哀伤。我只是崇尚美德而约束自己啊,没想到早上进谏晚上就被贬官。 贬黜我是因为我用香蕙作佩带啊,给我加罪是因为我爱好花香。 这也是我心中向往的美德啊,纵然九死一生我也毫不懊丧。 始终不能明了我心迹啊,我怨恨我那君王过分荒唐。 众女子嫉妒我长得美貌啊,放出谣言说我行为放荡。 本来世俗就崇尚投机取巧啊,任意而为将规矩背向。 违背准蝇而追求弯曲啊,竟相把苟合奉迎作为榜样。 忧闷失意啊我孤独彷徨,忍受着此时的穷困我好不心伤。 宁愿突然死去随着流水消逝啊,我也不肯做出世俗小人的模样。 雄鹰和凡鸟不可能生活在一起啊,自古以来就是这样。 方枘圆凿自然不能结合啊,道路不同哪能有相同的思想。 忍受着委屈而压抑着意志啊,忍受强加的罪过又将耻辱品尝。 保持清白为正道而死啊,古圣先贤都认为应该是这样。)

悔相道之不察兮,延伫乎吾将反。 回朕车以复路兮,及行迷之未远。 步余马於兰皋兮,驰椒丘且焉止息。 进不入以离尤兮,退将复修吾初服。 制芰荷以为衣兮,集芙蓉以为裳。 不吾知其亦已兮,苟余情其信芳。 高余冠之岌岌兮,长余佩之陆离。 芳与泽其杂糅兮,唯昭质其犹未亏。 忽反顾以游目兮,将往观乎四荒。 佩缤纷其繁饰兮,芳菲菲其弥章。 民生各有所乐兮,余独好修以为常。 虽体解吾犹未变兮,岂余心之可惩。

(译:真后悔选择道路时没有看清啊,我久久伫立徘徊傍徨。 转过我的车子返回原路,好在我虽然迷途却并没有失去方向。 赶着马车来到长满兰草的水边啊,奔驰后休息在长着椒树的山岗。 为君分忧反受指责啊,我退隐山林整理我当初的衣裳。 裁剪荷叶做出我的上装啊,连缀花瓣做出我的下装。 不了解我的心意也就算了啊,只要我的本心确实善良。 再加高我高高的帽子啊,再将我长长的佩带延长。 清香和污臭杂糅在一起啊,唯独我明洁的品质没有毁伤。 忽然回过头来放眼远眺啊,看到了辽阔大地的四面八方。 我佩戴上缤纷多彩的服饰啊,浑身上下散发着阵阵清香。 人生在世各有各的乐趣啊,我独爱美啊而且习以为常。 肢解我的身体我也不会变心啊,又有谁能改变我的志向?)

范文四:高中语文人教版必修一至必修五课文成语积累复习 投稿:史谪谫

高中语文人教版必修一至必修五课文成语积累

必修一

1、峥嵘岁月:形容不平凡的年月

2、风华正茂:正是风采动人和才华横溢的时候。形容青年朝气蓬勃、年轻有为

3、挥斥方遒:是说热情奔放,劲头正足。

4、百舸争流:形容群舟争相行驶。

5、天伦叙乐:老人和孩子在一起其乐融融的样子。

6、危在旦夕:形容危险即在眼前。

7、从谏如流:指听从好的建议就像水从高处流下一样顺畅自然,形容乐意接受别人的意见。

8、洞若观火:就像黑夜里看火一样,形容观察事物非常清楚。

9、以退为进:表面上退却,其实准备进攻的一种战略或战术。

10、化险为夷:将危险转化为平安。放浪形骸:指行为放纵,不受约束。

11、一去不复返:一去之后就不再回来。

12、图穷匕首:比喻事情发展到了最后,真相或本意显露出来。

13、悲歌击筑:亦作“悲歌易水”,常用以抒写悲壮苍凉的气氛。

14、切齿拊心:形容愤恨到极点。

15、发上指冠:毛发竖起的样子。形容极度愤怒。

16、无可奈何:没有办法,无法可想。表示事已如此,再要挽回已是无能为力。

17、变徵之声:乐声中的徵调变化,常作悲壮之声。

18、秋毫不犯:指军纪严明,丝毫不侵犯人民的利益。

19、劳苦功高:指出了很多力,吃了很多苦,立下了很大的功劳。

20、约法三章:比喻以语言或文字规定出几条共同遵守的条款。刘邦由于坚决执行约法三章,得到了老百姓的信任、拥护和支持,最后取得天下,建立了西汉王朝。

21、人为刀俎,我为鱼肉:比喻生杀大权掌握在他人手中,自己处于被人宰割的地位。

22、长歌当哭:长歌:长声歌咏,也指写诗;当:当作。用长声歌咏或写诗文来代替痛哭,借以抒发心中的悲愤。

23、目不忍视:眼睛不忍看视。形容景象极其悲惨。

24、耳不忍闻:耳朵不忍听知。形容消息极其悲惨。

25、百折不回:挫折。无论受多少挫折都不退缩,形容意志坚强。也说百折不挠。

26、殒身不恤: 殒:牺牲;恤:顾惜。牺牲生命也不顾惜。

28、步履稳健:表面意思指步伐稳重,用在特定场合也可以指办事一步一个脚印,很稳健。

29、博闻强记:形容知识丰富,记忆力强

30、屏息以待:抑止气息静静的等待。

31、世人瞩目:全世界都在关注某事或人

32、婆娑起舞:形容跳起舞来的姿态

33、引人注目:吸引人们注意。

34、发人深思:启发人深入地思考。形容语言或文章有深刻的含意,耐人寻味。

35、耸入云天:形容,高山,或者参天巨树的高大,比云还要高。

36、扭转乾坤:比喻从根本上改变整个局面。

必修二

范文五:高中语文人教版必修一至必修五课文成语积累 投稿:任敝敞

高中语文人教版必修一至必修五课文成语积累
语言运用 2014-05-13 10:54

高中语文人教版必修一至必修五课文成语积累 必修一 1、峥嵘岁月:形容不平凡的年月 2、风华正茂:正是风采动人和才华横溢的时候。形容青年朝气蓬勃、年轻有为 3、挥斥方遒:是说热情奔放,劲头正足。 4、百舸争流:形容群舟争相行驶。 5、天伦叙乐:老人和孩子在一起其乐融融的样子。 6、危在旦夕:形容危险即在眼前。 7、从谏如流:指听从好的建议就像水从高处流下一样顺畅自然,形容乐意接受 别人的意见。 8、洞若观火:就像黑夜里看火一样,形容观察事物非常清楚。 9、以退为进:表面上退却,其实准备进攻的一种战略或战术。 10、化险为夷:将危险转化为平安。放浪形骸:指行为放纵,不受约束。 11、一去不复返:一去之后就不再回来。 12、图穷匕首:比喻事情发展到了最后,真相或本意显露出来。 13、悲歌击筑:亦作“悲歌易水”,常用以抒写悲壮苍凉的气氛。 14、切齿拊心:形容愤恨到极点。 15、发上指冠:毛发竖起的样子。形容极度愤怒。 16、无可奈何:没有办法,无法可想。表示事已如此,再要挽回已是无能为 力。 17、变徵之声:乐声中的徵调变化,常作悲壮之声。 18、秋毫不犯:指军纪严明,丝毫不侵犯人民的利益。 19、劳苦功高:指出了很多力,吃了很多苦,立下了很大的功劳。 20、约法三章:比喻以语言或文字规定出几条共同遵守的条款。刘邦由于坚决 执行约法三章,得到了老百姓的信任、拥护和支持,最后取得天下,建立了西 汉王朝。 21、人为刀俎,我为鱼肉:比喻生杀大权掌握在他人手中,自己处于被人宰割 的地位。 22、长歌当哭:长歌:长声歌咏,也指写诗;当:当作。用长声歌咏或写诗文 来代替痛哭,借以抒发心中的悲愤。 23、目不忍视:眼睛不忍看视。形容景象极其悲惨。 24、耳不忍闻:耳朵不忍听知。形容消息极其悲惨。 25、百折不回:挫折。无论受多少挫折都不退缩,形容意志坚强。也说百折不 挠。 26、殒身不恤: 殒:牺牲;恤:顾惜。牺牲生命也不顾惜。 28、步履稳健:表面意思指步伐稳重,用在特定场合也可以指办事一步一个脚 印,很稳健。 29、博闻强记:形容知识丰富,记忆力强 30、屏息以待:抑止气息静静的等待。

31、世人瞩目:全世界都在关注某事或人 32、婆娑起舞:形容跳起舞来的姿态 33、引人注目:吸引人们注意。 34、发人深思:启发人深入地思考。形容语言或文章有深刻的含意,耐人寻 味。 35、耸入云天:形容,高山,或者参天巨树的高大,比云还要高。 36、扭转乾坤:比喻从根本上改
变整个局面。 必修二 1、蓊蓊郁郁:多形容草木蓬勃茂盛的样子。 2、混混沌沌:迷糊不清的样子,模糊一片,不分明。 3、急不暇择:在紧急的情况下来不及选择。 4、二三其德: 形容三心二意。 5、载笑载言:边笑边说话。 6、信誓旦旦:信誓:表示诚意的誓言;旦旦:诚恳的样子。誓言说得真实可 信。 7、夙兴夜寐:早起晚睡。形容勤奋。 8、杨柳依依:古人送行,折柳相赠,表示依依惜别。比喻依依不舍的惜别之 情。 9、九死不悔:纵然死很多回也不后悔。形容意志坚定,不认经历多少危险,也 决不动摇退缩。 10、瞻前顾后:看看前面,又看看后面。形容做事之前考虑周密慎重。也形容 顾虑太多,犹豫不决。 11、卓尔不群:指才德超出常人,与众不同。易误用为形容人的性格孤傲,难 以与周围人相处。 12、日月不淹:日月飞快地运转,一刻也不停留,形容时间过得很快。 13、楚楚可怜:本指幼松纤弱可爱,后形容女子娇弱的样子。 14、坚如磐石:象大石头一样坚固。比喻不可动摇。 15、去日苦多:已经过去的日子太多了。用于感叹光阴易逝之语。 16、天下归心:形容天下老百姓心悦诚服 17、少长咸集:年少的、年长的都聚集在了一起。 18、群贤毕至:很多有才能的人都来了。 19、曲水流觞:古民俗,每年农历三月在弯曲的水流旁设酒杯,流到谁面前, 谁就取下来喝,可以除去不吉利。 20、情随事迁:情况变了,思想感情也随着起了变化。 21、游目骋怀:纵目四望,开阔心胸。 22、放浪形骸:指行动不受世俗礼节的束缚。 23、感慨系之:有所感触,慨叹不已。 24、沧海一粟:大海里的一颗谷粒,形容物体非常渺小。 25、正襟危坐:使衣襟端正,使身子端正,这里是使动用法。形容人物严肃或 拘谨的样子。 26、遗世独立:脱离社会,独自生活,不跟别人往来。 27、不绝如缕:像细线一样连着,差点就断了。多用来形容局势危急或声音细 微悠长。

28、杯盘狼藉:形容宴饮后桌上凌乱的样子。 29、如泣如诉:好象在哭泣,又象在诉说。形容声音悲切。 30、余音袅袅:形容音乐悦耳动听,令人沉醉。 31、终南捷径:指求名利的最近便是门路。也比喻达到目的的便捷途径。 32、容有底止:或许能相当深。底止,深的意思。 33、责无旁贷:自己应尽的责任,不能推卸给旁人。 34、旁稽、博采两词意义相仿,连用表示从多方面考察、吸收各家长处之意 35、骇人听闻:指使人听了感到非常震惊。 36、义愤填膺:由不义的人和事所激起的愤怒感情充满胸膛。 37、安之若素:对于困危境地或异常情况,一如平素,泰然处之。 38、心急如焚:心
里急得像着了火一样。形容内心焦急万分。 39、无济于事:对事情没有帮助,指解决不了问题。 40、空头支票:无法生效的支票。比喻不能实现的诺言。 41、不言而喻:不用说什么就能明白。 42、息息相关:呼吸相关连,比喻关系密切。 43、休戚相关:休,喜悦、吉利;戚,忧愁悲哀。形容关系密切,利害相关。 44、休戚与共:忧患祸福彼此共同承担 45、 豁然开朗:形容由狭窄阴暗突然变为开阔敞亮。也比喻心里突然悟出道理 而感觉明朗。 46、浅尝辄止:只略微尝试一下就停止。比喻做事不深入。 47、坚韧不拔:形容意志坚强,有毅力,毫不动摇。 48、卓有成效:卓,特别突出,卓越。指很有成绩、效果。 必修三 1、谨小慎微:过分小心谨慎,缩手缩脚,不敢放手去做。 2、寄人篱下:依附于他人篱笆下。比喻依附别人生活。 3、小家碧玉:旧时指小户人家美丽的年轻女子。 4、入不敷出:收入不够支出。 5、横七竖八:有的横,有的竖,杂乱无章。形容纵横杂乱。 6、吞吞吐吐:想说,但又不痛痛快快地说。形容说话有顾虑。 7、沸反盈天:声音象水开锅一样沸腾翻滚,充满了空间。形容人声喧闹,乱成 一片。 8、为所欲为:本指做自己想做的事。后指想干什么就干什么。 9、遍体鳞伤:浑身受伤,伤痕象鱼鳞一样密。形容受伤很重。 10、皮开肉绽:皮肉都裂开了。形容伤势严重。多指受残酷拷打。 11、胆战心惊:发抖。形容十分害怕。 12、喜出望外:由于没有想到的好事而非常高兴。 13、地崩山摧:土地崩裂,山岭倒塌。多形容巨大变故。 14、一夫当关万夫莫开:意思是山势又高又险,一个人把着关口,一万个人也 打不进来。形容地势十分险要 15、磨牙吮血:磨利牙齿,吮吸鲜血。多形容像野兽一样嗜杀。 16、杀人如麻:杀死的人多得象乱麻。形容杀的人多得数不清。 17、千呼万唤:指呼唤多次,再三催促,形容不轻易出面。 18、切切私语:指在暗中小声说话。

19、珠盘玉落:形容乐器弹奏的声音清脆悦耳,十分动听。 20、整衣敛容:现指整理衣服,收起笑容,脸色严肃起来。 21、秋月春风:比喻良辰佳景、美好岁月。 22、暮去朝来:比喻时间过得很快。 23、门前冷落:形容来来往往的人极少。也作“门庭冷落”。 24、杜鹃啼血:本指杜鹃啼鸣,形容鸟类啼声的悲苦。 25、司马青衫:司马的衣衫都被泪水浸湿了。形容十分悲伤。 26、弃甲曳兵:形容打败仗逃跑时的狼狈相。 27、五十步笑百步:后泛用以比喻缺点或错误的性质相同,只有情节或好或重 的区别。 28、祸起萧墙:指祸乱发生在家里。比喻内部发生祸乱。 29、锲而不
舍:不断地镂刻。比喻有恒心,有毅力。 30、席卷天下:形容力量强大,控制了全国 31、包举宇内:并吞天下,占有一切。 32、囊括四海:比喻统统包罗在内。指统一全国。 33、追亡逐北:追击败走的敌军。 34、因利乘便:凭藉有利的形势。 35、云集响应:大家迅速集合在一起,表示赞同和支持。 36、斩木揭竿:砍削树木当兵器,举起竹竿作军旗。比喻武装起义 37、深谋远虑:指计划得很周密,考虑得很长远。 38、同年而语:犹言相提并论。把不同的人或不同的事放在一起谈论或看待。 39、瓮牖绳枢:破瓮做窗,绳作门轴。比喻贫穷人家。 40、畏葸不前:畏惧退缩,不敢前进。 必修四 1、开柙出虎:原指负责看管的人未尽责任。后多比喻放纵坏人。 2、虎兕出柙:虎、兕从木笼中逃出。比喻恶人逃脱,主管者应负责任。 3、既来之,则安之:原意是既然把他们招抚来,就要把他们安顿下来。后指既 然来了,就要在这里安下必来。 4、分崩离析:崩塌解体,四分五裂。形容国家或集团分裂瓦解。 5、祸起萧墙:指祸乱发生在家里。比喻内部发生祸乱。 6、五十步笑百步:作战时后退了五十步的人讥笑后退了百步的人。比喻自己跟 别人有同样的缺点错误,只是程度上轻一些,却毫无自知之明地去讥笑别人。 7、饿殍(piǎo)遍野:饿死的人到处都是。 8、豁然开朗:从黑暗狭窄变得宽敞明亮。比喻突然领悟了一个道理。 9、浅尝辄止:略微尝试一下就停下来。指不深入钻研。 10、卓有成效:有突出的成绩和效果。 11、坚忍不拔:形容在艰苦困难的情况下意志坚定,毫不动摇。 12、永垂不朽:指光辉的事迹和伟大的精神永远流传,不会磨灭。 13、骇人听闻:使人听了非常吃惊、害怕。 14、义愤填膺(yīnɡ):发于正义的愤懑充满胸中。 15、安之若素:安然相处,和往常一样,不觉得有什么不合适。 16、心急如焚:心里急得象着了火一样。形容非常着急。 17、息息相关:呼吸也相互关联。形容彼此的关系非常密切。

18、无济于事:对事情没有什么帮助或益处。比喻不解决问题。 19、摇摇欲坠:形容十分危险,很快就要掉下来,或不稳固,很快就要垮台。 20、不言而喻:不用说话就能明白。形容道理很明显。 21、大放厥(jué)词:原指铺张词藻或畅所欲言。现用来指大发议论。 22、语焉不详:指虽然提到了,但说得不详细。 23、一帆风顺:船挂着满帆顺风行驶。比喻非常顺利,没有任何阻碍。 24、不可思议:①佛家语。指思维和言语所不能达到的微妙境界。道教也借用 此语。②形容事物无法想象或难以理解。 25、筋疲力尽:形容非常疲乏,一
点力气也没有了。 26、恫瘝(ɡuān)在抱:把人民的疾苦放在心里。 27、无忧无虑:没有一点忧愁和顾虑。 28、遮天蔽日:遮蔽天空和太阳。形容事物体积庞大、数量众多或气势盛大。 29、白头偕老:夫妻相亲相爱,一直到老。 30、恻(cè)隐之心:形容对人寄予同情。 31、忐忑(tǎn tè)不安:心神极为不安。 32、兴高采烈:原指文章志趣高尚,言词犀利。后多形容兴致高,精神饱满。 33、慢条斯理:原指说话做事有条有理,不慌不忙。现也形容说话做事慢腾 腾,不慌不忙。 34、提心吊胆:形容十分担心或害怕。 35、奋不顾身:奋勇向前,不考虑个人安危。 36、物华天宝:指各种珍美的宝物。 37、人杰地灵:指有杰出的人降生或到过,其地也就成了名胜之区。 38、高朋满座:形容宾客很多。 39、命途多舛(chuǎn):形容在人生道路上历经坎坷,屡遭磨难。 40、冯唐易老:汉冯唐身历三朝,至武帝时,举为贤良,但唐已九十馀岁,不 能再做官了。 41、画栋珠帘:形容房屋装备的华丽。 42、李广难封:汉名将李广部下因军功而封侯的人很多,而李广本人抗击匈 奴,战功显赫,却不见封侯。后以“李广未封”、“李广不侯”、“李广难 封”慨叹功高不爵,命运乖舛。 43、老当益壮:年纪虽老而志气更旺盛,干劲更足。 44、东隅已逝:早年的时光消逝,如果珍惜时光,发愤图强,晚年并不晚。 45、各抒己见:各人充分发表自己的意见。 46、艰苦卓绝:坚忍刻苦的精神超过寻常。 47、充耳不闻:塞住耳朵不听。形容有意不听别人的意见。 48、置之不理:放在一边,不理不睬。 49、虚无缥缈:形容空虚渺茫。 50、袖手旁观:把手笼在袖子里,在一旁观看。比喻置身事外,既不过问,也 不协助别人。 51、自得其乐:自己能从中得到乐趣。 52、不屑一顾:认为不值得一看。形容极端轻视。 53、扬眉吐气:扬起眉头,吐出怨气。形容摆脱了长期受压状态后高兴痛快的 样子。 54、迎刃而解:原意是说,劈竹子时,头上几节一破开,下面的顺着刀口自己

就裂开了。比喻处理事情、解决问题很顺利。 55、兢兢业业:形容做事谨慎、勤恳。 56、天伦之乐:泛指家庭的乐趣。 57、耳熟能详:指听得多了,能够说得很清楚、很详细。 58、庸人自扰:指本来没有事,自己瞎着急或自找麻烦。 59、来龙去脉:本指山脉的走势和去向。现比喻一件事的前因后果。 60、雷霆万钧:形容威力极大,无法阻挡。 必修五 1、忍无可忍:再也忍受不下去了。 2、逼上梁山:比喻被迫起来反抗。现也比喻被迫采取某种行动。 3、垂头丧气:形容因失败或不顺利而情绪低落、萎
蘼不振的样子 4、没精打采:形容精神不振,提不起劲头 5、兴高采烈:原指文章志趣高尚,言词犀利。后多形容兴致高,精神饱满。 6、平心静气:心情平和,态度冷静。 7、理所当然:按道理应当这样。 8、正大光明:心怀坦白,言行正派 9、物华天宝:原指万物的光华,天上的宝气。形容各种珍贵的物品。 10、人杰地灵:意指人使地增色,地因人而著名。即杰出的人物出生或到过的 地方,便成为名胜之地,或指杰出人物生于灵秀之地。 11、胜友如云:才智出众的朋友们云集一处。 12、高朋满座:满座尽是高贵的宾朋。 13、腾蛟起凤:象蛟龙腾越,凤凰起舞。比喻文辞奇巧优美,才华横溢。 14、钟鸣鼎食:吃饭时,奏乐列鼎。形容贵族和富贵人家豪华奢侈的生活。 15、云销雨霁:云消雨散。指满天的云雨顿时消散,形容已经逝去的一切都不 会再回来了。 16、响遏行云:声音高入云霄,把浮动着的云彩也阻止了。形容歌声嘹亮有 力,悦耳动听。 17、天高地迥:迥:遥远。形容天地之间广阔无边。 18、兴尽悲来:高兴的劲儿过去了,使人悲苦的事又来了。 19、萍水相逢:萍:在水面上浮生的一种蕨类植物,随水漂泊,聚散不定。浮 萍在水里偶然相遇。比喻从来不相识的人偶然相遇。 20、冯唐易老:比喻仕宦不得志。 21、老当益壮:当:应当。益:更加。原指年纪老而志气应当更壮。 22、穷且益坚:也作“穷当益坚”。穷:不得志。益:更加。处境困难而意志 应当更加坚定。 23、涸辙之鲋:涸:水干,枯竭。辙:车辙。鲋:鲫鱼。干枯的车辙里的鲫 鱼。比喻处于困境急待救援的人。 24、失之东隅,收之桑榆:东隅:东方,日出处,指早上。桑榆:西方;日落 时,余光落在桑树和榆树之间;指晚上。早上有所失,晚上则有所得。比喻这 个时候失败了,另一个时候得到补偿。 25、一介书生:一介:一个。旧时读书人自称。或对一般读书人的雅称。 26、投笔从戎:投:扔掉,放弃。笔:笔杆子,指文墨生涯。从戎:参军。指 弃文就武,放弃文墨生涯去参加军队。

27、高山流水:原指含蓄在古琴曲里的两种喻意。后用以比喻知音或知己。 28、盛筵难再:盛:盛大。筵:筵席。盛大的筵席难以再得。 29、陆海潘江:陆、潘:晋朝的文学家陆机、潘岳。本是称颂陆机和潘岳文才 很高。后用以称颂学识渊博,才华横溢的人。 30、鹏程万里:相传鹏鸟能飞万里路程。比喻前程远大。 31、不近人情:不合乎人的常情。也指性情或言行怪僻。 32、扶摇直上:形容上升很快。比喻仕途得意。 33、孤苦伶仃:孤独困苦,无依无靠 34、茕茕孓立:孤独无依
的样子。 35、形影相吊:只有自己的身子和影子在一起互相慰问。形容非常孤单,没有 伴侣。 36、日薄西山:太阳接近西山。比喻人已经衰老或事物衰败腐朽,临近死亡。 37、气息奄奄:形容人即将断气、死亡的样子。也比喻事物衰败没落,即将灭 亡。 38、朝不谋夕: 亦作“朝不虑夕。”早晨不能谋及晚上。形容形势或事情危 急,只能顾及眼前,无暇作长远打算。 39、乌鸟私情:比喻侍奉尊亲的孝心。 40、结草衔环:亦作“衔环结草”。原是古代两个受恩报答的故事。比喻感恩 报德,至死不忘。 41、皇天后土:古人对天地的尊称,君履后土而戴皇天,皇天后土,实闻君之 言。 42、人命危浅:指人的寿命不长了,随时都会死亡。 43、咬文嚼字:形容过分地斟酌字句。多指死扣字眼而不注意精神实质。 44、学富五车:形容读书多,学识丰富。 45、才高八斗:比喻人极有才华。 46、心有余悸:危险的事情虽然过去了,回想起来心里还害怕。 47、流毒无穷:比喻祸害非常严重的事物 补充 1、走投无路:无路可走。比喻处境非常困难。 2、咀嚼鉴赏:细细品味和欣赏。 3、张冠李戴:比喻弄错了对象或弄错了事实。 4、信口开河:随口乱说一气 5、深恶痛绝:厌恶、痛恨到了极点。 6、不即不离:不靠近也不分离。 7、锱铢必较:对极小的事都计较 8、得鱼忘筌:筌是用来捕鱼的,得了鱼,就忘了筌。比喻达到目的后就忘了原 来的凭借。 9、熟能生巧:熟练了就能掌握技巧或窍门。 10、游刃有余:比喻技术熟练,经验丰富,解决问题毫不费力


范文六:高中语文必修五课文说课稿汇集 投稿:范襖襗

高中语文必修五课文说课稿汇集

教学博苑

06-19 0529

高中语文必修五课文说课稿汇集

1、,林教头风雪山神庙》说课稿

一、说教材我的课题是《林教头风雪山神庙》(人民教育出版社编写的高中语文教材第四册第16课),这是一篇特殊的课文。首先,它所处的单元在教材中位置特殊。高中语文教材有四个小说单元(高三册2单元,高四册1单元,高五册1单元共12篇课文),在第三册教材中,学生重点学习了“小说的人物形象和环境”、“小说的情节和主题”,已能够了解小说的基本要素和小说的主要特点。而第五册教材的小说单元教学的重点是“小说的鉴赏”,这对学生阅读小说提出了更高层次的要求。因此,从教材体系与大纲要求上看,第四册教材的小说单元实际上是一个承前起后的单元,进行本单元教学时便应该充分考虑这一特征。

其次,本课在单元中的位置特殊。第四册教材的小说单元教学的重点是“了解中国古代小说的特点”,本单元所节选的四篇课文均选自我国明清时代著名的几部古典小说(《红楼梦》、《水浒传》、《老残游记》、《醒世恒言》),而明清时代是我国古典小说发展的高峰,其创作总体呈现如下特点:(1)注意人物行动、语言和细节的描写,在矛盾冲突中展示人物性格;(2)情节曲折,故事完整;(3)语言准确简练、生动作流畅;(4)叙述方式明显带有说书人的印迹。而《林教头风雪山神庙》一文在创作上则充分体现了我国古典小说突出的艺术成就,教学中应引导学生仔细体会。再次,是本文在写作上的特色.本课是该单元的第二篇讲读课文。本文节选自《水浒传》的第十回,《水浒传》是我国文学史上第一部以农民起义为题材的优秀长篇小说,它艺术 地概括了历史上农民起义发生、发展直至失败的过程。用环境描写来渲染气氛、烘托人物、推动情节、深化主题的技巧是历来被人们所称道的,教学时应引导学生作重点领会。因此,我把本课的教学重点确定为:林冲的思想性格发展变化分几个阶段及其变化的关键;分析“风雪”等景物描写对情节、人物的作用则是本文教学的难点。

二、说教法在近几年的教学实践中,我对小说教学作了有益的探索:以“导”为主,从感觉人手,灵活运用评点法,以调动学生思维的积极性,让学生学会鉴赏和评价。它的具体要求是:综观全局,抓住关键,创设问题点,激发学生积极思考,引导学生步步深入地探索,在此基础上,据点作评,教师在关键处作灵活而简明的评说点拨,启发学生真正理解和掌握课文的精髓。这种评定法从学生的角度来讲,是通过感受、点拨而产生顿悟,而不是教师塞给他们某种

现成的结论,因而学生会为自己的不断发现和新解而欣慰不已,无形之中学习兴趣大增。叶圣陶先生说:“教师当然须教,而尤宜致力于‘导’。”“所谓教师之主导作用,盖在善于引导启迪, 学生自奋其力,自致其知,非谓教师滔滔讲说,学生默默聆受。”(《叶圣陶语文教育论集》下册,第718页、第725页,教育科学出版社)要使学生的思维之水常“鲜”常“活”,教师就必须在“导”字上下苦功夫,切不可居高临下,以自己的一知半解来堵塞学生的思维之泉。这就要求教师努力做好以下两点:第一,要比学生站得更高、更远,避免与学生站在同一思维平面上;第二,要知己知彼,懂得学生的阅读心理并设法使学生处于跃跃欲试、一显身手的最佳心理状态,从而形成教学的良性循环。《林教头风雪山神庙》一文的教学,我大胆地进行“问题导入,以导为主,读议结合”方法的尝试。

关于本课教学情景的创设的一点说明:我在上课前播放了电视剧《三国演义》的主题曲,而没有采用电视剧《水浒传》的主题曲,其意在营造一种特殊的气氛——强烈的音乐节奏感驱使学生急于去领略英雄好汉们的悲剧故事。教学过程中还适时穿插入了录像片的欣赏,有助于学生对主人翁性格和成因的理解。

三、说学法在第三册教材中,学生已经学过了两个小说单元的小说,已能了解小说的基本要素和小说的主要特点,并对本文节选故事的情节、人物形象、主题思想等内容也能大体把握。组织本课教学时,教师如果只是停留于对课文的情节、语言、动作、心理等的逐条分析上,必然会把课文搞得支离破碎,而使学生毫无兴趣;若能够抓住一点,深入挖掘,分层阅读,则能激起学生自动探求的欲望,开启学生的思维,收到良好的教学效果。

曾记得去年在教学本文时,课堂上有位同学提出这样一个问题:山神庙中,林冲用一块“大石头”顶住了庙门,使陆虞侯等三人不得进庙,为林冲最终识破奸贼的险恶用心从而走上反抗的道路提供了契机,可是林冲一个人“掇”得动一块大石头吗?怎么陆虞侯三人却推不开呢?这个细节真实吗?问题一出同学们就议论纷纷,我也一时乱了分寸。因为对一般读者而言这是个不成问题的问题,小说嘛,无巧不成书,情急之中,我想起苏轼的一句诗:“竹外桃红三两枝,春江水暖鸭先知。”我说道:“苏轼为什么非写成‘春江水暖鸭先知’不可呢?难道‘鹅’就不能够先知吗?小说和诗歌一样都是文艺作品,阅读文学作品是不能死抠的。”听了我的解释后,有的同学笑了,可不少的同学脸上仍旧带着疑问、困惑。我的解释为什么不能使学生信服呢?为了彻底地解开这个疑团,我想不如在课堂上主动地把“问题”提出来,让同学们发表看法,各抒己见。

四、说教学过程学生的学习过程一般包含“认知因素”和“情感因素”两个层面。认知过程沿“感觉——思维——知识”一线走;情感过程沿“感受——情绪——意志”一线走,二者在学习过程中缺一不可。组织教学时,我认为不妨让学生先睹为快,教师可放开手脚让学生“尽情享受”文本。因为只有当学生与阅读文本产生共鸣后,才会激发起探求的欲望;而只有当学生感受的触角一直深入到与作家的感受触角相交时,才有可能进入认知的阶段。所以学生的自主感受是极其重要的,是深入理解作品及产生顿悟的前提。为此,我在课前布置了这样一道预习题:用100字左右的文字提炼课文的情节或就作品某方面写

一点自己的阅读感受。课堂上应力避学生一看就“懂”、一“懂”兴趣就无的现象。这就要求教师要有针对性地选择突破口,设计好教学环节。导入新课时,我从释题开始,提出“文题中‘风雪’仅仅是人物活动的一个环境吗?”这样一个简单而又容易被学生忽视的问题,以引起学生对课文中有关环境描写语句的观注。这一步就称之为“释题生疑”。第二步则叫“趁热打铁”——“带学生从文章里走个来回。”(张志公语)我让学生把课文情节理清楚之后,再进行重点问题的讨论。在让学生概括本文的故事情节时,我问了这样两个问题:如果用不足20字概括呢?如果用4个字概括呢?有意识地插入语言表达的训练。然后教师点拨小结:概括故事情节要注意三点(1)准确;(2)顺畅;

(2)简练。出示情节发展的脉络图和对联(演示),结束这一步教学。接下去是进行课文难点问题的讨论。实施这一步要尽可能避免“注入式的回答”——把结论先塞给学生,使学生的认识只能局限于教师所定的框框里。这不利于学生独立思考能力的培养。教师应设计出一两个“出其意料”的问题,把学生的思维引向深处。我把教学中的那个“困惑”在这个时候抛给了学生,让学生谈谈各自的看法,以此来激起学生智慧的火花,并适时引导学生研读课文,找出有关风雪描写的句子(课文中有六处写到风雪)再组织学生逐一讨论分析,小结后明确:推动情节发展,渲染气氛,衬托人物性格,深化主题等。课后可结合文中 十二次提到“花枪”的有关语句让学生自行作分析。

为加深学生对小说人物 性格特征及其变化的理解,把握“风雪”的特点以及对情节、人物的作用,我在重点问题讨论时插入影视片段欣赏,以加深直观效果。 课堂总结这一步我以板书形式来呈现。最后说一说作业的布置。题目有两个:

(1)人物绰号考证:《水浒传》中的人物绰号记录着人物的性格,并且各自都有一段来历,引导学生考证,以加深对人物的认识;(2)人物点评:自己确定标准,将小说的人物分成若干类别,撰文点评,以文解文。我的意图是学生课内学习《林教头风雪山神庙》,课外可通过上述活动促发其自读《水浒传》原著,开展拓展阅读,加强读写训练,以达到能力迁移的目的.

2、装在套子里的人》说课稿一、教材内容分析,教学目标设计

本课是高中语文第二册第一单元的最后一篇课文。本单元集中学习了四篇中外优秀小说,要求学生把握小说的文体特点,学习小说的三要素。尤其要学习小说的人物形象和他们的特色语言。要求在小说文体的特点理解上,结合小说的情节和环境描写来综合理解人物形象,分析、理解人物与小说情节和环境的关系。进一步提高品味语言的能力,准确理解各种风格流派的语言特点,能根据具体的语言环境理解语言的含义。

二、教学重点、难点分析人物形象的典型意义,个性化的语言描写和幽默讽刺手法的运用是本课教学的难点。学生一般较容易理解“套子”的含义,但是对人物形象的典型意义,对小说语言的讽刺效果则难于全面准确地理解。本课教学,将力求从这些方面入手指导学生阅读。

三、教法、学法设计在具体教授《装在套子里的人》时,注意了利用小说的线索——“套子”,从文体分析入手,以人物形象解剖为主,联系语言特点,展

开了对本课的阅读教学活动。通过学生活动与教师活动的互动,让学生多读、精读、巧读、多讨论,引导学生对课文的多向分析:如分析华连卡姐弟的形象、分析别里可夫的社会意义等。学生活动有100字的内容概述训练,有形象思维再现训练——素描别里可夫画像。课后作业的设计有一定的难度,但却可以做得非常个性化,尊重了学生思维个性的发展。本课时没有在课前介绍写作背景,是想尊重学生循序渐进的理解过程,体现从人物表象到深层含义的逐步深入理解,帮助学生更加深刻地体会到自我探究的快乐,摆脱惯性思维的羁绊,更加及时、深刻地理解人物的社会意义,形成良好的思维习惯。

四、教学程序安排教学过程中,笔者注意了对小说文本语言的关注。引入初中课文《变色龙》,通过对奥楚蔑洛夫形象的回忆,引导学生类比别里可夫。 整个教学过程由三部分组成:

(一)、联系别里可夫和“套子”的关系,“套子”和本小说三要素的关系,引导学生认识到:1、也巧妙地刻画了“套子”式的外貌、思想特征,细腻地塑造了一个典型的个性化人物形象;2、是“套子”下的思想、语言和行为毁了他的美好爱情,是“套子”的约束限制了他的发展,禁锢了他的思想,促成了他的毁灭,对“套子”的外延逐层拓展,串连起个性人物的悲剧人生;3、对“套子”作用的夸张描述,展示了典型环境的社会沉疴。(二)、四、深化研习,拓展提高,体会典型人物形象的典型意义:从分析学生体会人物和社会环境的关系以及华连卡姐弟的形象意义上下手,深入理解人物形象与小说线索“套子”、小说环境的关系,同时通过华连卡姐弟俩的分析,强化德育效果。

(三)细化分析,从语言品味的角度深入认识小说的魅力,加深对小说表现力的体会,巩固对人物形象的理解。

最后,笔者引导学生反观自身,认识自我,自己是否也装在一些不该装的套子里,又该如何做呢。通过自由思想、课后小作文训练,将课文的教化作用向课外思考、向人本关注化。《装在套子里的人》

一、说大纲要求 新课程标准和新大纲对高中语文阅读与鉴赏的介定与要求其中有以下几点:1、发展独立阅读的能力,善于发现问题、提出问题,对文本能作出自己的分析判断。2、注重个性化阅读,学习探究性阅读和创造性阅读,发展想像能力、思辨能力和批判能力。3、注重合作学习,养成相互切磋的习惯。乐于与他人交流自己的阅读鉴赏心得,展示自己的读书成果。二、本文特点及在教材中的地位

《装在套子里的人》是高中语文教材(人教社版)第四册第一单元第二篇课文,是俄国著名作家契诃夫,体裁是小说。现行的高中语文教材共编排了六个小说单元,其中第四册有三个单元为小说单元,本单元作为高中小说教学的起始单元,无疑对培养学生良好的阅读和鉴赏小说的习惯至关重要。

三、教学设想 1、教学目标与教学重难点

根据大纲的要求和本文特点及本文在教材体系中所处地位,我确立了如下教学目标: 1、知识目标 认识人物形象的思想意义; 2、能力目标 结合社会环境分析作品塑造的人物形象;3、情感目标 认识因循守旧的危害性及勇于改革创新的重要性.

《装在套子里的人》一文语言浅易,情节简单,人物关系单纯,学生一拿到新教材就浏览一遍后,作为新授课再学时,已觉得兴味索然,但对于小说的内容及主题,却并不能准确深入地了解和把握。故本文的教学重难点为:①理解典型环境中的典型人物;②深入把握小说主题。 2、教法与学法

如何突破重难点,有效完成本课的教学任务呢?从学情出发,我考虑到高二年级的学生具有较强的逻辑思维能力,他们喜欢语文课上得有深度、有内涵。作为一节小说鉴赏课,既不能热热闹闹没内容,又应力避追求深度而显死板的偏颇。为此,我采用了探究式教学法,以教师为主导,充分发挥学生的主体性。以促进学生合作学习、自主学习为目的,尝试打破常规,力求创新,激发学生深入研读课文的兴趣。为了更好地完成教学任务,还应用了多媒体辅助教学技术。 四、教学程序

1、布置课前预习,印发预习材料。要求学生了解作家作品、写作背景,熟读课文,理清层次。2、导入新课

首先,在屏幕上打出“自杀?他杀?”先把学生的注意力集中起来。紧接着用具有鼓动性的导语帮助学生进入情境:1898年夏季的一天,沙皇统治下的俄国,在一所中学的男性职工宿舍里,发现一具中年男尸。据查,死者为该校希腊文教师别里科夫,死因一直未明。一个世纪以后,2004年年初,某校高二某班学生特组成专案组,对这一事件进行立案深入调查。很多学生从小就想做警察,这无疑给了他们一次圆警察梦的机会,很容易就把学生引入到情境之中。 3、问题探究

把学生引入到情境之后,指出调查应涉及的几个方面:调查一:案发背景; 调查二:现场勘查; 调查三:本人档案资料; 调查四:有关人士采访。通过这四个问题旨在探讨典型环境、典型人物以及它们之间的关系。

要求学生四人组成一组,讨论决定该组选题。然后小组讨论交流,一人执笔,共同写出该项调查报告。考虑到调查三、调查四的可操作性。教师可以出示以下两份材料加以引导:

材料一(表格) 本 人 档 案 资 料

姓名 住所 性别 阶级成份 死亡 生前职务 爱好 死前状况 特征 人际关系

材料二:“有关人士采访”对象可涉及柯瓦连科、华连卡、“我”(布尔金)及虚拟对象(“本市市长”、“别里科夫的亲戚”等) 4、成果展示

范文七:高中语文必修五课文成语 投稿:姚箢箣

《归去来兮辞》

心为形役:形:形体。心神被生活、功名利禄所驱使,受到形体的奴役。形容人的思想不自由,做一些违心的事。(中性词)

往者不谏,来者可追:往者:过去的事;谏:规劝;来者:未来的事;犹:还;追:赶上。过去的不能挽回弥补,未来的还是能赶得上的。后多用作鼓励之辞。 无心出岫:出岫:1、出山,从山中或山洞中出来。2、比喻出仕。

无心出岫指无心做官,无心于仕途。

晨光熹微:早上天上微明。

迷途知返:迷了路才意识到回来。比喻犯了错误能改正。

今是昨非:现在是对的,过去是错的。指认识过去的错误。

事与愿违:事情的发展与自己的愿望相违背。

倦鸟知还:疲倦的鸟知道飞回自己的巢。比喻辞官后归隐田园;也比喻从旅居之地返回故乡。

息交绝游:屏绝交游活动而隐居。

欣欣向荣:比喻事业蓬勃发展,兴旺昌盛。

乐天知命:安于自己的处境,由命运安排。

《陈情表》

1.【茕茕孑立,形影相吊】茕茕:孤独的样子;孑:孤单;形:指身体;吊:慰问。孤身一人,只有和自己的身影相互慰问。形容无依无靠,非常孤单。

2.【日薄西山】薄:迫近。太阳快落山了。比喻人已经衰老或事物衰败腐朽,临近死亡。

3.【气息奄奄】形容呼吸微弱,快要断气的样子。也比喻事物衰败没落,即将灭亡。

4.【人命危浅】浅:时间短。形容寿命不长,即将死亡。

5.【朝不虑夕】早晨不能知道晚上会变成什么样子或发生什么情况。形容形势危急,难以预料。

6.【乌鸟私情】乌鸟:古时传说,小乌能反哺老乌。比喻侍奉尊亲的孝心。

7.【皇天后土】皇天:古代称天;后土:古代称地。指天地。旧时迷信天地能主持公道,主宰万物。

8.【零丁孤苦】伶仃:孤独,没有依靠。孤单困苦,没有依靠。

9.【门衰祚薄】门庭衰微,福祚浅薄。

10.【急于星火】星火:流星。象流星的光从空中急闪而过。形容非常急促紧迫。

11.【结草衔环】结草:把草结成绳子,搭救恩人;衔环:嘴里衔着玉环。旧时比喻感恩报德,至死不忘。

《逍遥游》

鹏程万里:相传鹏鸟能飞万里路程。比喻前程远大。

扶摇而上:指乘着风势快速上升。也比喻指仕途得志或飞快上升。扶摇:迅猛盘旋而上旋风。

《滕王阁序》

1.【物华天宝】华:精华。宝:宝贝。原指万物的光华,天上的宝气。形容各种珍贵的物品。

2.【人杰地灵】人杰:杰出的人。灵:特别好。意指人使地增色,地因人而著名。即杰出的人物出生或到过的地方,便成为名胜之地,或指杰出人物生于灵秀之地。

3.【胜友如云】胜:指才智出众。才智出众的朋友们云集一处。

4.【高朋满座】高:高贵,高尚。座:座位。满座尽是高贵的宾朋。

5.【腾蛟起凤】腾:腾越。起:起舞。象蛟龙腾越,凤凰起舞。比喻文辞奇巧优美,才华横溢。

6.【钟鸣鼎食】钟:古代乐器。鼎:古代炊具。鼎食:吃饭时,排列好几个鼎盛食物。吃饭时,奏乐列鼎。形容贵族和富贵人家豪华奢侈的生活。

7.【云销雨霁】指满天的云雨顿时消散,形容已经逝去的一切都不会再回来了。

8.【响遏行云】遏:阻止。声音高入云霄,把浮动着的云彩也阻止了。形容歌声嘹亮有力,悦耳动听。

9.【天高地迥】迥:遥远。形容天地之间广阔无边。

10.【兴尽悲来】高兴的劲儿过去了,使人悲苦的事又来了。

11.【萍水相逢】萍:在水面上浮生的一种蕨类植物,随水漂泊,聚散不定。浮萍在水里偶然相遇。比喻从来不相识的人偶然相遇。

12.【冯唐易老】比喻仕宦不得志。

13.【老当益壮】当:应当。益:更加。原指年纪老而志气应当更壮。

14.【穷且益坚】也作“穷当益坚”。穷:不得志。益:更加。处境困难而意志应当更加坚定。

15.【涸辙之鲋】涸:水干,枯竭。辙:车辙。鲋:鲫鱼。干枯的车辙里的鲫鱼。比喻处于困境急待救援的人。出处是《庄子·外物》。

16.【失之东隅,收之桑榆】东隅:东方,日出处,指早上。桑榆:西方;日落时,余光落在桑树和榆树之间;指晚上。早上有所失,晚上则有所得。比喻这个时候失败了,另一个时候得到补偿。出处是《后汉书·冯异传》。

17.【一介书生】一介:一个。旧时读书人自称。或对一般读书人的雅称。

18.【投笔从戎】投:扔掉,放弃。笔:笔杆子,指文墨生涯。从戎:参军。指弃文就武,放弃文墨生涯去参加军队。出处是《后汉书·班超传》。

19.【高山流水】原指含蓄在古琴曲里的两种喻意。后用以比喻知音或知己。也用以形容乐曲的高雅精妙。出处是《列子·汤问》。

20.【盛筵难再】盛:盛大。筵:筵席。盛大的筵席难以再得。

21.【陆海潘江】陆、潘:晋朝的文学家陆机、潘岳。本是称颂陆机和潘岳文才很高。后用以称颂学识渊博,才华横溢的人。

范文八:高中英语课文原文和翻译分册txt版必修一必修五2 投稿:罗蕇蕈

必修5 Unit 5 First aid-Reading

FIRST AID FOR BURNS

The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ. You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays. The functions of your skin are also very complex: it keeps you warm or cool; it prevents your body from losing too much water; it is where you feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch. So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious. First aid is a very important first step in the treatment of bums.

Causes of burns

You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals.

Types of burns

There are three types of burns. Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on

which layers of the skin are burned.

◎ First degree burns These affect only the top layer of the skin. These burns are not serious and should feel better within a day or two. Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a mordent.

◎ Second degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin. These bums are serious and take a few weeks to heal. Examples include severe sunburn and bums caused by hot liquids.

◎ Third degree burns These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the skin. Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires. These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once.

Characteristics of burns

First degree burns

◎ dry, red and mildly swollen

◎ mildly painful

◎ turn white when pressed

Second degree burns

◎ rough, red and swollen

◎ blisters

◎ watery surface

◎ extremely painful

Third degree burns

◎ black and white and charred

◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen

◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of injured area.

First aid treatment

1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn.

2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on third degree burns.

3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad. For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water,

squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad.

4 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rob, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected.

5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on bums as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection.

6 If bums are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If bums are on the face, the victim should sit up.

7 If the injuries are second or third degree bums, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.

HEROIC TEENAGER RECEIVES AWARD

Seventeen-year-old teenager, John Janson, was honoured at the Lifesaver Awards last night in Rivertown for giving lifesaving first aid on his neighbour after a shocking knife attack.

John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another.

John was studying in his room when he heard screaming. When he and his father rushed outside, a man ran from the scene. They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife. She was lying in her front garden bleeding very heavily. Her hands had almost been cut off.

It was John's quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade's life. He immediately asked a number of nearby people for bandages, but when nobody could put their hands on any, his father got some tea towels and tape from their house. John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms Slade's hands. He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived.

"I'm proud of what I did but I was just doing what I'd been taught," John said.

John had taken part in the Young Lifesaver Scheme at his high school. When congratulating John, Mr Alan Southerton, Director of the Young Lifesaver Scheme said, "There is no doubt that John's quick thinking and the first aid skills he learned at school saved Ms Slade's life. It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference."

Before receiving their awards last night, John and the nine other Life Savers attended a special reception yesterday hosted by the Prime Minister.

范文九:高中英语课文原文和翻译分册txt版必修一必修五2 投稿:余皃的

高中英语课文原文和翻译分册txt版必修一必修五2.txt偶尔要回头看看,否则永远都在追寻,而不知道自己失去了什么。男人掏钱是恋人关系,女人掏钱是夫妻关系,男女抢着掏钱是朋友关系。男人爱用眼睛看女人,最易受美貌迷惑;女人爱用心看男人,最易受伤心折磨。必修5 Unit 5 First aid-Reading

FIRST AID FOR BURNS

The skin is an essential part of your body and its largest organ. You have three layers of skin which act as a barrier against disease, poisons and the sun's harmful rays. The functions of your skin are also very complex: it keeps you warm or cool; it prevents your body from losing too much water; it is where you feel cold, heat or pain and it gives you your sense of touch. So as you can imagine, if your skin gets burned it can be very serious. First aid is a very important first step in the treatment of bums.

Causes of burns

You can get burned by a variety of things: hot liquids, steam, fire, radiation (by being close to high heat or fire, etc), the sun, electricity or chemicals.

Types of burns

There are three types of burns. Burns are called first, second or third degree burns, depending on

which layers of the skin are burned.

◎ First degree burns These affect only the top layer of the skin. These burns are not serious and should feel better within a day or two. Examples include mild sunburn and burns caused by touching a hot pan, stove or iron for a mordent. ◎ Second degree burns These affect both the top and the second layer of the skin. These bums are serious and take a few weeks to heal. Examples include severe sunburn and bums caused by hot liquids.

◎ Third degree burns These affect all three layers of the skin and any tissue and organs under the skin. Examples include burns caused by electric shocks, burning clothes, or severe petrol fires. These burns cause very severe injuries and the victim must go to hospital at once.

Characteristics of burns

First degree burns

◎ dry, red and mildly swollen

◎ mildly painful

◎ turn white when pressed

Second degree burns

◎ rough, red and swollen

◎ blisters

◎ watery surface

◎ extremely painful

Third degree burns

◎ black and white and charred

◎ swollen; often tissue under them can be seen

◎ little or no pain if nerves are damaged; may be pain around edge of injured area.

First aid treatment

1 Remove clothing using scissors if necessary unless it is stuck to the burn. Take off other clothing and jewellery near the burn.

2 Cool burns immediately with cool but not icy water. It is best to place burns under gently running water for about 10 minutes. (The cool water stops the burning process, prevents the pain becoming unbearable and reduces swelling.) Do not put cold water on third degree burns.

3 For first degree burns, place cool, clean, wet cloths on them until the pain is not so bad. For second degree burns, keep cloths cool by putting them back in a basin of cold water, squeezing them out and placing them on the burned area over and over again for about an hour until the pain is not so bad.

4 Dry the burned area gently. Do not rob, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected.

5 Cover the burned area with a dry, clean bandage that will not stick to the skin. Hold the bandage in place with tape. Never put butter, oil or ointment on bums as they keep the heat in the wounds and may cause infection.

6 If bums are on arms or legs, keep them higher than the heart, if possible. If bums are on the face, the victim should sit up.

7 If the injuries are second or third degree bums, it is vital to get the victim to the doctor or hospital at once.

HEROIC TEENAGER RECEIVES AWARD

Seventeen-year-old teenager, John Janson, was honoured at the Lifesaver Awards last night in Rivertown for giving lifesaving first aid on his neighbour after a shocking knife attack.

John was presented with his award at a ceremony which recognized the bravery of ten people who had saved the life of another.

John was studying in his room when he heard screaming. When he and his father rushed outside, a man ran from the scene. They discovered that Anne Slade, mother of three, had been stabbed repeatedly with a knife. She was lying in her front garden bleeding very heavily. Her hands had almost been cut off.

It was John's quick action and knowledge of first aid that saved Ms Slade's life. He immediately asked a number of nearby people for bandages, but when nobody could put their hands on any, his father got some tea towels and tape from their house. John used these to treat the most severe injuries to Ms Slade's hands. He slowed the bleeding by applying pressure to the wounds until the police and ambulance arrived.

Before receiving their awards last night, John and the nine other Life Savers attended a special reception yesterday hosted by the Prime Minister.

范文十:高二语文必修五第2课《谈中国诗》学案(第一课时) 投稿:冯橛橜

《谈中国诗》学案

编写:高亚飞 校审:高二语文组

学习目标

1、感受作者严谨的治学精神和渊博的学识及深刻的洞察力,激发自己的求

学欲望;

2、把握作者有关中国诗的观点,以自己的阅读积累深入理解中国诗歌的特

征。

学习过程

一、课前准备: 1、作者介绍

钱钟书(1910-1998)字默存,号槐聚,曾用笔名中书君。江苏无锡人。

早年就读于教会办的苏州桃坞中学和无锡辅仁中学。1933年于清华大学外

国语文系毕业后,在上海光华大学任教。1935年与杨绛结婚,同赴英国留

学。1937年毕业于英国牛津大学,获副博士学位。又赴法国巴黎大学进修

法国文学。1938年秋归国,先后任昆明西南联大外文系教授、湖南蓝田国

立师范学院英文系主任。与此同时,他在上海暨南大学、中央图书馆和清

华大学执教或任职。 1953年后,在北京大学文学研究所任研究员。曾任

中国社会科学院副院长。

著作: 散文集 : 《写在人生边上》 短篇小说集 : 《人•兽•鬼》

长篇小说: 《围城》 学术著作 : 《宋诗选注》《谈艺录》《管

锥编》《七缀集》等

《围城》已有英、法、德、俄、日、西语译本。《谈艺录》是一部具有

开创性的中西比较诗论。多卷本《管锥编》,对中国著名的经史子古籍进行

考释,并从中西文化和文学的比较上阐发、辨析。

2、写作背景

本文发表于1945年12月,收入《钱钟书散文》(浙江文艺出版社1997

年版)。原稿为英文,是他1945年12月6日在上海对美国人的演讲,后节

译为中文。

钱钟书先生在观察中西文化事物时,不拒绝任何一种理论学说,也不

盲从任何一个权威。他毕生致力于促使中国文学艺术走向世界,加入到世

界文学艺术的总的格局中去。为此,他既批评中国人由于某些幻觉而对本

土文化的妄自尊大,又毫不留情地横扫了西方人由于无知而以欧美文化为

中心的偏见。钱著对于推进中外文化的交流,对于使中国人了解西方的学

术,使西方人了解中国的文化,起了很好的作用。本文就是这样的作品。

3、字音、词义

lǒng( )统 精suǐ( ) 一cù( )而

就 shùo( )见不xiān( ) 逻ji( )

叫xiāo( ) 轻yuān( )剪掠 颦cù( )峨眉 单bó( ) 不liǎo( )liǎ(o )之 遥思远chàng( )

kǎi( )叹 hǎ( )巴狗 了不足qí( )

4、补充注释:

轻鸢剪掠:像轻盈的老鹰掠过天空。文中说中国诗跟西洋诗相比显得简短

轻灵。

穷边涯际:文中指语言文字的边际、深处。穷,尽头。

吞言咽理:文中形容受感动而说不出话语和道理的情形。咽,吞咽。 拔木转石:使树木连根拔起,使大石头转动,形容威力大。

二、整体把握

1、理清作者的思路,把握各个段落大意:

第1段:

第2段:

第3段:

第4段:

第5段:

第6段:

第7段:

第8段:

2、通读全文,给文章划分层次,并概括各部分大意。

第一部分(第 段): 第二部分(第 段): 第三部分(第 段至 段):第四部分(第 段):

3

钱钟书先生在末段作出了“中国诗里有所谓‘西洋的’品质,西洋诗里也有所谓‘中国的’成分”这样的结论,何以见得?细读全文,用比较文学的观点,抓住文中的关键词句,概括出中外诗歌的异同。

①发展史:外国——

中国——

②篇幅: 外国——

中国——

③韵味: 外国——

中国——

④语言: 外国——

中国——

⑤内容: 外国——

中国——

4、主题归纳:

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